Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec, the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres with a population of 4,027,100. A smaller area of 3,838 square kilometres is governed by the Montreal Metropolitan Community; this level of government is headed by a president. The inner ring is composed of densely populated municipalities located in close proximity to Downtown Montreal, it includes the entire Island of Montreal and the Urban Agglomeration of Longueuil. The outer ring is composed of low-density municipalities located on the fringe of Metropolitan Montreal. Most of these cities and towns are semi-rural; the term off-island suburbs refers to those suburbs that are located on the North Shore of the Mille-Îles River, those on the South Shore that were never included in the megacity of Longueuil, those on the Vaudreuil-Soulanges Peninsula. Communities in that area are informally referred to as the 450, after the telephone area code that has served the region since 1998.
Due to their proximity to Montreal's downtown core, some suburbs on the South Shore are not included in the off-island suburbs though they are on the mainland. There are 82 municipalities that are part of the MMC and 91 municipalities that are part of the CMA. A total of 79 municipalities overlap between the two, with 3 municipalities being part of the MMC but not the CMA, 12 municipalities being part of the CMA but not the MMC. Kanesatake and Kahnawake are not included in the previous counts. Exo operates the region's commuter rail and metropolitan bus services, is the second busiest such system in Canada after Toronto's GO Transit. Established in June 2007, Exo's commuter rail system has six lines linking the downtown core with communities as far west as Hudson, as Far south as Mont-Saint-Hilaire, as far east as Mascouche, as far north as Saint-Jérôme. Along with Exo, a sister agency, the Autorité régionale de transport métropolitain plans and coordinates public transport across Greater Montreal, including the Island of Montreal and communities along both the north shore of the Rivière des Mille-Îles and the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.
The ARTM's mandate includes the management of reserved High-occupancy vehicle lanes, metropolitan bus terminuses, park-and-ride lots, a budget of $163 million, shared amongst the transit corporations and inter-municipal public transit organizations. The Exo/ARTM's territory spans 63 municipalities and one native reserve, 13 regional county municipalities, 21 transit authorities, it serves a population of 3.7 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily. The major transit commissions under the ARTM are: Société de transport de Montréal, serving the Island of Montreal Société de transport de Laval, serving the city of Laval Réseau de transport de Longueuil, serving the Urban agglomeration of Longueuil Montreal Urban Community Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Metropolitan Community of Montreal website Greater Montreal Area Restaurants Greater Montreal Area map in.pdf
Pointe-Calumet is a municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec. The municipality is located within the Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality in the Laurentides region, it is situated about 30 minutes northwest of Montreal. Its population as of the 2006 Canadian Census is just over 6 000; the town is located on the northern shore of the Ottawa River, the Rivière des Mille Îles and the Lake of Two Mountains which all joins the Saint Lawrence River to its south near the west island of Montreal. Pointe-Calumet is accessible from the Greater Montreal Area and points east from Quebec Autoroute 640 that runs from Laval, Saint-Eustache and Repentigny. Quebec Route 344 runs through the village and links the northern Montreal suburbs as well as the Grenville area north of Hawkesbury, Ontario, it is located nearby the Montreal commuter train that runs from downtown Montreal to nearby Deux-Montagnes. The town is located within the provincial electoral district of Deux-Montagnes which includes the municipality of the same name located to its east.
Pointe-Calumet was declared a municipality in 1952 after being part of the Saint-Joseph-du-Lac parish where about 30 families were living prior of being a municipality. However, with the presence of numerous beaches in the vicinity numerous visitors from the Montreal region were visiting the area during weekends. Population trend: Population in 2011: 6396 Population in 2006: 6574 Population in 2001: 5604 Population in 1996: 5443 Population in 1991: 4482Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 2539 Mother tongue: English as first language: 4% French as first language: 92.3% English and French as first language: 1.2% Other as first language: 2.5% The town's major attraction is the Super Aqua Club, is one of the biggest waterparks in the province along with the Water Parks at Mont Saint-Sauveur. Opened in 1984, the park contains about 40 attractions; the Beach Club is today the main beach of the area. The town is located the Oka National Park situated about 10 kilometers west near the village of Oka.
Municipal council: Jacques Seguin, mayor Jean-Guy Lafaille, councilor Denis Gravel, councilor Alexander Tomeo, councilor Robert Beauchamp, councilor Normand Clermont, councilor Marie-Claude Prud'Homme, councilor The Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Îles operates Francophone public schools. The community is zoned to École des Perséides in Pointe-Calumet and École polyvalente Deux-Montagnes in Deux-Montagnes; the Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates Anglophone schools. Lake of Two Mountains High School in Deux-Montagnes serves this community. Mountainview Elementary School and Saint Jude Elementary School, both in Deux-Montagnes serve this community. List of municipalities in Quebec Oka National Park Municipality website Super Aqua Club website Map of Pointe-Calumet Location of Pointe-Calumet via Google Maps
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève is a borough of the city of Montreal. On 24 October 1678, the government of Louis de Buade de Frontenac granted Île Bizard named Île Bonaventure as a seigniory to Jacques Bizard; this was the first concession on the West Island of Montreal. The village of Sainte-Geneviève was born in the early eighteenth century. Antoine Faucon, father of Saint-Sulpice, participated in the construction of the first church in the village's history; the Municipality of the Village of Sainte-Geneviève was created in 1859. During the first half of the twentieth century, farmers in Île Bizard and Sainte-Geneviève were oriented toward gardening; the territory was thus transformed into a garden of Montreal. In 1959, it was incorporated as Ville Sainte-Geneviève. From the late 1950s, the creation of two major golf courses opened the door to massive sales of land and the abandonment of agriculture, which had become unprofitable. In 1959, the Royal Montreal Golf Club opened, has since hosted several professional golf tournaments.
Over the last fifty years, urbanization has increased and the population has increased tenfold after the opening of Autoroute 40 that connected the western and eastern parts of Montreal. On January 1, 2002, the municipalities of L'Île-Bizard, Sainte-Geneviève, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue were merged into the city of Montreal as the borough of L'Île-Bizard—Sainte-Geneviève—Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue; when Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue voted to demerge from Montreal, the borough was reorganized into its present form on January 1, 2006. The borough is composed of the former municipalities of Sainte-Geneviève; the first is a separate island, the largest of the City of Montreal besides the Island of Montreal itself, the second is a small area on the Island of Montreal. Sainte-Geneviève has a land border with the borough of Pierrefonds-Roxboro; the borough is divided into four districts: Pierre-Foretier Denis-Benjamin-Viger Jacques-Bizard Sainte-GenevièveThe borough has a land area of 23.63 km² and a population of 17,139.
As of the November 5, 2017 Montreal municipal election, the current borough council consists of the following councillors: Part of Sainte-Geneviève lies within the federal riding of Lac-Saint-Louis. Provincially, the borough lies in the electoral district of Nelligan. Sainte-Geneviève and Île Bizard are connected by the Jacques Bizard Bridge. Île Bizard contains part of the Cap-Saint-Jacques Nature Park as well as the Boisé de l'Île Bizard Nature Park. Sainte-Geneviève's features include the Cégep Gérald-Godin. Plans have been advanced in the past to cross Île Bizard with an autoroute as part of a beltway around Montreal, but these have so far come to nothing out of concern for the island's nature areas. Pierre Bouvier from Simple Plan was from there. Île Bizard have produced the francophone musical groups Exterio and Kamakazi The Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys operates Francophone public schools. Primary schools include: École primaire Jacques-Bizard École primaire Jonathan-Wilson École primaire Sainte-Geneviève The Lester B. Pearson School Board operates Anglophone public schools in the area.
The Montreal Public Libraries Network operates the Île-Bizard library. Pierre Bouvier, lead vocalist of Pop-Punk band Simple Plan. Vincent Lecavalier, professional hockey player. Guy Lafleur, former professional hockey player. Guy Carbonneau, former head coach of the Montréal Canadiens hockey team. Daniel Prudkov, CEO of DP Studios, law school student, political activist. Borough website Boroughs of Montreal Districts of Montreal Municipal reorganization in Quebec
Saint-Joseph-du-Lac is a municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, part of the Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality. The territory of the municipality of Saint-Joseph-du-Lac was part of the Lac des Deux-Montagnes Seigneury for over a hundred years; this seigneury was granted on October 17, 1717, to the Sulpician Order of the Ecclesiastical Seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris, who were lords of the Island of Montreal. In 1783, the Sulpicians signed a total of 25 concessions. Over the next ten years, from 1782 to 1793, 81 lands on the Saint-Joseph side were granted to settlers. In 1803, Côte Saint-Joseph Road was extended northward to allow settlers to travel to Saint-Benoît. Around 1850, the inhabitants of the Saint-Joseph Concession started the process to obtain a parish, formally established in 1853. Two years on July 1, 1855, the Parish Municipality of Saint-Joseph was formed, it extended over a length of 10 kilometres from Lake of Two Mountains to the limits of Saint-Benoît Parish, a width of 3.5 kilometres.
The population at that time was 1020 people in about 180 families. In 1856, the post office opened, being identified as Saint-Joseph-du-Lac in order to distinguish it from the many other locations called Saint-Joseph. In time this name came to be used for the entire municipality. In 1953, the southern portion of the municipality along Lake of Two Mountains separated from Saint-Joseph-du-Lac and became the Village Municipality of Pointe-Calumet. In the 1970s, Autoroute 640 was built through Saint-Joseph-du-Lac, putting economic pressure on the municipality; this led to new housing developments for Montreal commuters and a noticeable growth in population, stable for nearly 80 years. During the following two decades, several more new developments were built, including the Paquin and Parc Sectors. Population trend: Population in 2011: 6195 Population in 2006: 4958 Population in 2001: 4882 Population in 1996: 4930 Population in 1991: 4312Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 2268 Mother tongue: English as first language: 3.5% French as first language: 93.7% English and French as first language: 1.1% Other as first language: 1.6% The Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Îles operates Francophone public schools.
École Rose-des-Vents École du Grand PommierSecondary students are zoned to École secondaire d'Oka in Oka. The Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board is the area English school board. Several Anglophone schools in Deux-Montagnes serve this community: Mountainview Elementary School, Saint Jude Elementary School, Lake of Two Mountains High School. Maison Du Repos Media related to Saint-Joseph-du-Lac at Wikimedia Commons
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor