The Saionji family was a Japanese kuge family related to the Northern Fujiwara branch of the Fujiwara clan and the Imadegawa clan. The family's name was taken from that of the family's formal residence in Kyoto, its kamon was a tomoe; the family was descended from son of Fujiwara no Kinzane. In the time of Michisue's great-grandson Saionji Kintsune, Minamoto no Yoritomo's niece was married into the Saionji family, thus giving the Kamakura shōguns of the Minamoto clan some influence in, protection from, the Imperial Court. Members of the Saionji family began to be appointed Kantō Mōshitsugi, acting alongside the Rokuhara Tandai to manage communications and relations between the shogunate and the Court; this began the family's rise including posts as high as dajō-daijin. Since Kintsune's time, the family, with the support of the Kamakura shogunate, could exert influence over the Imperial regents, the Sesshō and Kampaku; the family made its formal residence in the Kitayama area of Kyoto. Thus the family came to be sometimes known as the Lords of Kitayama.
Saionji Sanekane joined the family to the Daikaku-ji line of the Imperial family, having become involved with the daughter of Emperor Go-Daigo or Emperor Kameyama and siring a son, Saionji Kinhira. Several decades in the time of Saionji Kinmune, the Kamakura shogunate came to an end, the Saionji were dismissed from their post as Kantō Mōshitsugi. Kinmune helped hide the persecuted Hōjō Yasuie and, in the wake of the death of Emperor Go-Daigo, helped plot to set Emperor Go-Fushimi on the throne, his schemes revealed by his younger brother Saionji Kinshige, Kinmune was executed. During the Nanboku-chō period which followed, in which the two Imperial lines jousted for power, Kinmune's son Saionji Sanetoshi served the Northern Court as Minister of the Right, restoring the prestige of the family's name. A Saionji family is known to have existed as producers of biwa. Saionji Saneharu was made Minister of the Left, gained influence and some financial support through connections to the Hosokawa and Nagaoka clans.
Towards the end of the Edo period, Saionji Kinmochi was adopted into the family from the related Tokudaiji branch of the Fujiwara clan. Kinmochi lived through the Meiji Restoration, becoming one of the genrō, or elder statesmen who were a part of the original Meiji government at its beginning, he subsequently held a number of Cabinet posts, becoming Prime Minister of Japan in 1906. As members of the kazoku, the Saionji maintained a considerable degree of prestige, continued to be close to the world of politics, through the end of World War II, when the kazoku were dissolved; the family continues today, Saionji remains now an uncommon Japanese surname. Saionji Michisue Saionji Kintsune Saionji Kinuji Saionji Sanekane Saionji Kinhira Saionji Reishi Saionji Kinmune Saionji Kinshige Saionji Sanetoshi Saionji Sanemitsu Saionji Kinhiro, daimyō Saionji Saneharu Saionji Kinmochi, statesman Saionji Saneuji This article is derived from the content of the corresponding article on the Japanese Wikipedia.
Sansom, George. A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Pp405-6ff. Sansom, George. A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press
Japanese names in modern times consist of a family name, followed by a given name. More than one given name is not used. Japanese names are written in kanji, which are characters Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation; the kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, hence parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan; the three most common family names in Japan are Satō, Takahashi. This diversity is in stark contrast to the situation in other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere, which reflects a different history: while Chinese surnames have been in use for millennia and were reflective of an entire clan or adopted from nobles and were thence transferred to Korea and Vietnam via noble names, the vast majority of modern Japanese family names date only to the 19th century, following the Meiji restoration, were chosen at will.
The recent introduction of surnames has two additional effects: Japanese names became widespread when the country had a large population instead of dating to ancient times, since little time has passed, Japanese names have not experienced as significant a surname extinction as has occurred in the much longer history in China. Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape. While family names follow consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. While many common names can be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have become common, with this trend having increased since the 1990s. For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", "Masato" have all entered use.
Male names end in -rō -ta or -o, or contain ichi, kazu, ji, or dai. Female names end in -ko or -mi. Other popular endings for female names include -ka and -na; the majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – myōji, uji or sei – precedes the given name, called the "name" – or "lower name"; the given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names. Myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was the patrilineal surname, why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank; the lower form of the name sei being tei, a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name'Sei' came. There were few sei, most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei.
Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku, one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See Kabane. Multiple Japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns. Few names can serve either as surnames or as given names. Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and, the given name is apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in; this thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order.
However, due to the variety of pronuncia
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Although waka in modern Japanese is written as 和歌, in the past it was written as 倭歌, a variant name is yamato-uta; the word waka has two different but related meanings: the original meaning was "poetry in Japanese" and encompassed several genres such as chōka and sedōka. Up to and during the compilation of the Man'yōshū in the eighth century, the word waka was a general term for poetry composed in Japanese, included several genres such as tanka, chōka, bussokusekika and sedōka. However, by the time of the Kokinshū's compilation at the beginning of the tenth century, all of these forms except for the tanka and chōka had gone extinct, chōka had diminished in prominence; as a result, the word waka became synonymous with tanka, the word tanka fell out of use until it was revived at the end of the nineteenth century.
Tanka consist of five lines of 5-7-5-7-7 on or syllabic units. Therefore, tanka is sometimes called meaning it contains 31 syllables in total. The term waka encompassed a number of differing forms, principally tanka and chōka, but including bussokusekika, sedōka and katauta; these last three forms, fell into disuse at the beginning of the Heian period, chōka vanished soon afterwards. Thus, the term waka came in time to refer only to tanka. Chōka consist of 5-7 on phrases repeated at least twice, conclude with a 5-7-7 ending The briefest chōka documented is Man'yōshū no. 802, of a pattern 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7-7. It was composed by Yamanoue no Okura in the Nara period and runs: The chōka above is followed by an envoi in tanka form written by Okura: In the early Heian period, chōka was written and tanka became the main form of waka. Since the generic term waka came to be synonymous with tanka. Famous examples of such works are the diaries of Ki no Tsurayuki and Izumi Shikibu, as well as such collections of poem tales as The Tales of Ise and The Tales of Yamato.
Lesser forms of waka featured in the Man'yōshū and other ancient sources exist. Besides that, there were many other forms like: Bussokusekika: This form carved on a slab of slate – the "Buddha footprint" or bussokuseki – at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara. Recorded in the Man'yōshū; the pattern is 5-7-5-7-7-7. Sedōka: The Man'yōshū and Kokinshū recorded this form; the pattern is 5-7-7-5-7-7. Katauta: The Man'yōshū recorded this form. Katauta means "half-poem"; the pattern is 5-7-7. Waka has a long history, first recorded in the early 8th century in the Kojiki and Man'yōshū. Under influence from other genres such as kanshi and stories such as Tale of Genji and Western poetry, it developed broadening its repertoire of expression and topics. In literary historian Donald Keene's books, he uses four large categories: Early and Heian Literature The Middle Ages Pre-Modern Era Modern Era; the most ancient waka were recorded in the historical record the Kojiki and the 20 volumes of the Man'yōshū, the oldest surviving waka anthology.
The editor of the Man'yōshū is anonymous, but it is believed that the final editor was Ōtomo no Yakamochi. He was a waka poet; the first waka of volume 1 was by Emperor Ōjin. Nukata no Ōkimi, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Yamabe no Akahito, Yamanoue no Okura, Ōtomo no Tabito and his son Yakamochi were the greatest poets in this anthology; the Man'yōshū recorded not only the works of the royalty and nobility, but works of soldiers and farmers whose names were not recorded. The main topics of the Man'yōshū were love and other miscellaneous topics. Early songsSongs and poetry in the Kojiki and the Nihon ShokiThe Man'yōshū During the Nara period and the early Heian period, the court favored Chinese-style poetry and the waka art form fell out of official favor, but in the 9th century, Japan stopped sending official envoys to Tang dynasty China. This severing of ties, combined with Japan's geographic isolation forced the court to cultivate native talent and look inward, synthesizing Chinese poetic styles and techniques with local traditions.
The waka form again began flourishing and Emperor Daigo ordered the creation of an anthology of waka. where the waka of ancient poets and their contemporaries were collected and the anthology named "Kokin Wakashū", meaning Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poems. It was presented to the emperor in 905; this was the first waka anthology edited and issued under imperial auspices, it commenced a long and distinguished tradition of imperial anthologies of waka that continued up to the Muromachi period. Rise of Japanese national cultureThe first three chokusenshūThe first three imperially-commissioned waka anthologies were the Kokin Wakashū, the Gosen Waka
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu is a classical Japanese anthology of one hundred Japanese waka by one hundred poets. Hyakunin isshu can be translated to "one hundred people, one poem ", it was compiled by Fujiwara no Teika while he lived in the Ogura district of Japan. One of Teika's diaries, the Meigetsuki, says that his son, Fujiwara no Tameie, asked him to arrange one hundred poems for Tameie's father-in-law, Utsunomiya Yoritsuna, furnishing a residence near Mount Ogura. In order to decorate screens of the residence, Fujiwara no Teika produced the calligraphy poem sheets. Hishikawa Moronobu provided woodblock portraits for each of the poets included in the anthology. In his own lifetime, Teika was better known for other work. For example, in 1200, Teika prepared another anthology of one hundred poems for ex-Emperor Go-Toba; this was called the Shōji Hyakushu. Emperor Tenji Empress Jitō Kakinomoto no Hitomaro Yamabe no Akahito Sarumaru no Taifu Ōtomo no Yakamochi Abe no Nakamaro Kisen Hōshi Ono no Komachi Semimaru Ono no Takamura Henjō Retired Emperor Yōzei Minamoto no Tōru Emperor Kōkō Ariwara no Yukihira Ariwara no Narihira Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Lady Ise Prince Motoyoshi Sosei Fun'ya no Yasuhide Ōe no Chisato Sugawara no Michizane Fujiwara no Sadakata Fujiwara no Tadahira Fujiwara no Kanesuke Minamoto no Muneyuki Ōshikōchi no Mitsune Mibu no Tadamine Sakanoue no Korenori Harumichi no Tsuraki Ki no Tomonori Fujiwara no Okikaze Ki no Tsurayuki Kiyohara no Fukayabu Fun'ya no Asayasu Ukon Minamoto no Hitoshi Taira no Kanemori Mibu no Tadami Kiyohara no Motosuke Fujiwara no Atsutada Fujiwara no Asatada Fujiwara no Koretada Sone no Yoshitada Egyō Minamoto no Shigeyuki Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu Fujiwara no Yoshitaka Fujiwara no Sanekata Fujiwara no Michinobu Michitsuna no Haha Takashina no Takako known as Takashina no Kishi or Kō no Naishi Fujiwara no Kintō Izumi Shikibu Murasaki Shikibu Daini no Sanmi Akazome Emon Koshikibu no Naishi Ise no Taifu Sei Shōnagon Fujiwara no Michimasa Fujiwara no Sadayori Sagami Gyōson Suō no Naishi Retired Emperor Sanjō Nōin Hōshi Ryōzen Minamoto no Tsunenobu Yūshi Naishinnō-ke no Kii Ōe no Masafusa Minamoto no Toshiyori Fujiwara no Mototoshi Fujiwara no Tadamichi Retired Emperor Sutoku Minamoto no Kanemasa Fujiwara no Akisuke Taiken Mon In no Horikawa Tokudaiji Sanesada Dōin Fujiwara no Shunzei Fujiwara no Kiyosuke Shun'e Saigyō Jakuren Kōkamonin no Bettō Princess Shikishi Inpumon'in no Tayū Kujō Yoshitsune Nijōin no Sanuki Minamoto no Sanetomo Asukai no Masatsune Jien Saionji Kintsune Fujiwara no Teika Fujiwara no Ietaka Retired Emperor Go-Toba Retired Emperor Juntoku Poem number 2One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika.
The text is visually descriptive. From the Shinkokinshū, but the original poem was from the Man'yōshū. Poem number 26 A quite different poem is attributed to Sadaijin Fujiwara no Tadahira in the context of a specific incident. After abdicating, former Emperor Uda visited Mount Ogura in Yamashiro Province, he was so impressed by the beauty of autumn colours of the maples that he ordered Fujiwara no Tadahira to encourage Uda's son and heir, Emperor Daigo, to visit the same area. Prince Tenshin or Prince Teishin was Tadahira's posthumous name, this is the name used in William Porter's translation of the poem which observes that "he maples of Mount Ogura, If they could understand, Would keep their brilliant leaves, until he Ruler of this land Pass with his Royal band." The accompanying 18th century illustration shows a person of consequence riding an ox in a procession with attendants on foot. The group is passing through an area of maples. Fujiwara no Teika chose this poem from the Shūi Wakashū for the Hyakunin Isshu.'*'By modern Romanization, "Miyuki matanamu".
The Ogura Hyakunin Isshu has been translated into many languages and into English many times, beginning with Yone Noguchi's Hyaku Nin Isshu in English in 1907. Other translations include: William N. Porter, A Hundred Verses from Old Japan Clay MacCauley, Hyakunin-isshu Tom Galt, The Little Treasury of One Hundred People, One Poem Each Joshua S. Mostow, Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image Peter McMillan, One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each Emiko Miyashita and Michael Dylan Welch, 100 Poets: Passions of the Imperial Court Many other anthologies compiled along the same criteria—one hundred poems by one hundred poets—include the words hyakunin isshu, notably the World War II-era Aikoku Hyakunin Isshu, or One Hundred Patriotic Poems by One Hundred Poets. Important is Kyōka Hyakunin Isshu, a series of parodies of the original Ogura collection. Teika's anthology is the basis for the card game of karuta, popular since the Edo period. Many forms of playing game
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC