A personal computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers. Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users may develop their own applications these systems run commercial software, free-of-charge software or free and open-source software, provided in ready-to-run form. Software for personal computers is developed and distributed independently from the hardware or operating system manufacturers. Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still feasible; this contrasts with mobile systems, where software is only available through a manufacturer-supported channel, end-user program development may be discouraged by lack of support by the manufacturer.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and with Microsoft Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems occupy a minority share of the industry; these include free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. Advanced Micro Devices provides the main alternative to Intel's processors; the advent of personal computers and the concurrent Digital Revolution have affected the lives of people in all countries. "PC" is an initialism for "personal computer". The IBM Personal Computer incorporated the designation in its model name, it is sometimes useful to distinguish personal computers of the "IBM Personal Computer" family from personal computers made by other manufacturers. For example, "PC" is used in contrast with "Mac", an Apple Macintosh computer.. Since none of these Apple products were mainframes or time-sharing systems, they were all "personal computers" and not "PC" computers.
The "brain" may one day come down to our level and help with our income-tax and book-keeping calculations. But this is speculation and there is no sign of it so far. In the history of computing, early experimental machines could be operated by a single attendant. For example, ENIAC which became operational in 1946 could be run by a single, albeit trained, person; this mode pre-dated the batch programming, or time-sharing modes with multiple users connected through terminals to mainframe computers. Computers intended for laboratory, instrumentation, or engineering purposes were built, could be operated by one person in an interactive fashion. Examples include such systems as the Bendix G15 and LGP-30of 1956, the Programma 101 introduced in 1964, the Soviet MIR series of computers developed from 1965 to 1969. By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.
In what was to be called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century: e-mail, word processing, video conferencing, the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time; the development of the microprocessor, with widespread commercial availability starting in the mid 1970's, made computers cheap enough for small businesses and individuals to own. Early personal computers—generally called microcomputers—were sold in a kit form and in limited volumes, were of interest to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008.
It was built starting in 1972, few hundred units were sold. This had been preceded by the Datapoint 2200 in 1970, for which the Intel 8008 had been commissioned, though not accepted for use; the CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants. In 1973, the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT, full function keyboard. SCAMP emulated an IBM 1130 minicomputer in order to run APL/1130. In 1973, APL was available only on mainframe computers, most desktop sized microcomputers such as the Wang 2200 or HP 9800 offered only BASIC; because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL/1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine in 1983 designated SCAMP a "revolutionary concept" and "the world's first personal computer". This seminal, single user portable computer now resides in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
C.. Successful demonstrations of the 1973 SCAMP prototype led to the IBM 5100 portable microcomputer launched in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts and other business problem-solvers. In the late 1960s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weigh
A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and the environment in which it flies, for pilot training, design, or other purposes. It includes replicating the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they react to applications of flight controls, the effects of other aircraft systems, how the aircraft reacts to external factors such as air density, wind shear, precipitation, etc. Flight simulation is used for a variety of reasons, including flight training, the design and development of the aircraft itself, research into aircraft characteristics and control handling qualities. In 1910, on the initiative of the French commanders Clolus and Laffont and Lieutenant Clavenad, the first ground training aircraft for military aircraft were built; the "Tonneau Antoinette", created by the Antoinette company, seems to be the precursor of flight simulators. An area of training was for air gunnery handled by a specialist air gunner. Firing at a moving target requires aiming ahead of the target to allow for the time the bullets require to reach the vicinity of the target.
This is sometimes called "deflection shooting" and requires skill and practice. During World War I, some ground-based simulators were developed to teach this skill to new pilots; the best-known early flight simulation device was the Link Trainer, produced by Edwin Link in Binghamton, New York, USA, which he started building in 1927. He patented his design, first available for sale in 1929; the Link Trainer was a basic metal frame flight simulator painted in its well-known blue color. Some of these early war era flight simulators still exist, but it is becoming difficult to find working examples; the Link family firm in Binghamton manufactured player pianos and organs, Ed Link was therefore familiar with such components as leather bellows and reed switches. He was a pilot, but dissatisfied with the amount of real flight training, available, he decided to build a ground-based device to provide such training without the restrictions of weather and the availability of aircraft and flight instructors.
His design had a pneumatic motion platform driven by inflatable bellows which provided pitch and roll cues. A vacuum motor similar to those used in player pianos rotated the platform. A generic replica cockpit with working instruments was mounted on the motion platform; when the cockpit was covered, pilots could practice flying by instruments in a safe environment. The motion platform gave the pilot cues as to real angular motion in pitch and yaw. Aviation flight schools showed little interest in the "Link Trainer". Link demonstrated his trainer to the U. S. Army Air with no result. However, the situation changed in 1934 when the Army Air Force was given a government contract to fly the postal mail; this included having to fly in bad weather as well as good, for which the USAAF had not carried out much training. During the first weeks of the mail service, nearly a dozen Army pilots were killed; the Army Air Force hierarchy remembered his trainer. Link flew in to meet them at Newark Field in New Jersey, they were impressed by his ability to arrive on a day with poor visibility, due to practice on his training device.
The result was that the USAAF purchased six Link Trainers, this can be said to mark the start of the world flight simulation industry. The principal pilot trainer used during World War II was the Link Trainer; some 10,000 were produced to train 500,000 new pilots from allied nations, many in the US and Canada because many pilots were trained in those countries before returning to Europe or the Pacific to fly combat missions. All US Army Air Force pilots were trained in a Link Trainer. A different type of World War II trainer was used for navigating at night by the stars; the Celestial Navigation Trainer of 1941 was 13.7 m high and capable of accommodating the navigation team of a bomber crew. It enabled sextants to be used for taking "star shots" from a projected display of the night sky. In 1954 United Airlines bought four flight simulators at a cost of $3 million from Curtiss-Wright that were similar to the earlier models, with the addition of visuals and movement; this was the first of today's modern flight simulators for commercial aircraft.
The simulator manufacturers are consolidating and integrate vertically as training offers double-digit growth: CAE forecast 255,000 new airline pilots from 2017 to 2027, 180,000 first officers evolving to captains. The largest is Canadian CAE Inc. with a 70% market share and $2.8 billion annual revenues, manufacturing training devices since 70 years but moved into training in 2000 with multiple acquisitions, making more than from producing the simulators. Crawley-based L3 CTS entered the market in 2012 by acquiring Thales Training & Simulation's manufacturing plant near Gatwick Airport where it assembles up to 30 devices a year UK CTC training school in 2015, Aerosim in Sanford, Florida in 2016, Portuguese academy G Air in October 2017. With a 20% market share, equipment still accounts for more than half of L3 CTS turnover but that could soon be reversed as it educates 1,600 commercial pilots each year, 7% of the 22,000 entering the profession annually, aims for 10% in a fragmented market.
The third largest is TRU Simulation + Training, created in 2014 when parent Textron Aviation merged its simulators with Mechtronix, OPINICUS and ProFlight, focusing on simulators and developing the first full-flight simulators for the 737 MAX and the 777X. The fourth is FlightSafet
A game controller is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game to control an object or character in the game. Before the seventh generation of video game consoles, plugging in a controller into one of a console's controller ports were the primary means of using a game controller, although since they have been replaced by wireless controllers, which do not require controller ports on the console but are battery-powered. USB game controllers could be connected to a computer with a USB port. Input devices that have been classified as game controllers include keyboards, gamepads, etc. Special purpose devices, such as steering wheels for driving games and light guns for shooting games, are game controllers. Game controllers have been improved over the years to be as user friendly as possible; the Microsoft Xbox controller, with its shoulder triggers that mimic actual triggers such as those found on guns, has become popular for shooting games. Some controllers are designed to be best for one type of game, such as steering wheels for driving games, or dance pads for dancing games.
One of the first video game controllers was a simple dial and single button, used to control the game Tennis for Two. Controllers have since evolved to include directional pads, multiple buttons, analog sticks, motion detection, touch screens and a plethora of other features. A gamepad known as a joypad, is held in both hands with thumbs and fingers used to provide input. Gamepads can have a number of action buttons combined with one or more omnidirectional control sticks or buttons. Action buttons are handled with the digits on the right hand, the directional input handled with the left. Gamepads are the primary means of input on most modern video game consoles. Due to the ease of use and user-friendly nature of gamepads, they have spread from their origin on traditional consoles to computers, where a variety of games and emulators support their input as a replacement for keyboard and mouse input. Most modern game controllers are a variation of a standard gamepad. Common additions include shoulder buttons placed along the edges of the pad, centrally placed buttons labeled start and mode, an internal motor to provide haptic feedback.
As modern game controllers advance, so too do their user ability qualities. The controllers become smaller and more compact to more and comfortably, fit within the user's hand. Modern examples can be drawn from systems such as Xbox, whose controller has transformed subtly, yet from the original Xbox 360 controller to the Xbox One controller introduced in 2013. A paddle is a controller that features one or more fire buttons; the wheel is used to control movement of the player or of an object along one axis of the video screen. Paddle controllers were the first analog controllers and they lost popularity when "paddle and ball" type games fell out of favor. A variation, the Atari driving controller, appeared on the Atari 2600. Designed for the game Indy 500, it functioned identically in operation and design to the regular paddle controller; the exceptions were that its wheel could be continuously rotated in either direction, that it was missing the extra paddle included on the previous model. Unlike a spinner, friction prevented the wheel from gaining momentum.
A joystick is a peripheral that consists of a handheld stick that can be tilted around either of two axes and twisted around a third. The joystick is used for flight simulators. HOTAS controllers, composed of a joystick and throttle quadrant are a popular combination for flight simulation among its most fanatic devotees. Most joysticks are designed to be operated with the user's primary hand, with the base either held in the opposite hand or mounted on a desk. Arcade controllers are joysticks featuring a shaft that has a ball or drop-shaped handle, one or more buttons for in game actions; the layout has the joystick on the left, the buttons on the right, although there are instances when this is reversed. A trackball is an upside-down mouse, manipulated with the palm of one's hand, it has the advantage of not requiring a lot of desktop space, that it is as fast as one can roll the ball on it. This is faster, it was a precursor to the mouse. Notable uses of a Trackball as a gaming controller would be games such as Centipede, Marble Madness, Golden Tee Golf and SegaSonic the Hedgehog.
A throttle quadrant is a set of one or more levers that are most used to simulate throttles or other similar controls in a real vehicle an aircraft. Throttle quadrants are most popular in conjunction with joysticks or yokes used in flight simulation. A Racing wheel a larger version of a paddle, is used in most racing arcade games as well as more recent racing simulators such as Live for Speed, Grand Prix Legends, GTR2, Richard Burns Rally. While most arcade racing games have been using steering wheels since Gran Trak 10 in 1974, the first steering wheels for home systems appeared on fifth-generation consoles such as the PlayStation and Nintendo 64. Many are force feedback, designed to give the same feedback as would be experienced when driving a real car, but the realism of this depends on the game, they come with pedals to control the gas and brake. Shifting is taken care of in various ways including paddle shifting systems, simple stick shifters which are moved forward or back to change gears or more complex shifters which mimic those of real ve
The PlayStation 3 is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles, it was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles; the console was first announced at E3 2005, was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium; the console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released, it no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software.
A Super Slim variation was released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console. During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price, a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential"; the reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover after the introduction of the Slim model, its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.
The PlayStation 3 began development in 2001 when Ken Kutaragi the President of Sony Computer Entertainment, announced that Sony, IBM would collaborate on developing the Cell microprocessor. At the time, Shuhei Yoshida led a group of programmers within this hardware team to explore next-generation game creation. By early 2005, focus within Sony shifted towards developing PS3 launch titles. Sony unveiled PlayStation 3 to the public on May 16, 2005, at E3 2005, along with a boomerang-shaped prototype design of the Sixaxis controller. A functional version of the system was not present there, nor at the Tokyo Game Show in September 2005, although demonstrations were held at both events on software development kits and comparable personal computer hardware. Video footage based on the predicted PlayStation 3 specifications was shown; the initial prototype shown in May 2005 featured two HDMI ports, three Ethernet ports and six USB ports. Two hardware configurations were announced for the console: a 20 GB model and a 60 GB model, priced at US$499 and US$599, respectively.
The 60 GB model was to be the only configuration to feature an HDMI port, Wi-Fi internet, flash card readers and a chrome trim with the logo in silver. Both models were announced for a simultaneous worldwide release: November 11, 2006, for Japan and November 17, 2006, for North America and Europe. On September 6, 2006, Sony announced that PAL region PlayStation 3 launch would be delayed until March 2007, because of a shortage of materials used in the Blu-ray drive. At the Tokyo Game Show on September 22, 2006, Sony announced that it would include an HDMI port on the 20 GB system, but a chrome trim, flash card readers, silver logo and Wi-Fi would not be included; the launch price of the Japanese 20 GB model was reduced by over 20%, the 60 GB model was announced for an open pricing scheme in Japan. During the event, Sony showed 27 playable PS3 games running on final hardware. PlayStation 3 was first released in Japan on November 11, 2006, at 07:00. According to Media Create, 81,639 PS3 systems were sold within 24 hours of its introduction in Japan.
Soon after its release in Japan, PS3 was released in North America on November 17, 2006. Reports of violence surrounded the release of PS3. A customer was shot, campers were robbed at gunpoint, customers were shot in a drive-by shooting with BB guns, 60 campers fought over 10 systems; the console was planned for a global release through November, but at the start of September the release in Europe and the rest of the world was delayed until March. With it being a somewhat last-minute delay, some companies had taken deposits for pre-orders, at which Sony informed customers that they were eligible for full refunds or could continue the pre-order. On January 24, 2007, Sony announced that PlayStation 3 would go on sale on March 23, 2007, in Europe, the Middle East and New Zealand; the system sold about 600,000 units in its first two days. On March 7, 2007, the 60 GB PlayStation 3 launched in Singapore with a price of S$799; the console was launched in South Korea on June 16, 2007, as a single version equipped with an 80 GB hard drive and IPTV.
Following speculation that Sony was working on a'slim' model, Sony announced the PS3 CECH-2000 model on August 18, 2009, at the Sony Gamescom press conference
High fidelity is a term used by listeners and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound. This is in contrast to the lower quality sound produced by inexpensive audio equipment, or the inferior quality of sound reproduction that can be heard in recordings made until the late 1940s. Ideally, high-fidelity equipment has inaudible noise and distortion, a flat frequency response within the human hearing range. Bell Laboratories began experimenting with a range of recording techniques in the early 1930s. Performances by Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra were recorded in 1931 and 1932 using telephone lines between the Academy of Music in Philadelphia and the Bell labs in New Jersey; some multitrack recordings were made on optical sound film, which led to new advances used by MGM and 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation. RCA Victor began recording performances by several orchestras using optical sound around 1941, resulting in higher-fidelity masters for 78-rpm discs.
During the 1930s, Avery Fisher, an amateur violinist, began experimenting with audio design and acoustics. He wanted to make a radio that would sound like he was listening to a live orchestra—that would achieve high fidelity to the original sound. After World War II, Harry F. Olson conducted an experiment whereby test subjects listened to a live orchestra through a hidden variable acoustic filter; the results proved that listeners preferred high fidelity reproduction, once the noise and distortion introduced by early sound equipment was removed. Beginning in 1948, several innovations created the conditions that made for major improvements of home-audio quality possible: Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, based on technology taken from Germany after WWII, helped musical artists such as Bing Crosby make and distribute recordings with better fidelity; the advent of the 33⅓ rpm Long Play microgroove vinyl record, with lower surface noise and quantitatively specified equalization curves as well as noise-reduction and dynamic range systems.
Classical music fans, who were opinion leaders in the audio market adopted LPs because, unlike with older records, most classical works would fit on a single LP. FM radio, with wider audio bandwidth and less susceptibility to signal interference and fading than AM radio. Better amplifier designs, with more attention to frequency response and much higher power output capability, reproducing audio without perceptible distortion. New loudspeaker designs, including acoustic suspension, developed by Edgar Villchur and Henry Kloss improved bass frequency response. In the 1950s, audio manufacturers employed the phrase high fidelity as a marketing term to describe records and equipment intended to provide faithful sound reproduction. While some consumers interpreted high fidelity as fancy and expensive equipment, many found the difference in quality between "hi-fi" and the standard AM radios and 78 rpm records apparent and bought 33⅓ LPs such as RCA's New Orthophonics and London's ffrr. Audiophiles paid attention to technical characteristics and bought individual components, such as separate turntables, radio tuners, power amplifiers and loudspeakers.
Some enthusiasts assembled their own loudspeaker systems. In the 1950s, hi-fi became a generic term for home sound equipment, to some extent displacing phonograph and record player. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the development of the Westrex single-groove stereophonic record cutterhead led to the next wave of home-audio improvement, in common parlance stereo displaced hi-fi. Records were now played on a stereo. In the world of the audiophile, the concept of high fidelity continued to refer to the goal of accurate sound reproduction and to the technological resources available for approaching that goal; this period is regarded as the "Golden Age of Hi-Fi", when vacuum tube equipment manufacturers of the time produced many models considered endearing by modern audiophiles, just before solid state equipment was introduced to the market, subsequently replacing tube equipment as the mainstream technology. A popular type of system for reproducing music beginning in the 1970s was the integrated music centre—which combined a phonograph turntable, AM-FM radio tuner, tape player and power amplifier in one package sold with its own separate, detachable or integrated speakers.
These systems advertised their simplicity. The consumer did not have to select and assemble individual components, or be familiar with impedance and power ratings. Purists avoid referring to these systems as high fidelity, though some are capable of good quality sound reproduction. Audiophiles in the 1970s and 1980s preferred to buy each component separately; that way, they could choose models of each component with the specifications. In the 1980s, a number of audiophile magazines became available, offering reviews of components and articles on how to choose and test speakers and other components. Listening tests are used by hi-fi manufacturers, audiophile magazines and audio engineering researchers and scientists. If a listening test is done in such a way that the listener, assessing the sound quality of a component or recording can see the components that are being used for the test it is possible that the listener's pre-existing biases towards or against certain components or brands could affect their judgment.
To respond to this issue, researchers began to use blind tests, in w
Squeezebox (network music player)
Squeezebox is a network music player from Logitech. The squeezebox was discontinued in favor of the visually similar but simplified Logitech UE Smart Radio, but in 2013 Logitech added an official menu option to install the Squeezebox software on the Smart Radio turning it into a Squeezebox Radio. Slim Devices was established in 2000, was first known for its SlimServer used for streaming music, but launched a hardware player named SliMP3 able to play these streams in 2001. Although the first player was simple only supporting wired Ethernet and MP3 natively, it was followed two years by a more advanced player, renamed to Squeezebox. Other versions followed adding native support for additional file formats, Wi-Fi-support adding larger and more advanced displays as well as a version targeting audiophile users. Support for playing music from external streaming platforms such as Pandora, Last.fm and Sirius were added. The devices in general have two operating modes. Both the server software and large parts of the firmware on the most recent players are released under open source licenses.
In 2006, Slim Devices was acquired by Logitech for $20 million USD. Logitech continued the development of the player until they announced in August 2012 that it would be discontinued; the online service mysqueezebox.com, needed to use a Squeezebox without a private server, is still being maintained by Logitech. Given the cross-platform nature of the server and software client, some users have ensured the continued use of the platform by utilizing the Raspberry Pi as dedicated Squeezebox device; the first-generation hardware requires Logitech Media Server, to run, free, open source software. It is wired-Ethernet only and natively supports one audio format, MP3. Logitech Media Server can transcode other audio formats to MP3 on the fly, using the LAME MP3 encoder. Second generation hardware called SB1 to avoid confusing it with the Squeezebox product range; the SB1 used the same display as the SliMP3. Main feature additions included optional 802.11b Wi-Fi, support for uncompressed PCM/WAV/AIFF audio streams, headphone and optical S/PDIF outputs.
As with successor models, the required server may be SlimServer, SqueezeCenter or the Logitech Media Server. Slim Devices offered a bitmap display upgrade for this hardware, but, no longer available; some units have a 40×2 Noritake character display, others have a 280×16 pixel Noritake bitmap display. Third generation hardware. Features included optional 802.11g Wi-Fi, native support for more audio formats, upgraded 320×32 pixel greyscale bitmap VFD display, bitmapped fonts. This model has infrared remote control, analog outputs, volume control, headphone jack and optical digital outputs; the Squeezebox2 supports numerous audio formats including MP3, Windows Media Audio, Monkey's Audio, Apple Lossless, FLAC, Shorten, WAV, AIFF, Ogg Vorbis, unencrypted AAC. Of these, MP3, Windows Media, FLAC, WAV, AIFF and Ogg Vorbis are natively supported by the player firmware. DRM-crippled AAC from the Apple iTunes Music Store is not supported; the Squeezebox Classic, aka Squeezebox3, aka SB3, aka Squeezebox 3rd Generation, has the fourth generation hardware.
The features and most of the technical specifications are identical to that of the Squeezebox2. A new board and chassis design are used, as well as a new internal Wi-Fi antennas. With the introduction of the "Duet" Squeezebox3 was renamed "Squeezebox Classic"; because of the transition to Logitech during production, the SB3 was available in a Slim Devices and a Logitech housing. Dimensions: 7.6"W × 3.7"H × 3.1"D including stand. Fifth generation hardware. Features are similar to Squeezebox v3. Geared towards audiophiles. Additional features over Squeezebox v3 include dual 320×32 pixel displays, front panel buttons and tactile feedback knob, redesigned backlit remote control and unbalanced audio outputs and unbalanced digital inputs and outputs, RS-232 serial connection for external control, Infrared input and output; this new design consists of a more sophisticated remote, called the Squeezebox Controller with a display, a separate simplified network music player box, called the Squeezebox Receiver connecting to the stereo.
The SBR can operate without the SBC, although, not supported by Logitech and is recommended for advanced users only. The SBC can operate as an audio player through its integrated speaker or through its integrated headphone jack. Additional SBRs could be bought separately. Differences between the Squeezebox Classic and the Squeezebox Duet include: The SBR does not have a display, instead relying on the Controller for its user interface; the SB3 has a headphone jack. In the Duet there is a headphone jack on the SBC only; the SB3 uses infrared for remote control. The absence of IR remote control eliminates compatibility with universal remote controls; the SBC has IR transmission capabilities, which can be used to control other devices e.g. the power and volume of a connected amplifier. The DAC from SB3 is a Burr-Brown 24-bit DAC, the one
PlayStation 3 accessories
Various accessories for the PlayStation 3 video game console have been produced by Sony. These include controllers and video input devices like microphones, video cameras, cables for better sound and picture quality; the Sixaxis Wireless Controller was the official wireless controller for the PlayStation 3 until it was succeeded by the DualShock 3. In Japan, individual Sixaxis controllers were available for purchase with the console's launch. All Sixaxis controllers, with the exception of those bundled with a console were sold without a USB to USB mini cable. "Sixaxis" refers to the motion sensing technology used in both the Sixaxis and DualShock 3 controllers. Its design is an evolution of the DualShock 2 controller, retaining its pressure-sensitive buttons and basic shape. Unlike the DS2, however, it is a Bluetooth wireless controller and features motion sensing technology, it does not feature vibration motors. The L2 and R2 buttons were replaced with analog triggers and the precision of the analog sticks was increased from 8-bit to 10-bit.
In place of the "Analog" button is a button labeled with the PlayStation logo, which allows access to the system menu. The underside of the case is slightly enlarged to accommodate the internal battery; the Sixaxis is constructed of translucent plastic, rather than the opaque plastic used on the DualShock 2. Replacing the Sixaxis as the standard PlayStation 3 controller, the DualShock 3 features the same functions and design, but with vibration feedback capability. Cosmetically, the DualShock 3 is nearly identical to the Sixaxis, with the only differences being that "DUALSHOCK 3" is printed on the top and that the body is made of opaque plastic rather than the translucent plastic used on the Sixaxis; the vibration function does not interfere with the motion sensing function, both functions can be used at once. Like the Sixaxis, it is a wireless controller with a mini-USB port on the rear, used for charging, as well as playing while charging. Released alongside new PlayStation 3 models in Japan on January 11, 2008, the DualShock 3 was available in Black and Ceramic White colors, matching the color options for the new console models.
On March 6, a Satin Silver DualShock 3 was released in Japan, again alongside a new console color. The black DualShock 3 was released in the United States on April 2 and in Europe on July 2. On October 30, 2008, the DualShock 3 became the standard controller packaged with PlayStation 3 consoles, starting with the 80 GB models. Both controllers can be used on the PSP Go via Bluetooth. An official charging stand for PlayStation 3 controllers was released in Japan on April 21, 2011, it is capable of charging two controllers and is powered by a wall plug. The wireless keypad peripheral was launched in Europe on November 28, 2008, early December 2008 in North America, came to Japan in late 2008; as well as acting as keyboard, the wireless keypad features a touchpad button, which allows the surface of the keypad to be used as a touchpad, allowing users to move the pointer by sliding their fingers around the keypad surface. When in touchpad mode, the left and right arrow buttons act as left and right mouse buttons, respectively.
Although designed to be directly attached to the controller, the keypad features an internal battery and an independent Bluetooth connection, does not connect to the controller electronically in any way, meaning it can function separately from the controller. The keypad must be first connected to the PlayStation 3 via a USB mini-B to USB-A cable or put into Bluetooth discovery mode so it can be paired and subsequently used. Discovery mode can be used to pair the keypad with other Bluetooth compatible devices such as computers and mobile phones, where it will function as both a keyboard and a touchpad; the keypad features two shortcut buttons, letting users jump to the "Friends" screen and "Message Box" on the XMB during game play. PlayStation Move is a motion-sensing game controller platform for the PlayStation 3 video game console by Sony Computer Entertainment, it was named PlayStation Motion Controller. Based on a handheld motion controller wand, PlayStation Move uses the PlayStation Eye webcam to track the wand's position, inertial sensors in the wand to detect its motion.
First revealed on June 2, 2009, PlayStation Move was launched in September 2010 in most countries and October 2010 in Japan. Hardware available at launch included the main PlayStation Move motion controller, an optional PlayStation Move sub-controller; the Buzz! buzzer is a special controller designed for the Buzz! Quiz game series; the controller features a large red buzzer button and four smaller coloured buttons for answer selection. Both wired and wireless versions are available and come bundled with Buzz! games. A four-buzzer set acts as a single USB device and connects a USB port on the PlayStation 3. Wireless versions connect via a USB dongle, with each dongle able to support up to 4 wireless buzzers at a time. A second dongle is required for additional buzzers. Both the wired and wireless versions of the buzzers ar