The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Keio University, abbreviated as Keio or Keidai, is a private university located in Minato, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo, it has eleven campuses in Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Law and Commerce, Medicine and Technology, Policy Management and Information Studies and Medical Care, Pharmacy; the university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities. In the United States, Keio has a high school called "Keio Academy of New York". Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education.
It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008. Keio has leading research centers, it has 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C. Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896. Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution, its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,to make clear how it can be applied to its family and nation,and to take an actual action of this statement. It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission; those sentences were given to students as his will, considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission. Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan.
The following are the examples: Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa. It introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before, it built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well. It is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students. Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895. Keio put "self-respect" as a foundation of its education; this is meant to be physically and mentally independent, respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education. Learning half and teaching half is the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio had used this system.
In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor". Collaboration in a company is a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, "Collaboration in a company" came from this article.
People in Keio think that all of the people related to Keio are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been seen in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai. Keio University was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi, its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796. Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio" and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school, it moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, the official university department with Economics and Literacy study in 1890. Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order. There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below. Keio launched Hiromoto Watanabe as a first chancellor of the Imperial University in 1886.
He is the first chancellor of the authorized
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Kanagawa Prefecture is a prefecture located in Kantō region of Japan. The capital of the prefecture is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area. Kanagawa Prefecture is home to Hakone, two popular side trip destinations from Tokyo; the prefecture has some archaeological sites going back to the Jōmon period. About 3,000 years ago, Mount Hakone produced a volcanic explosion which resulted in Lake Ashi on the western area of the prefecture, it is believed. In the ancient era, its plains were sparsely inhabited. In medieval Japan, Kanagawa was part of the provinces of Musashi. Kamakura in central Sagami was the capital of Japan during the Kamakura period. During the Edo period, the western part of Sagami Province was governed by the daimyō of Odawara Castle, while the eastern part was directly governed by the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo. Commodore Matthew Perry landed in Kanagawa in 1853 and 1854 and signed the Convention of Kanagawa to force open Japanese ports to the United States. Yokohama, the largest deep-water port in Tokyo Bay, was opened to foreign traders in 1859 after several more years of foreign pressure, developed into the largest trading port in Japan.
Nearby Yokosuka, closer to the mouth of Tokyo Bay, developed as a naval port and now serves as headquarters for the U. S. 7th Fleet and the fleet operations of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. After the Meiji period, many foreigners lived in Yokohama City, visited Hakone; the Meiji government developed the first railways in Japan, from Shinbashi to Yokohama in 1872. The epicenter of the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake was deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, it devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba and Shizuoka, caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. The sea receded as much as 400 metres from the shore at Manazuru Point, rushed back towards the shore in a great wall of water which swamped Mitsuishi-shima. At Kamakura, the total death toll from earthquake and fire exceeded 2,000 victims. At Odawara, ninety percent of the buildings collapsed and subsequent fires burned the rubble along with anything else left standing. Yokohama and other major cities were damaged by the U.
S. bombing in 1945. Casualties amounted to more than several thousand. After the war, General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers for the Occupation of Japan, landed in Kanagawa, before moving to other areas. U. S. military bases still remain in Kanagawa, including Camp Zama, Yokosuka Naval Base, Naval Air Station Atsugi. In 1945, Kanagawa was the 15th most populous prefecture in Japan, with the population of about 1.9 million. In the years after the war, the prefecture underwent rapid urbanization as a part of the Greater Tokyo Area; the population as of September 1, 2014, is estimated to be 9.1 million. Kanagawa became the second most populous prefecture in 2006. Kanagawa is a small prefecture located at the southeastern corner of the Kantō Plain wedged between Tokyo on the north, the foothills of Mount Fuji on the northwest, the Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay on the south and east; the eastern side of the prefecture is flat and urbanized, including the large port cities of Yokohama and Kawasaki.
The southeastern area nearby the Miura Peninsula is less urbanized, with the ancient city of Kamakura drawing tourists to temples and shrines. The western part, bordered by Yamanashi Prefecture and Shizuoka Prefecture on the west, is more mountainous and includes resort areas like Odawara and Hakone; the area, stretching 80 kilometres from west to east and 60 kilometres from north to south, contains 2,400 square kilometres of land, accounting for 0.64% of the total land area of Japan. As of 1 April 2012, 23% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. Topographically, the prefecture consists of three distinct areas; the mountainous western region features Hakone Volcano. The hilly eastern region is characterized by the Tama Hills and Miura Peninsula; the central region, which surrounds the Tama Hills and Miura Peninsula, consists of flat stream terraces and low lands around major rivers including the Sagami River, Sakai River, Tsurumi River, Tama River.
The Tama River forms much of the boundary between Tokyo. The Sagami River flows through the middle of the prefecture. In the western region, the Sakawa runs through a small lowland, the Sakawa Lowland, between Hakone Volcano to the west and the Ōiso Hills to the east and flows into Sagami Bay; the Tanzawa Mountain Range, part of the Kantō Mountain Range, contains Mount Hiru, the highest peak in the prefecture. Other mountains measure similar mid-range heights: Mount Hinokiboramaru, Mount Tanzawa, Mount Ōmuro, Mount Himetsugi, Mount Usu; the mountain range is lower in height southward leading to Hadano Basin to the Ōiso Hills. At the eastern foothills of the mountain range lies the Isehara Plateau and across the Sagami River the Sagamino plateau. Nineteen cities are located in Kanagawa Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: Tama River Firework event Yokohama Port Anniversary Festival Kamakura Festival Hiratsuka Tanabata Festival Odawara Hōjō Godai Festival Yugawara
A hatamoto was a samurai in the direct service of the Tokugawa shogunate of feudal Japan. While all three of the shogunates in Japanese history had official retainers, in the two preceding ones, they were referred to as gokenin. However, in the Edo period, hatamoto were the upper vassals of the Tokugawa house, the gokenin were the lower vassals. There was no precise difference between the two in terms of income level, but hatamoto had the right to an audience with the shōgun, whereas gokenin did not; the word hatamoto means "at the base of the flag", is translated into English as "bannerman". Another term for the Edo-era hatamoto was jikisan hatamoto, sometimes rendered as "direct shogunal hatamoto", which serves to illustrate the difference between them and the preceding generation of hatamoto who served various lords; the term hatamoto originated in the Sengoku period. The term was used for the direct retainers of a lord. Many lords had hatamoto. In the eyes of the Tokugawa shogunate, hatamoto were retainers who had served the family from its days in Mikawa onward.
However, the ranks of the hatamoto included people from outside the hereditary ranks of the Tokugawa house. Retainer families of defeated provincial strongmen like Takeda, Hōjō, or Imagawa were included, as were branch families of feudal lords. Included were heirs to lords whose domains were confiscated, local power figures in remote parts of the country who never became daimyōs; the act of becoming a hatamoto was known as bakushin toritate. Many hatamoto fought on both sides of the conflict; the hatamoto remained retainers of the main Tokugawa clan after the fall of the shogunate in 1868, followed the Tokugawa to their new domain of Shizuoka. The hatamoto lost their status along with all other samurai in Japan following the abolition of the domains in 1871; the line between hatamoto and gokenin amongst hatamoto of lower rank, was not rigid, the title of hatamoto had more to do with rank rather than income rating. In the context of an army, it could be compared to the position of an officer. Throughout the Edo period, hatamoto held the distinction that if they possessed high enough rank, they had the right to personal audience with the shōgun.
All hatamoto can be divided into two categories, the kuramaitori, who took their incomes straight from Tokugawa granaries, the jikatatori, who held land scattered throughout Japan. Another level of status distinction amongst the hatamoto was the class of kōtai-yoriai, men who were heads of hatamoto families and held provincial fiefs, had alternate attendance duties like the daimyōs. However, as kōtai-yoriai were men of high income in terms of the spectrum of hatamoto stipends, not all jikatatori hatamoto had the duty of alternate attendance; the dividing line between the upper hatamoto and the fudai daimyōs—the domain lords who were vassals of the Tokugawa house—was 10,000 koku. Infrequently, some hatamoto were granted an increase in income and thus promoted to the rank of fudai daimyō. One example of such a promotion is the case of the Hayashi family of Kaibuchi, who began as jikatatori hatamoto but who became fudai daimyōs and went on to play a prominent role in the Boshin War, despite their domain's small size of 10,000 koku.
The term for a hatamoto with income of about 8,000 koku or greater was taishin hatamoto. The hatamoto who lived in Edo resided in their own private districts and oversaw their own police work and security. Men from hatamoto ranks could serve in a variety of roles in the Tokugawa administration, including service in the police force as yoriki inspectors, city magistrates, magistrates or tax collectors of direct Tokugawa house land, members of the wakadoshiyori council, many other positions; the expression "eighty thousand hatamoto" was in popular use to denote their numbers, but a 1722 study put their numbers at about 5,000. Adding the gokenin brought the number up to about 17,000. Famous hatamoto include Jidayu Koizumi, Nakahama Manjirō, Ōoka Tadasuke, Tōyama Kagemoto, Katsu Kaishū, Enomoto Takeaki, Hijikata Toshizō and the two Westeners William Adams and Jan Joosten. Hatamoto patronized the development of the martial arts in the Edo period. Two hatamoto who were directly involved in the development of the martial arts were Yagyū Munenori and Yamaoka Tesshū.
Munenori's family became hereditary sword instructors to the shōgun. Hatamoto appeared as figures in popular culture before the Edo era ended. Recent depictions of hatamoto include the TV series Hatchōbori no Shichinin, the manga Fūunjitachi Bakumatsu-hen, Osamu Tezuka's manga Hidamari no ki. Bolitho, Harold.. Treasures Among Men: The Fudai Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01655-0. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Edo no hatamoto jiten. Toky
The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade
Kawasaki-juku was the second of the fifty-three stations of the Tōkaidō. It is located in Kawasaki-ku in the present-day city of Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Kawasaki-juku was established as a post station by the local magistrate Hasegawa Nagatsuna, it was the last post station to be built along the Tōkaidō. It was located near Heiken-ji, a famous Buddhist temple, so it was used by travelers coming to pray; the classic ukiyo-e print by Andō Hiroshige from 1831–1834 depicts travelers in a ferry-boat crossing the Tama River, passengers waiting on the further bank. Mount Fuji is depicted in the far distance. Tōkaidō Shinagawa-juku - Kawasaki-juku - Kanagawa-juku Carey, Patrick. Rediscovering the Old Tokaido:In the Footsteps of Hiroshige. Global Books UK. ISBN 1-901903-10-9 Chiba, Reiko. Hiroshige's Tokaido in Poetry. Tuttle. ISBN 0-8048-0246-7 Taganau, Jilly; the Tokaido Road: Travelling and Representation in Edo and Meiji Japan. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-31091-1