The Saja is a river in the autonomous community of Cantabria, northern Spain. It flows into the Cantabric sea. Part of its course is inside the Saja-Besaya Natural Park The Saja's source is at 1,700 meters above sea level and it flows through a steep V-shaped basin during the first kilometers. Past the village of Fresneda the valley starts to open up and it develops a wide alluvial plain in the Cabuerniga valley. Regarding the ecologic conservation of the river, it is good from the source to the Santa Lucía bridge, from when it begins to show important alterations, being catalogued as moderately conserved. Down the confluence with the Besaya the alterations are serious or serious, being catalogued as badly conserved. List of rivers of Spain
Torrelavega is a municipality and important industrial and commercial hub in the single province Autonomous Community of Cantabria in northern Spain. It is situated 8 kilometres from the Cantabrian Coast and 27.5 kilometres from the capital of the Autonomous Community, half way between the Principality of Asturias and the Basque Country. The rivers Saja and Besaya flow through the city, it is the capital of the comarca of Valle del Besaya which includes composed of the municipalities of Suances, Cartes, Los Corrales de Buelna, Arenas de Iguña, Bárcena de Pie de Concha, Molledo and San Felices de Buelna. Its highest point is 606 metres and its lowest point is 12 metres. Torrelavega is a regional center for industry and transport, its weekly livestock fair is famous in Spain, its stadium is known as El Malecon. The Cave of Altamira, famed for the prehistoric paintings found inside, is about 10 kilometers northwest of the city. Torrelavega was founded at the end of the thirteenth century by Garci Lasso de la Vega I, Adelantado Mayor of the Kingdom of Castile in the name of King Alfonso XI of Castile.
Its current name is due to the contraction of the original eponym of "Torre de la Vega". The Castle or Tower of the Vega's was built by Leonor Lasso de la Vega, daughter of Garci Lasso de la Vega II, the younger, mother of the Íñigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana in order to administer the tax and privilege due in the family's territory; the name of the comarca, Valle del Besaya is derived from the Astur-Leonese Bisalia, which in turn derives from the Celtic, Bis-salia from the two rivers that flow through the city. Torrelavega was an important agricultural hub in the Kingdom of Castile since medieval times. Continuous population growth and industrial development enabled Torrelavega to attain city status in 1895 from the Queen Regent Maria Christina of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies; the city is home to the main seat of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist labor union the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. Barreda Campuzano Duález Ganzo La Montaña Sierrapando Tanos Torrelavega Torres Viérnoles La Inmobiliaria El Barrio de Sorravides El Barrio Covadonga La Nueva Ciudad El Zapatón El Poblado North: Santillana del Mar and Polanco.
South: Los Corrales de Buelna and San Felices de Buelna. East: Piélagos and Puente Viesgo. West: Reocín and Cartes. Óscar Freire, spanish cyclist. Juanjo Cobo, spanish cyclist. Dani Sordo, Rally Driver. Old Havana, Cuba Rochefort-sur-Mer, France Louga, Senegal Zug, Western Sahara Ayuntamiento de Torrelavegahttp://www.oviedo.es/index.php/es/la-ciudad/ciudades-hermanadas Oviedo´s sister city is Torrevieja, not Torrelavega. Http://www.eldiariomontanes.es/20110324/local/torrelavega-besaya/torrelavega-louga-hermanas-201103241319.html
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Liébana is a comarca of Cantabria. It covers 570 square kilometres and is located in the southwest of Cantabria, bordering Asturias, León and Palencia, it is made up of the municipalities of: Cabezón de Liébana, Camaleño, Cillorigo de Liébana, Potes and Vega de Liébana. Liébana is a closed mountainous comarca, constituted by four valleys that connect in Potes, the centre of the comarca, its main rivers are the Quiviesa and the Buyón. The steep-sided uplands are formed of Carboniferous limestone affected by karstic processes. Shale and sandstone can be found in the bottom of the valleys; the considerable deepness of the valleys, with big differences in altitude and steep slopes creates a great wide variety of environments which allow for a multitude of vegetable species: beeches, holm oaks, cork oaks and other types of oaks, grazing pastures and cultivated crops. Its narrow relief makes it have a microclimate different from the rest of the region, affected by an Atlantic climate. So, while in the bottom of the valley of Liébana a Mediterranean climate can be enjoyed, it shifts progressively as we ascend to a humid Atlantic climate until subalpine conditions are reached in the high peaks of Picos de Europa.
The average annual temperatures are 28°C maximum and 8°C minimum, with a lower precipitation rate than in other Cantabrian zones. The economy of the comarca of Liébana has shifted from the primary sector to the rural tourism boom, thanks to its landscapes and the appeal of the Picos de Europa National Park; the development brought by tourism has affected the township of Potes, capital of the comarca exclusively, to the detriment of the rest of the villages of the valley. Thus, as Potes enjoys population growth, the other settlements are undergoing a decrease in population. At the end of the 14th century, King John I of Castile granted the lordship of Liébana to his cousin Don Juan Téllez of Castile, Lord of Aguilar de Campoo and son of the Infante Don Tello of Castile. Towards the second half of the 15th century, the possession of the lordship of Liébana was the cause of one of the frequent peerage wars of that time, subsequently of a long lawsuit between the heirs of Don Juan Téllez of Castile and the successors of the second marriage of his wife Doña Leonor de la Vega.
In 1576 the courts passed sentence in favor of the House of Infantado. Saint Beatus of Liébana settled in the region, he was a monk and geographer, remembered as the compiler of the Commentary on the Apocalypse, written in 776, which contains one of the earliest Christian world-maps. Santo Toribio de Liébana Songbook of Liébana, Matilde Camus 1977 Walking routes in Liébana Liebana.net Liébana and Picos de Europa Center of Studies of Liébana 2006-2007 Liébanan Jubilee Year
Cabuérniga is a municipality located in the autonomous community of Cantabria, Spain. According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 1.109 inhabitants. Its capital is Valle. Cabuérniga - Cantabria 102 Municipios
Fagus sylvatica, the European beech or common beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae. Fagus sylvatica is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m tall and 3 m trunk diameter, though more 25–35 m tall and up to 1.5 m trunk diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m tall, it has a typical lifespan of 150–200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. In cultivated forest stands trees are harvested at 80–120 years of age. 30 years are needed to attain full maturity. Like most trees, its form depends on the location: in forest areas, F. sylvatica grows to over 30 m, with branches being high up on the trunk. In open locations, it will become more massive; the leaves are alternate and entire or with a crenate margin, 5–10 cm long and 3–7 cm broad, with 6–7 veins on each side of the leaf. When crenate, there is one point at each vein tip, never any points between the veins; the buds are long and slender, 15–30 mm long and 2–3 mm thick, but thicker where the buds include flower buds.
The leaves of beech are not abscissed in the autumn and instead remain on the tree until the spring. This process is called marcescence; this occurs when trees are saplings or when plants are clipped as a hedge, but it often continues to occur on the lower branches when the tree is mature. Small quantities of seeds may be produced around 10 years of age, but not a heavy crop until the tree is at least 30 years old. F. sylvatica male flowers are borne in the small catkins. The female flowers produce beechnuts, small triangular nuts 15–20 millimetres long and 7–10 mm wide at the base. Flower and seed production is abundant in years following a hot and dry summer, though for two years in a row; the natural range extends from southern Sweden to northern Sicily, west to France, southern England, northern Portugal, central Spain, east to northwest Turkey, where it intergrades with the oriental beech, which replaces it further east. In the Balkans, it shows some hybridisation with oriental beech. In the southern part of its range around the Mediterranean, it grows only in mountain forests, at 600–1,800 m altitude.
Although regarded as native in southern England, recent evidence suggests that F. sylvatica did not arrive in England until about 4000 BC, or 2,000 years after the English Channel formed after the ice ages. The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is removed from'native' woods. Localised pollen records have been recorded in the North of England from the Iron Age by Sir Harry Godwin. Changing climatic conditions may put beech populations in southern England under increased stress and while it may not be possible to maintain the current levels of beech in some sites it is thought that conditions for beech in north-west England will remain favourable or improve, it is planted in Britain. The nature of Norwegian beech populations is subject to debate. If native, they would represent the northern range of the species. However, molecular genetic analyses support the hypothesis that these populations represent intentional introduction from Denmark before and during the Viking Age.
However, the beech in Vestfold and at Seim north of Bergen in Norway is now spreading and regarded as native. Though not demanding of its soil type, the European beech has several significant requirements: a humid atmosphere and well-drained soil, it prefers moderately fertile ground, calcified or acidic, therefore it is found more on the side of a hill than at the bottom of a clayey basin. It is sensitive to spring frost. In Norway's oceanic climate planted trees grow well as far north as Trondheim. In Sweden, beech trees do not grow as far north as in Norway. A beech forest is dark and few species of plant are able to survive there, where the sun reaches the ground. Young beeches may grow poorly in full sunlight. In a clear-cut forest a European beech will germinate and die of excessive dryness. Under oaks with sparse leaf cover it will surpass them in height and, due to the beech's dense foliage, the oaks will die from lack of sunlight; the root system is shallow superficial, with large roots spreading out in all directions.
European beech forms ectomycorrhizas with a range of fungi including members of the genera Amanita, Cantharellus, Hebeloma and with the species Ramaria flavosaponaria. In the woodlands of southern Britain, beech is dominant over oak and elm south of a line from about north Suffolk across to Cardigan. Oak are the dominant forest trees north of this line. One of the most beautiful European beech forests called Sonian Forest is found in the southeast of Brussels, Belgium. Beech is a dominant tree species in France and constitutes about 10% of French fore