Chongju Chongnyon Station
Chŏngju Ch'ŏngnyŏn Station is a railway station in Yŏkchŏn-dong, Chŏngju city, North P'yŏngan Province, North Korea. It is the junction of the P'yŏngbuk lines of the Korean State Railway; the station was opened, along with the rest of this section of the Kyŏngŭi Line, on 5 November 1905. After the bridge across the Yalu River was opened on 1 November 1911, connecting Sinŭiju to Dandong, China, Chŏngju station became a stop for international trains to and from Manchuria, it is still a stopping point for international trains between Beijing. Destroyed during the Korean War, the station was rebuilt after the end of the war by Youth Shock Troops, was renamed Chŏngju Ch'ŏngnyŏn Station at that time. A major accident occurred at the station on 27 January 2008, when ten cars of a freight train derailed, killing two railway workers. After the accident, improvements were made to the station and its buildings in addition to the repair work
The Yalu River called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China. Together with the Tumen River to its east, a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea and China and is notable as a site involved in military conflicts such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, World War II, the Korean War. Two theories are given regarding the origin of the river's name. One theory is; the Manchu word yalu means "the boundary between two countries". In Mandarin Chinese, yālù phonetically approximates the original Manchu word, but means "duck green", said to have been once the color of the river; the other theory is that the river was named after the combination of its two upper branches, which were called "鴨" and "綠" ", respectively. Revised Romanization of Korean spelled it Amnokgang and Revised Romanization of Hangeul spelled it Aprokgang. From 2500 m above sea level on Paektu Mountain on the China–North Korea border, the river flows south to Hyesan before sweeping 130 km northwest to Linjiang and returning to a more southerly route for a further 300 km to empty into the Korea Bay between Dandong and Sinuiju.
The bordering Chinese provinces are Liaoning. The river receives water from over 30,000 km ² of land; the Yalu's most significant tributaries are the Changjin, the Hochon, the Tongro and the Ai rivers from Korea and the Hun from China. The river is not navigable for most of its length. Most of the river can be crossed on foot; the depth of the Yalu River varies from some of the more shallow parts on the eastern side in Hyesan to the deeper parts of the river near the Yellow Sea. The estuary is the site of the Amrok River estuary Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International. About 205 islands are on the Yalu. A 1962 border treaty between North Korea and China split the islands according to which ethnic group was living on each island. North Korea possesses 127 and China 78. Due to the division criteria, some islands such as Hwanggumpyong Island belong to North Korea, but abut the Chinese side of the river; the river basin is the site. Many former fortresses are located along the river and the former capital of that kingdom was situated at what is now the medium-sized city of Ji'an, Jilin along the Yalu, a site rich in Goguryeo era relics.
Wihwa Island on the river is famous as the place where in 1388, General Yi Songgye decided to turn back his army southward to Kaesong in the first of a series of revolts that led to the establishment of the House of Yi. The river has been the site of several battles because of its strategic location between Korea and China, including: Battle of the Yalu River – First Sino-Japanese War Battle of Yalu River – Russo-Japanese War Battle near to the Yalu River – Korean WarThe Korean side of the river was industrialized during the period of Japanese rule, by 1945 20% of Imperial Japan's total industrial output originated in Korea. During the Korean War, the movement of United Nations troops approaching the river precipitated massive Chinese intervention from around Dandong. In the course of the conflict every bridge across the river except one was destroyed; the one remaining bridge was the Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge connecting Sinuiju, North Korea to Dandong, China. During the war the valley surrounding the western end of the river became the focal point of a series of dogfights for air superiority over North Korea, earning the nickname "MiG Alley" in reference to the MiG-15 fighters flown by the combined North Korean and Soviet forces.
It was the advance of UN forces during the Korean War toward the Yalu which allowed Chairman Mao Zedong to convince his people that China needed to intervene over fears of an American invasion, since toppling communism was one of America's stated goals and Douglas MacArthur had expressed his desire to expand the war into China. The river has been crossed by North Koreans fleeing to China since the early 1990s, although the Tumen River is the most used way; the river is important for hydroelectric power, one of the largest hydroelectric dams in Asia is in Sup'ung Dam, 106 m high and over 850 m long, located upstream from Sinuiju, North Korea. The dam has created an artificial lake over a portion of the river, called Supung Lake. In addition the river is used for transportation of lumber from its forested banks; the river provides fish for the local population. Downstream of Sup'ung is the Taipingwan Dam. Upstream of Sup'ung is the Unbong Dam. Both dams produce hydroelectric power, as well. In the river delta upstream from Dandong and adjacent to Hushan are several North Korean villages.
Economic conditions in these villages have been described without access to electricity. Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge, China – Sinŭiju, North Korea Ji'an Yalu River Border Railway Bridge, Ji'an China – Manp'o, North Korea New Yalu River Bridge, under construction between Dandong and Sinŭiju, North Korea China–North Korea border Geography of China Geography of North Korea List of China-related topics List of Korea-related topics List of rivers of Asia Encyclopædia Britannica "Ya-lu-kiang". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Sŏnch'ŏn County is a kun, or county, on the coast of the Yellow Sea in west-central North P'yŏngan province, North Korea. To the north it borders Ch'ŏnma, to the east Kusŏng and Kwaksan, to the west Tongrim. Sŏnch'ŏn was reorganized in 1952, with two myŏn, or townships, being split off to form the new county of Tongrim; the terrain varies between plains. The highest point is Kainbong, the source of the Tongrae River; the year-round average temperature is 8.5 °C, with a January average of -9.2 °C and an August average of 23.6 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1192 mm; the island of Sinmido hosts a peak of 532 m, is home to a variety of plants found only in warm areas. Some 45% of the county's area is forestland. Sŏnch'ŏn county is divided into 1 ŭp and 24 ri: The local economy relies on agriculture, including livestock-raising and sericulture, as well as fishing and manufacturing. Local crops include rice, maize and soybeans. Factories in Sŏnch'ŏn manufacture ironware and tobacco products. Sŏnch'ŏn county is served by the P'yŏngŭi Line of the Korean State Railway, which runs between P'yŏngyang and Sinŭiju.
In addition, a passenger ferry operates between the mainland. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the area was a hotbed of Protestant Christian religious activity, with more than 50 churches. There were 13 Buddhist temples; these were all converted or destroyed following the establishment of the DPRK. In February 2011, the area and other cities in North P'yŏngan had rare protests, of a few score of people, calling for adequate provision of rice and power. At the time, news of the Arab Spring was spreading via Chinese TV channels and phone calls with defectors. Geography of North Korea Administrative divisions of North Korea North Pyongan International Information Research Institute. "선천군". 北韓情報總覽 2000. Seoul: Author. P. 830. Pictures of Pyongan Province In Korean language online encyclopedias: Doosan Encyclopedia Korean language Britannica Encyclopedia of Korean Culture Pascal World Encyclopedia
The Sup'ung Dam referred to as the Shuifeng Dam and the Sui-ho Dam, is a gravity dam on the Yalu River between Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County, Liaoning Province in China and Sakju County, North Pyongan Province in North Korea. The dam was constructed by the Japanese between 1937 and 1943 in order to generate electricity and has been repaired and renovated several times throughout the years due to spillway damage from flooding. During the Korean War, the dam was bombed by the United Nations Command three separate times in order to disrupt power generation for the North Koreans. At the time of its completion, the dam was the largest in Asia, power station was third-largest hydroelectric power station in the world, it is still the largest hydroelectric power station on the Yalu River. Power produced at the dam's main 630 MW power station is evenly shared between China and North Korea; the dam is featured on the national emblem of North Korea. In 1937, during Japan's colonization of Korea, the Yalu Hydroelectric Company was established and in the same year construction began on the dam, with the Pyeongbuk Railway opening a rail line in 1939 to assist with the construction.
In 1941, the dam was complete with two 100 MW generators operational, the emperor of Manchukuo, visited the dam. Four more generators were operational in 1943; the seventh generator was German-made and not delivered due to shipping difficulties during World War II. At the time of its completion, the dam was second largest in the world. Power from the dam was used throughout southern Manchuria. After World War II, in 1947, the Soviet Union occupied the area, dismantled and carried three of the seven generators to the Irtysh River dam in Kazakhstan, they were re-installed during the 1950s. The dam's power station and transformer yard were targeted by the United Nations Command three times during the Korean War in order to disrupt power supply. Between 23 and 24 June 1952, the dam was attacked by 250 bombers and fighters, dropping 90 tons of munitions on the power station, transformer yard and auxiliary facilities; the power station was destroyed but the dam left intact. After intelligence indicated it may have been operational again, the power station was again targeted and disabled on 12 September 1952 by B-29 bombers.
By 1 February 1953, it was believed that two generators had been repaired and were operational once again. This resulted in a third raid on the dam on 15 February which left the power station inoperable once again. Throughout the dam's history, it underwent several repairs. Flooding in 1946 damaged the stilling basin at the toe of the dam and destroyed its spillway, requiring repairs the next year. Between September 1949 and April 1950, in a second repair, the spillway and plunge pool were renovated. Between 1955 and 1958, permanent post-war repairs were made to the power station; the generators removed by the Soviets were replaced and the installed capacity of the power station upgraded to 630 MW. In 1983, China began constructing an additional power station just downstream of the dam on their side of the river with two 67.5 MW generators. The first was commissioned in 1987 and the second in 1988; the most recent renovation occurred between 2009 and 2011 in order to improve the function of the dam's spillways.
The US$24.5 million renovation was funded by State Grid Corporation of China. The Supung is a 899.5 m long concrete gravity dam with a crest elevation of 126.4 m. The dam's spillway consists of 26 sluice gates with a maximum discharge capacity of 37,650 m3/s. An auxiliary spillway 1.7 km north of the dam consists of 16 sluice gates and has a maximum discharge capacity of 17,046 m3/s. The dam's reservoir has a capacity of 14,600,000,000 m3 of which 7,900,000,000 m3 is active for power generation; the dam sits at the head of a 52,912 km2 catchment area and its reservoir has a surface area of 274 km2. The original power station at the base of the dam contains six 105 MW Francis turbine-generators which are afforded and average hydraulic head of 77 m; the additional power station on China's side contains two 67.5 MW Francis turbine generators. The total installed capacity of the dam's power stations is 765 MW. List of dams and reservoirs in China Emblem of North Korea Hwacheon Dam
The P'yŏngbuk Line is an electrified standard-gauge secondary trunk line of the Korean State Railway in North Pyŏngan Province, North Korea, running from Chŏngju on the P'yŏngŭi Line to Ch'ŏngsu. The line was opened by the owned P'yŏngbuk Railway on 27 September 1939 as an industrial railway to serve the Sup'ung Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Yalu River; the Emperor of Manchukuo, travelled along this line when he visited the Sup'ung Dam. Following the partition of Korea the line was located within the Soviet zone of occupation, was nationalised along with all the other railways in the zone by the Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea on 10 August 1946, becoming part of the Korean State Railway. Electrification of the entire line was completed in 1980, at the same time, semi-automatic train control was installed on the 41.3 km section between Chŏngju and Kusŏng. The line serves a variety of industries, including a textile factory in Kusŏng, a chemical factory in Ch'ŏngsu, North Korea's largest lignite mine near P'ungnyŏn, as well as shipping large amounts of wood south from Amrokkang Station on the Yalu River.
Other important commodities shipped on the line are anthracite. There are two long-distance passenger trains that operate on the line - semi-express trains 115/116 between P'yŏngyang and Ch'ŏngsu, local trains 200/201 between West P'yŏngyang and Ch'ŏngsu. There are commuter trains along the Ch'ongsu—Sup'ung—P'ungnyŏn, Kusŏng—Paegun and Chŏngju—Kusŏng sections of the line. A yellow background in the "Distance" box indicates that section of the line is not electrified
North Pyongan Province
North Pyongan Province, written before 1925 in English as Yeng Byen) is a western province of North Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the northern half of the former P'yŏng'an Province, remained a province of Korea until 1945 became a province of North Korea, its capital is Sinŭiju. In 2002, Sinŭiju Special Administrative Region—near the city of Sinuiju—was established as a separately governed Special Administrative Region; the Yalu River forms the northern border with China's Liaoning province. The province is bordered on the east by Chagang Province and on the south by South Pyong'an Province; the Sinŭiju Special Administrative Region is located in the western corner of the province, was created as an administrative entity separate from North Pyongan in 2002. North Pyongan is bounded by water on the west with the Yellow Sea. North Pyongan is divided into 22 counties. All parenthetical entries given in Chosŏn'gŭl / Hancha format. Sinŭiju Chŏngju Kusŏng
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script