Ras Jebel known as Ras el-Djebel, is a town and archaeological site on Cap Sidi in the Bizerte Governorate of Tunisia. The name of the city refers to the summit or end of the mountain, thus evoking the end of the Atlas Mountains. Ras Jebel is set on a hill on Cap Sidi overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, it has an altitude of 53 meters. During the Roman Empire the town, founded in the 3rd or 4th century, was a civitas of the Roman Province of Africa and was the seat of an ancient Christian bishopric, which survives today as a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church, it appears on the Peutinger Map. There is a set of ruins of the Roman era town of 7 km to the west. Towards the second half of the 14th century, the Andalusians expelled from Spain would have settled on the site after having benefited from agricultural concessions; the inhabitants of the town carry Ghwalbia's gentile in reference to the Arab tribe of Banou Ghalib from the Spanish region of Zaragoza, whence the majority of the first wave of refugee Moriscos that settled in Ras Jebel originated.
A road linking the port of Carthage to the region of Ras Jebel is called "Qalat el-Andalus". In 1956 the population of the village was 10 and in 1975 was 15; as of 2004 the commune had a population of 25,553. The region around Ras Jebel has been predominantly peasant agriculture. Irrigation from the Medjerda has led to benefits in yields. Ras Jebel is one of the villages with Andalusian traditions where intensive farming dates back to the distant past. Agriculture has become progressively market-oriented and uses intensive techniques. 75% of Ras Jebel farms have an area of less than five hectares. Over the last decades, a textile industry has been established in the outskirts of the city; the first plants to be established are those of Lee Cooper. This industry employs a large number of young workers from neighboring villages. Several brands have produced jeans in Ras Jebel such as Pepe Jeans, Joseph, Le temps des cerises. List of cities in Tunisia
Nefza is a town and commune in the Béja Governorate, Tunisia. As of 2014 it had a total population of 14,451 List of cities in Tunisia Media related to Nefza at Wikimedia Commons
Aryanah or Ariana is a coastal city in north-eastern Tunisia, part the agglomeration of Tunis called "Grand Tunis". It is located at the north of Tunis city center, around 36°51′45″N 10°11′44″E, it is the capital of the country's eighth largest city. The city's name seems to date back to the period of the Vandal kingdom in Africa: the Vandals, in fact, were of Arian faith, it could be a reference to Persian settlers from the Islamic invasion of the Maghreb as Persians reffer to themselves as "Aryan". The city's origins date back to the Zirid dynasty. Under the Hafsid sultan Muhammad I al-Mustansir Ariana became the residence of the Sephardi Jews and Muslim Andalusians, who sought refuge in Tunisia in the thirteenth century. In Aryanah, the climate is temperate. In winter there is much more rainfall than in summer; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Csa. The average annual temperature in Aryanah is 18.0 °C. About 449 mm of precipitation falls annually
Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F
Hammam-Lif is a coastal town about 20 km south-east of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. It has been known since antiquity for its thermal springs originating in Mount Bou Kornine. Naro, which means fire, was Hammam-Lif's Punic name. In 1883, the French captain Ernest De Prudhomme discovered in his Hammam-lif residence the first archeological ruins of an ancient synagogue that once stood in Hammam-Lif in 3rd-5th century AD. Hammam-Lif was once the home of Italian and Jewish communities before the end of the French colonial period. Hammam-Lif's most interesting site is Dar El Bey, the residence of Ali II Bey, the 4th bey of Tunis; the local football team Club Sportif de Hammam-Lif won the Tunisian championship in 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956 and won the Tunisian Cup in 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1985, 2001 Ahmed Achour and composer Information and pictures CSHL: Hammam-Lif's soccer team
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of called programs; these programs enable computers to perform an wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system; this term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices; this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century; the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers have been increasing ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element a central processing unit, some form of memory; the processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue read the truest computer of Times, the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations; the Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' is from 1897."
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years using one-to-one correspondence with fingers; the earliest counting device was a form of tally stick. Record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers; the use of counting rods is one example. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks; the Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money; the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J. de Solla Price.
It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, c. 1000 AD.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in
El Alia is a town and commune in the Bizerte Governorate, Tunisia. It was the ancient Uzalis in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, which became a Christian bishopric, included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees, it is not to be confused with El Alia Cemetery, in Algeria. This city has existed since Roman times. In antiquity, its name was Uzalis while its current name comes from its founder in the Middle Ages: Ali El Balight. There are still some Roman ruins scattered throughout the city; the population is composed of descendants of Andalusians who fled Spain after the Christian reconquest. Andalusian architecture has left its mark on the ancient city situated at the top of the hill; the new city developed in the plains surrounding the ancient city. Monuments such as the Great Mosque and some mausoleums survived the modernization of the city, the walls and gates surrounding the old city having been destroyed at the beginning of the 20th century. List of cities in Tunisia