Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Sandra Marie Fox is an American voice actress who has had numerous roles in various animated cartoon and video games. She portrayed the live-action Betty Boop and has provided her voice for Universal Studios and King Features Syndicate for much of their promotional activities and related media and merchandise since 1991, she began voice acting on various animated shows such as The Simpsons, King of the Hill and Futurama. Her first major roles in anime were as Kiyoko in the Animaze dub of Akira and Lady Aska in Magic Knight Rayearth. Other anime characters include Mina and Momiji in Naruto, Sumomo in Chobits, Tachikoma in Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, Paiway in Vandread. In video game franchises, she provides the English voice of Mistral and A-20 in the.hack series, Peashy in Hyperdimension Neptunia, Flonne in Disgaea. In cartoons, she voices Mipsy Mipson in As Told by Ginger. In 2014, she was announced as the voice of Chibiusa/Black Lady/Sailor Chibi Moon in the Viz Media dubs of Sailor Moon and Sailor Moon Crystal.
Fox was born in Monroeville and grew up in Swissvale. She performed in musicals in high school, worked at Kennywood amusement park during some of the summers. In the 1980s, she worked for the Walt Disney Company in Orlando where she would voice characters such as Snow White and Minnie for some of their attractions and parades, as well as participate in their live stage shows, she was working as a hostess at a Bennigan's Irish pub when she was asked to audition with the 1920s-themed jazz band The Cocoanut Manor Orchestra as their singer. She sang with the group for 11 years, performing songs done by singers Helen Kane and Annette Henshaw, the former was an inspiration for the Betty Boop character. In 1988, she joined the Orlando Magic's inaugural dance team, was part of the Magic Girls for three years, she auditioned and landed the position as the official Betty Boop for Universal Studios. In 1991, she started working full-time at their Hollywood park and on national and worldwide tours, visiting shows such as Good Morning America and The Rosie O'Donnell Show.
In 1998, she voiced Betty Boop for "The Toon Lagoon Betty Boop" attraction at Universal Studios' Islands of Adventure in Orlando. In 2012, she joined a Lancome promotion in Paris as the voice of Betty Boop in their commercials. Fox was inspired to go into voice acting after having taken a voice-over workshop in 1990 with Sue Blu, a Los Angeles-based animation director and producer. After moving to Los Angeles for the Betty Boop gig, she voiced supporting and background characters for The Simpsons with kids voices and loop groups, which she did for three years, she voiced characters for the related productions Futurama and King of the Hill. One of her first anime roles was Sakura in Ninja Cadets, she voiced Lady Aska, a major character in the second season of Magic Knight Rayearth, a series in which she rewrote lyrics and sang the theme songs. She voiced Kyoko in the Pioneer/Animaze dub of Akira, she voiced supporting character T-AI in a 2001 version of Transformers: Robots in Disguise. She voiced the ship's nurse in Vandread.
In 2003, she voiced the title characters in Omishi Magical Theater Risky Safety and Ground Defense Force! Mao-chan, as well as Sumomo in Bang Zoom's dub of Chobits. In his review of Mao-chan, Ryan Mathews of Anime News Network wrote that "Bang Zoom picked the perfect actress to play the lead role; the owner of the cutest "little girl" voice in anime dub acting, is her usual adorable self as M. A. O." In 2004, she voiced Maya in Burn-Up Scramble and Tachikoma in the Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex series. For 2005–06, she would get involved in the Naruto series as Momiji and Mina an the Di Gi Charat series as Piyoko. In 2007, she and Lex Lang hosted a Voice Actor Boot Camp at Bang Zoom! Entertainment to help up and coming voice actors get into the business. In 2014, when Viz Media announced they were redubbing Sailor Moon and dubbing its new Sailor Moon Crystal series, Fox was chosen to voice Chibiusa known as Sailor Chibi Moon and Black Lady. In video games, she voiced Mistral and A-20 in the.hack video game series, Flonne in various incarnations of Disgaea and Marona in Phantom Brave.
She voiced Peashy in the Hyperdimension Neptunia series. Fox is married to fellow voice actor Lex Lang, they live in California. In 1998 they co-founded the Love Planet Foundation, a non-profit organization which creates educational materials for children on the importance of recycling, world water awareness, the preservation of the planet, they created Love Planet Productions, which includes several multimedia projects such as anime presentation shows, toddler shows and products, Zen programming. In 2006, they founded a bottled spring water business called H2Om Water with Intention, which has received recognition as a sponsor at several events including Sting's Rainforest Foundation Carnegie Hall Concert and the Elevate Film Festival. Fox and Lang are Deepak Chopra meditation instructors. BibliographyBrowning, John Edgar. Dracula in Visual Media:Film, Comic Book and Electronic Game Appearances, 1921-2010. McFarland. ISBN 0786433655. Terrace, Vincent. Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2010.
McFarland. ISBN 9780786486410. Official website Sandy Fox convention appearances on AnimeCons.com Sandy Fox at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Sandy Fox on IMDb
Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun.
The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades.
There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally. The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; the most accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.
In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more formed Christian festival of Pascha begins to appear in the mid-2nd century; the earliest extant primary source referring to East
Science fiction convention
Science fiction conventions are gatherings of fans of the speculative fiction genre, science fiction. Science fiction conventions had focused on literature, but the purview of many extends to such other avenues of expression as films, comics and games; the format can vary but will tend to have a few similar features such as a guest of honour, discussion panels and large special events such as opening/closing ceremonies and some form of party or entertainment. Science fiction conventions started off in the UK and US but have now spread further and several countries have their own individual conventions as well as playing host to rotating international conventions; the precise time and place of the first science fiction convention is a matter of some dispute. Sometime in 1936, a group of British fans made plans to have an organized gathering, with a planned program of events in a public venue in early 1937. However, on October 22, 1936, a group of six or seven fans from New York City, including David Kyle and Frederik Pohl, traveled by train to Philadelphia, PA, for several hours they visited a similar number of local fans at the house of Milton A. Rothman.
They subsequently declared that event to be the first "science fiction convention." This small get-together set the stage for a follow-up event held in New York, in February, 1937, where "30 or 40" fans gathered at Bohemian Hall in Astoria, Queens. Attendees at this event included James Blish, Charles D. Hornig, Julius Schwartz, Willis Conover; this event came to be known as the "Second Eastern" and set the stage for the successful Third Eastern held in Philadelphia on October 30, 1937 and the subsequent Fourth Eastern held on May 29, 1938, which attracted over 100 attendees to a meeting hall in Newark, NJ and designated itself as "The First National Science Fiction Convention." It was at this event that a committee was named to arrange the first World Science Fiction Convention in New York in 1939. The "First National", which included the participation of a number of well-known New York editors and professionals from outside fan circles, was a milestone in the evolution of science-fiction conventions as a place for science-fiction professionals, as well as fans, to meet their colleagues in person.
On January 3, 1937, the British fans held their long-planned event at the Theosophical Hall in Leeds. Around twenty fans, including Eric Frank Russell and Arthur C. Clarke, attended. To this day, many fan historians those in the United Kingdom, contend that the Philadelphia meeting was a convention in name only, whereas other fan historians point out that many similar gatherings since have been called "conventions" without eliciting any disagreement. By 1939, American fans had organized sufficiently to hold, in conjunction with the 1939 World's Fair, the first "World Science Fiction Convention," in New York City. Subsequent conventions were held in Chicago in 1940 and Denver in 1941. Like many cultural events, it was suspended during World War II. Conventions resumed in 1946 with the hosting of the World Science Fiction Convention in Los Angeles, California; the first Worldcon held outside the United States was Torcon I in Toronto in 1948. Since the first conventions in the late 1930s, such as the first Worldcon, hundreds of local and regional science fiction conventions have sprung up around the world either as one-time or annual events.
At these conventions, fans of science fiction come together with the professional writers and filmmakers in the genre to discuss its many aspects. Some cities have a number of science-fiction conventions, as well as a number of special interest conventions for anime, media, or other related groups; some conventions move from city to city, serving region, or special interest. Nearly every weekend of the year now has at least one convention somewhere and some conventions are held on holiday weekends where four or more days can be devoted to events. Worldcon, or more formally The World Science Fiction Convention, is a science fiction convention, held each year since 1939, it is the annual convention of the World Science Fiction Society, an unincorporated body whose members are defined as "all people who have paid membership dues to the Committee of the current Worldcon". These members of WSFS vote both to select the site of the Worldcon two years in advance and to select the winners of the Hugo Awards, which are presented at the convention.
The rules for venue selection are deliberately drafted to ensure the convention occurs in a different city each year. Fantasy is considered alongside science fiction at conventions. Conventions that are nominally science-fiction conventions such as Worldcon, are fantasy conventions in all but name. World Fantasy Convention was begun in 1975, has since been held on an annual basis; the World Fantasy Convention, however, is less oriented toward the fan community, is a professional gathering. Many of those who attend "World Fantasy" attend Worldcon. However, this convention is more focused on authors and publishing, with a much higher proportion of authors in attendance.
J-pop, natively known as pops, is a musical genre that entered the musical mainstream of Japan in the 1990s. Modern J-pop has its roots in traditional Japanese music, but in 1960s pop and rock music, such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys, which led to Japanese rock bands such as Happy End fusing rock with Japanese music in the early 1970s. J-pop was further defined by new wave groups in the late 1970s electronic synth-pop band Yellow Magic Orchestra and pop rock band Southern All Stars. J-pop replaced kayōkyoku in the Japanese music scene; the term was coined by the Japanese media to distinguish Japanese music from foreign music and now refers to most Japanese popular music. Popular styles of Japanese pop music included technopop during the 1970s–1980s, city pop in the 1980s, Shibuya-kei in the 1990s; the origin of modern J-pop is said to be Japanese-language rock music inspired by the likes of The Beatles. Unlike the Japanese music genre called kayōkyoku, J-pop uses a special kind of pronunciation, similar to that of English.
One notable singer to do so is Keisuke Kuwata. Additionally, unlike Western music, the major second was not used in Japanese music, except art music, before rock music became popular in Japan; when the Group Sounds genre, inspired by Western rock, became popular, Japanese pop music adopted the major second, used in the final sounds of The Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and The Rolling Stones' song " Satisfaction". Although Japanese pop music changed from music based on Japanese pentatonic scale and distortional tetrachord to the more occidental music over time, music that drew from the traditional Japanese singing style remained popular. At first, the term J-pop was used only for Western-style musicians in Japan, such as Pizzicato Five and Flipper's Guitar, just after Japanese radio station J-Wave was established. On the other hand, Mitsuhiro Hidaka of AAA from Avex Trax said that J-pop was derived from the Eurobeat genre. However, the term became a blanket term, covering other music genres—such as the majority of Japanese rock music of the 1990s.
In 1990, the Japanese subsidiary of Tower Records defined J-pop as all Japanese music belonging to the Recording Industry Association of Japan except Japanese independent music. Ito Music City, a Japanese record store, adopted expanded classifications including Group Sounds, idol of the 1970s–1980s, enka and established musicians of the 1970s–1980s, in addition to the main J-pop genres. Whereas rock musicians in Japan hate the term "pop", Taro Kato, a member of pop punk band Beat Crusaders, pointed out that the encoded pop music, like pop art, was catchier than "J-pop" and he said that J-pop was the pops music, memorable for its frequency of airplay, in an interview when the band completed their first full-length studio album under a major label, P. O. A.: Pop on Arrival, in 2005. Because the band did not want to perform J-pop music, their album featured the 1980s Pop of MTV. According to his fellow band member Toru Hidaka, the 1990s music that influenced him was not listened to by fans of other music in Japan at that time.
In contrast to this, although many Japanese rock musicians until the late 1980s disrespected the kayōkyoku music, many of Japanese rock bands of the 1990s—such as Glay—assimilated kayōkyoku into their music. After the late 1980s, breakbeat and samplers changed the Japanese music scene, where expert drummers had played good rhythm because traditional Japanese music did not have the rhythm based on rock or blues. Hide of Greeeen described their music genre as J-pop, he said, "I love rock, hip hop and breakbeats, but my field is J-pop. For example, hip hop musicians learn'the culture of hip hop'. We are not like those musicians and we love the music as sounds much; those professional people may say'What are you doing?' but I think that our musical style is cool after all. The good thing is good." Japanese popular music, called ryūkōka before being split into enka and poppusu, has origins in the Meiji period, but most Japanese scholars consider the Taishō period to be the actual starting point of ryūkōka, as it is the era in which the genre first gained nationwide popularity.
By the Taishō period, Western musical techniques and instruments, introduced to Japan in the Meiji period, were used. Influenced by Western genres such as jazz and blues, ryūkōka incorporated Western instruments such as the violin and guitar. However, the melodies were written according to the traditional Japanese pentatonic scale. In the 1930s, Ichiro Fujiyama released popular songs with his tenor voice. Fujiyama sang songs with a lower volume than opera through the microphone. Jazz musician Ryoichi Hattori attempted to produce Japanese native music which had a "flavor" of blues, he composed Noriko Awaya's hit song "Wakare no Blues". Awaya was called "Queen of Blues" in Japan. Due to pressure from the Imperial Army during the war, the performance of jazz music was temporarily halted in Japan. Hattori, who
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of 29 km. The earthquake is referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan Earthquake and is known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, the Great Sendai Earthquake, the Great Tōhoku Earthquake, the 3.11 earthquake. It was the most powerful earthquake recorded in Japan, the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900; the earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that may have reached heights of up to 40.5 metres in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture, which, in the Sendai area, traveled up to 10 km inland. The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm and 25 cm, increased earth's rotational speed by 1.8 µs per day, generated infrasound waves detected in perturbations of the low-orbiting GOCE satellite.
The earthquake caused sinking of part of Honshu's Pacific coast by up to a metre, but after about three years, the coast rose back and kept on rising to exceed its original height. The tsunami swept the Japanese mainland and killed over ten thousand people through drowning, though blunt trauma caused many deaths; the latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,897 deaths, 6,157 injured, 2,533 people missing across twenty prefectures, a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. A report by the National Police Agency of Japan on 10 September 2018 listed 121,778 buildings as "total collapsed", with a further 280,926 buildings "half collapsed", another 699,180 buildings "partially damaged"; the earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in north-eastern Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, a dam collapse.
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan." Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water. The tsunami caused nuclear accidents the level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex, the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. Many electrical generators were taken down, at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure resulting from the loss of electrical power. Residents within a 20 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and a 10 km radius of the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions.
The World Bank's estimated economic cost was US$235 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in history. The 9.1-magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a shallow depth of 32 km, with its epicenter 72 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, lasting six minutes. The earthquake was reported as 7.9 Mw by the USGS before it was upgraded to 8.8 Mw to 8.9 Mw, finally to 9.0 Mw. On 11 July 2016, the USGS further upgraded the earthquake to 9.1. Sendai was the nearest major city to the earthquake, 130 km from the epicenter; the main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, with hundreds of aftershocks reported. One of the first major foreshocks was a 7.2 Mw event on 9 March 40 km from the epicenter of 11 March earthquake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 Mw. Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.4 Mw aftershock was reported at 15:08 JST, succeeded by a 7.9 Mw at 15:15 JST and a 7.7 Mw at 15:26 JST.
Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater have occurred since the initial quake, including one on 26 October 2013 of magnitude 7.1 Mw. Aftershocks follow Omori's law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake; the aftershocks could continue for years. This megathrust earthquake was a recurrence of the mechanism of the earlier 869 Sanriku earthquake, estimated as having a magnitude of at least 8.4 Mw, which created a large tsunami that inundated the Sendai plain. Three tsunami deposits have been identified within the Holocene sequence of the plain, all formed within the last 3,000 years, suggesting an 800 to 1,100 year recurrence interval for large tsunamigenic earthquakes. In 2001 it was reckoned that there was a high likelihood of a large tsunami hitting the Sendai plain as more than 1,100 years had elapsed. In 2007, the probability of an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 8.1–8.3 was estimated as 99% within the following 30 years.
This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northe
Exist Trace is a Japanese visual kei metal band, consisting of female members. The members originate from Tokyo, formed in June 2003; the founding members are Jyou and Mally, who met Miko and Omi after placing an advertisement for guitarists. To date, Exist Trace has released four albums, eight EPs, nine singles. In addition, the band has appeared on eleven compilation albums and three omnibus DVDs, plus their self-released 2012 concert DVD Just Like a Virgin. Exist Trace made their U. S. debut at Sakura-Con 2011 in Seattle, Washington. On June 15, 2011, they made their major label debut on Tokuma Japan Communications with the EP True, their song "I Feel You" was featured in Nadeshiko Japan’s official 2012 guidebook DVD. Their highest charting release was Virgin. Lead vocals: Jyou Lead guitar: Omi Rhythm guitar, vocals: Miko Bass: Naoto Drums: Mally Exist Trace's early music can be described as melodic death metal, with vocalist Jyou's growls and shouts throughout many songs, which contributes to their dark undertone.
They have since added more complex sounds to the compositions, their guitar sound featuring heavy distortion and technically virtuoso riffs and solos. The lyrics are based on gothic themes, their music style has resemblance to gothic rock. In recent work, they have experimented with different electronic and melodic approaches to their music, such as the jazz-influenced "Ginger", the electronic rock of "Diamond" and the'80s disco feel of "Spiral Daisakusen". In 2013, Exist Trace introduced their'new world' musical direction, where long-time main lyricist/composer miko would be taking a dual-vocal position with Jyou; the twin vocal style was emphasized on 2013's single "Diamond". In 2014's "Spiral Daisakusen", the pair again share front billing and the center spot on the music video; the first album to incorporate the twin vocal style, "World Maker", revealed an improved duet system, where vocals are heavier towards Jyou in allocation, but making good use of miko's sweeter counterbalance. After an album gap of 1.5 years, the band released the "This Is Now" mini-album,which included re-recorded versions of the singles "Twin Wings" and "Shout Out", released as live-show-only CDs.
In Japan, the This Is Now EP sold out within a day, across such stores as ZEAL LINK, Disk Union and BRAND-X. Over time, the band has developed a dedicated international following by word of mouth. In 2008, Exist Trace embarked on a tour of Europe, including the United Kingdom; the band traveled to the US, playing Japanese culture conventions Sakura-Con in 2011, Tekkoshocon X in 2012, A-Kon in 2013. 2014 brought the introduction of the band's official international fan club,'Archangel Diamond', to act as a supplement to the Japanese fan club'Vanguard'. The club became an active presence on social networks such as Facebook and Tumblr, featuring fan artworks and responding to fan questions, it opened for membership on May 19, 2014, the 19th of each month being used for Exist Trace announcements as it is'Igu day'/イグの日. Archangel Diamond promised to connect international fans more with the band, offered fan club exclusive merchandise, special prices on merchandise, monthly newsletters with messages from the band members, special contests and interactions with the band.
As of late 2017, the club changed its identification to "International Support Team", ceased paid activities but continues to post English updates. Recreation Eve Twin Gate Virgin World Maker Annunciation -The Heretic Elegy- Demented Show Vanguard -Of the Muses- Ambivalent Symphony True The Last Daybreak This is Now ROYAL STRAIGHT MAGIC "Ambivalence" "Riot" "Funeral Bouquet" "Liquid" "Knife" "DIAMOND" "Spiral Daisakusen" "Twin Wings" "Shout Out" "Hai no Yuki" "Kokumu" Drive Up!! vol. 1 Corrosion Summit 03 Mabushii Hodo no Kurayami no Naka de Deviant's Struggle liquid Fool's Mate Select Omnibus Seduction#1 Sacrifice Baby Summit 04 Venom Summit 05 Judea Shock Edge 2009 Liquid Neo Voltage Unforgive You Iron Angel Liquid Final Summit 2000~2010 Mabushii Hodo no Kurayami no Naka de Mariannes Liquid Silent Hill 2061125 Pavilion which deer barks SACRIFICE BABY 0704272930 Lilin/JUDEA Visual-kei DVD Magazine vol.4 V-Rock Special Just Like a Virgin One Man Show Official website Official website Artist page at Visunavi