Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Pocahontas was a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of a network of tribal nations in the Tsenacommacah. Some historians have suggested that this story, as told by Smith, is untrue, Pocahontas was captured by the English during Anglo-Indian hostilities in 1613, and held for ransom. During her captivity, she converted to Christianity and took the name Rebecca, when the opportunity arose for her to return to her people, she chose to remain with the English. In April 1614, she married tobacco planter John Rolfe, and in January 1615, bore their son, in 1616, the Rolfes traveled to London. Pocahontas was presented to English society as an example of the savage in hopes of stimulating investment in the Jamestown settlement. She became something of a celebrity, was elegantly fêted, in 1617, the Rolfes set sail for Virginia, but Pocahontas died at Gravesend of unknown causes.
She was buried in a church in Gravesend in the United Kingdom, numerous places and products in the United States have been named after Pocahontas. Her story has been romanticized over the years, and she is a subject of art, Pocahontass birth year is unknown, but some historians estimate it to have been around 1596. In A True Relation of Virginia, Smith described the Pocahontas he met in the spring of 1608 as being a child of ten years old. In a letter written in 1616, he described her as she was in 1608. Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, paramount chief of Tsenacommacah, Pocahontass childhood was probably little different from that of most girls who lived in Tsenacommacah. She learned how to perform what was considered to be work, which included foraging for food and firewood, farming. As she grew older, she helped other members of Powhatans household with preparations for large feasts, serving feasts, such as the one presented to John Smith after his capture, was a regular obligation of the Mamanatowick, or paramount chief.
Bestowed at different times, the names carried different meanings and might be used in different contexts, Early in her life she was given a secret name, but she was known as Amonute. Matoaka means Bright Stream Between the Hills, Amonute cannot be translated, according to the anthropologist Helen C. Rountree, Pocahontas revealed to the English only after she had taken another religious—baptismal—name, Rebecca. Pocahontass Christian name, may have been a gesture to Rebecca of the Book of Genesis who, as the mother of Jacob
Historically, it is often used to describe the assimilation of immigrants to the United States. The melting-together metaphor was in use by the 1780s, others argue that cultural assimilation is important to the maintenance of national unity, and should be promoted. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the metaphor of a crucible or smelting pot was used to describe the fusion of different nationalities and cultures. It was used together with concepts of the United States as an ideal republic, while melting was in common use the exact term melting pot came into general usage in 1908, after the premiere of the play The Melting Pot by Israel Zangwill. The first use in American literature of the concept of melting into the receiving culture are found in the writings of J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur. In his Letters from an American Farmer Crevecoeur writes, in response to his own question, What is the American and he becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and they are a mixture of English, Irish, Dutch and Swedes.
What, then, is the American, this new man and he is either an European or the descendant of an European, hence that strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. He is an American, leaving him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys. The Americans were once scattered all over Europe, here they are incorporated into one of the finest systems of population which has ever appeared, in his writing, Emerson explicitly welcomed the racial intermixing of whites and non-whites, a highly controversial view during his lifetime. In 1893, historian Frederick Jackson Turner used the metaphor of immigrants melting into one American culture. Here you stand, good folk, think I, when I see them at Ellis Island, here you stand in your fifty groups, your fifty languages, and histories, and your fifty blood hatreds and rivalries.
But you wont be long like that, for these are the fires of God youve come to – these are fires of God, a fig for your feuds and vendettas. Germans and Frenchmen and Englishmen, Jews and Russians—into the Crucible with you all, in The Melting Pot, Israel Zangwill combined a romantic denouement with an utopian celebration of complete cultural intermixing. The play was an adaptation of William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet, set in New York City, the plays immigrant protagonist David Quixano, a Russian Jew, falls in love with Vera, a fellow Russian immigrant who is Christian. Vera is a settlement house worker and David is a composer struggling to create an American symphony to celebrate his adopted homeland. Together they manage to overcome the old world animosities that threaten to separate them, but David discovers that Vera is the daughter of the Tsarist officer who directed the pogrom that forced him to flee Russia
Cultural mosaic is the mix of ethnic groups and cultures that coexist within society. An ethnocultural profile of Canada prepared by Statistics Canada describes a nation that, at the outset of the 21st Century, has become more and more multi-ethnic. Half a century ago, most immigrants came from Europe, now most newcomers are from Asia. As a result, the number of minorities in Canada is growing. And, Canadians listed more than 200 ethnic groups in answering the 2001 Census question on ethnic ancestry, reflecting a varied and domes distinctly Eastern, almost Turkish, startle one above the tops of Manitoba maples or the bush of the river banks. Another early use of the mosaic to refer to Canadian society was by John Murray Gibbon. Gibbon clearly disapproved of the American melting-pot concept, in 1965, John Porter published his influential sociological study, Vertical Mosaic, An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada. Porters book showed that groups were better off with respect to measures of income, education.
For example, groups of eastern and southern European origin tended to fare well by these measures. The worst off were the First Nations and Inuit, Porter saw this vertical arrangement as being related to power and influence in decision-making. Thus those of British origin tended to be overrepresented among the elites in government, porter’s findings have been tested in several studies since 1965 and have been modified slightly. For example, the disparity between ethnic groups has narrowed somewhat and Francophones are better represented in politics and government. However, the elites in Canada remain dominated by people of British origin. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Canada has been one of the worlds major immigrant-receiving societies, until the 1960s immigrants were expected to assimilate into the mainstream society. Arriving as it did at during a time of social upheaval, the view of Canada as a mosaic of cultures became the basis for the Trudeau governments multiculturalism policies in the early 1970s.
The Canadian government established the Official Multiculturalism Act in 1971 and appointed a minister responsible for multiculturalism in 1972, in 1973 a Canadian Multiculturalism Council was established, along with a Multiculturalism Branch within the Department of the Secretary of State. The cultural mosaic theory is not without critics, many conservative activists in Canada have likewise remained critical of multiculturalism as an official government policy. The Canadian Mosaic, McClelland & Stewart Limited, the Vertical Mosaic, An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada
John Smith (explorer)
Captain John Smith, Admiral of New England, was an English soldier and author. He was knighted for his services to Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania and he was considered to have played an important part in the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and he was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England. His books and maps were important in encouraging and supporting English colonization of the New World and he gave the name New England to the region and noted, Here every man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land. If he have nothing but his hands, he may. by industries quickly grow rich, when Jamestown was Englands first permanent settlement in the New World, Smith trained the settlers to farm and work, thus saving the colony from early devastation. He publicly stated He that will not work, shall not eat, quoting from the Bible, harsh weather, lack of water, living in a swampy wilderness and attacks from the Powhatan Indians almost destroyed the colony.
The Jamestown settlement survived and so did Smith, but he had to return to England after being injured by an explosion of gunpowder in a boat. John Smith was baptized on 6 January 1580 at Willoughby near Alford, Lincolnshire and he claimed descent from the ancient Smith family of Cuerdley and was educated at King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth from 1592–1595. After his father died, Smith left home at the age of sixteen and he served as a mercenary in the army of Henry IV of France against the Spaniards, fighting for Dutch independence from Spanish King Phillip II. He set off for the Mediterranean, there he engaged in both trade and piracy, and fought against the Ottoman Turks in the Long Turkish War. Smith was promoted to a captain while fighting for the Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary in the campaign of Michael the Brave in 1600 and 1601. After the death of Michael the Brave, he fought for Radu Șerban in Wallachia against Ottoman vassal Ieremia Movilă, however, in 1602, he was wounded in a skirmish with the Tartars and sold as a slave.
As Smith describes it, we all sold for slaves, like beasts in a market, Smith claimed that his master, a Turkish nobleman, sent him as a gift to his Greek mistress in Constantinople, who fell in love with Smith. In 1606, Smith became involved with the Virginia Company of Londons plan to colonize Virginia for profit, it had granted a charter by King James. The expedition set sail in three ships, the Discovery, the Susan Constant, and the Godspeed, on 20 December 1606. His page was a 12-year-old boy named Samuel Collier, during the voyage, Smith was charged with mutiny, and Captain Christopher Newport had planned to execute him. The English arrived at Jamestown in April 1607 and, by the summer of that year, the search for a suitable site ended on 14 May 1607 when Captain Edward Maria Wingfield, president of the council, chose the Jamestown site as the location for the colony. After the four-month ocean trip, their stores were sufficient only for each to have a cup or two of grain-meal per day
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, which may be mixed with a sauce or salad dressing. They are typically served cold, although some, such as south German potato salad, are served warm, salads may contain vegetables, cheese, cooked meat, eggs and nuts. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens like lettuce, kale or spinach, other types include bean salad, tuna salad, Greek salad, and Japanese sōmen salad. The sauce used to flavor a salad is commonly called a salad dressing, well-known types include ranch, Thousand Island, vinaigrette comes in many varieties, one version is a mixture of olive oil, balsamic vinegar and seasonings. Salads may be served at any point during a meal, such as, Appetizer salads, side salads, to accompany the main course as a side dish. Main course salads, usually containing a portion of heartier fare, such as chicken breast, dessert salads, sweet versions containing fruit, sweeteners or whipped cream, or just fruit, which is called a fruit salad.
The word salad comes from the French salade of the meaning, from the Latin salata. In English, the word first appears as salad or sallet in the 14th century, salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with dressing, in his 1699 book, Acetaria, A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, chervil, oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland. Curaçao Papers page 234 In a 1653 inventory in New Netherland dressing can be found, council Minutes Volume V, page 78 The United States popularized mixed greens salads in the late 19th century. Salads including layered and dressed salads were popular in Europe since Greek imperial, several other regions of the world adopted salads throughout the second half of the 20th century.
From Europe and the Americas to China and Australia, salads are sold in supermarkets, at restaurants, in the US market, restaurants will often have a Salad Bar laid out with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than $300 million in 2014, a green salad or garden salad is most often composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket. The salad leaves may be cut or torn into bite-sized fragments and tossed together and they are often adorned with garnishes such as nuts or croutons. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce halved or quartered, vegetables other than greens may be used in a salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, tomatoes, spring onions, red onions, celery, a bound salad can be composed or tossed. They are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise, one portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop
Multiculturalism in Australia
According to the 2011 census, 26% of the population were born overseas and a further 20% had at least one parent born overseas. Aboriginal Australians make up approximately 2. 5% of the population, Australias diverse migrant communities have brought with them food and cultural practices, which have been absorbed into mainstream Australian culture. Historically, Australia did not accept all persons, and adhered to the White Australia Policy, the policy was dismantled after World War II by various changes to immigration policy. Prior to settlement by Europeans, the Australian continent was not a single nation, according to the 2006 census some 150 indigenous languages are still spoken. The present nation of Australia resulted from a process of immigration intended to fill the continent, settlers from the United Kingdom, after 1800 including Ireland, were the earliest people that were not native to the continent to live in Australia. Dutch colonisation and possible visits to Australia by explorers and/or traders from China, until 1901, Australia existed as a group of independent British settler colonies.
The Immigration Restriction Act 1901, known informally as the White Australia policy, the policy limited the ethnic and cultural diversity of the immigrant population. Following the initial moves of the Whitlam Labor government in 1973, the Labor Government of Bob Hawke continued with these policies during the 1980s and early 1990s, and were further supported by Paul Keating up to his electoral defeat 1996. CALD policies continue to be implemented at all levels of government and public service, the meaning of multiculturalism has changed significantly since its formal introduction to Australia. Originally it was understood by the population as a need for acceptance that many members of the Australian community originally came from different cultures. However, it came to mean the rights of migrants within mainstream Australia to express their cultural identity and it is now often used to refer to the notion that people in Australia have multiple cultural or ethnic backgrounds. The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown during the last decades, net overseas immigrants increased from 30,000 in 1993 to 118,000 in 2003–04, and 200,000 in 2015.
According to the 2011 census, 26% of the population were born overseas, of the population born overseas, 82% lived in the capital cities. Aboriginal Australians make up approximately 2. 5% of the population, as of 2008, Australia was ranked 18th in the world in terms of net migration per capita, ahead of Canada, the USA and most of Europe. According to the National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia, the Australian government is concerned with three broad areas, cultural identity, social justice, and economic efficiency. The top ten religions in Australia account for less than 63% of the population, a number of projects by government and non-government entities have been established to facilitate multiculturalism in Australia. The capital, has developed a tradition of holding the National Multicultural Festival, there is Harmony Day which seeks to promote a tolerant and culturally diverse society. In 1996, John Howards Liberal-National Coalition was elected to government, howard had long been a critic of multiculturalism, releasing his One Australia policy in the late 1980s which called for a reduction in Asian immigration
This can happen when a jurisdiction is created or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures or through immigration from different jurisdictions around the world. Multiculturalism has been described as a bowl and cultural mosaic. Two different and seemingly inconsistent strategies have developed through different government policies and strategies, the first focuses on interaction and communication between different cultures, this approach is often known as interculturalism. The second centers on diversity and cultural uniqueness which can result in intercultural competition over jobs among other things. Cultural isolation can protect the uniqueness of the culture of a nation or area. A common aspect of many policies following the approach is that they avoid presenting any specific ethnic, religious. Multiculturalism centers on the thought in political philosophy about the way to respond to cultural and it is closely associated with identity politics, the politics of difference, and the politics of recognition.
It is a matter of economic interests and political power, Multiculturalism can refer to a demographic fact, a particular set of philosophical ideas, or a specific orientation by government or institutions toward a diverse population. Most of the debate over multiculturalism centers around whether or not public multiculturalism is the way to deal with diversity. The term multiculturalism is most often used in reference to Western nation-states, the Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is often referred to as the origins of political awareness of multiculturalism. In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an national policy started in Canada in 1971. It was quickly adopted as policy by most member-states of the European Union. Recently, right-of-center governments in several European states—notably the Netherlands and Denmark— have reversed the national policy, a similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over home-grown terrorism.
Many nation-states in Africa and the Americas are culturally diverse, in some, communalism is a major political issue. The Australian government retains multiculturalism in policy, and as an aspect of Australia today. The White Australia Policy was quietly dismantled after World War II by various changes to immigration policy, the election of John Howards Liberal-National Coalition government in 1996 was a major watershed for Australian multiculturalism. Howard had long been a critic of multiculturalism, releasing his One Australia policy in the late 1980s, the first edition was published in 1999
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Scholars agree that the groups influence has waned since the end of World War II in 1945, with the growing influence of other ethnic groups. The term is used in Australia and Canada for similar elites. The term is used by sociologists to include all Americans of Northern European ancestry regardless of their class or power. People rarely call themselves WASPs, except humorously, the acronym is typically used by non-WASPs. Historically, Anglo-Saxon referred to the language of indigenous inhabitants of England before about 1150, since the 19th century it has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself, to refer to Protestants of principally English descent. Anglo-Saxon carries Germanic connotations by its roots in the ancient territories of present-day Germany, the former of which England and English is ultimately derived. The W and P were added in the 1950s to form a witty epithet with an undertone of waspishness and that is, they are wealthy, they are Anglo-Saxon in origin, and they are Protestants.
To their Waspishness should be added the tendency to be located on the eastern seaboard or around San Francisco, to be school and Ivy League educated. The term was popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment and Caste in America. The concept of Anglo Saxon and especially Anglo Saxon Protestantism evolved in the late 19th century, historian Richard Kyle says, Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps – the liberals and fundamentalists. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene, American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The political, cultural and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, before WASP came into use in the 1960s the term Anglo Saxon filled some of the same purposes. Anglo-Saxons by 1900 was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally and it was often used in claims for the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, much to the annoyance of outsiders.
For example, Josiah Strong boasted in 1890, In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000 souls. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons had increased to about 20,500,000, like the newer term WASP, the old term Anglo-Saxon was used derisively by writers hostile to an informal alliance between Britain and the U. S. The negative use was common among Irish Americans and writers in France. It remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, Irish-American humorist Finley Peter Dunne popularized the ridicule of Anglo Saxon, even calling President Theodore Roosevelt one. To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance, argues California politician Tom Hayden, the depiction of the Irish in the films of John Ford was a counterpoint to WASP standards of rectitude
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci