Ivrea is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy. Situated on the leading to the Aosta Valley, it straddles the Dora Baltea and is regarded as the centre of the Canavese area. Ivrea lies in a basin that in prehistoric times formed a large lake, today five smaller lakes — Sirio, San Michele, Pistono and Campagna — are found in the area around the town. Ivrea and its surroundings have been inhabited since the Neolithic era, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ivrea became the seat of a duchy under the Lombards. Under the Franks, Ivrea was a county capital, in the year 1001, after a period of disputes with bishop Warmund, ruler of the city, Arduin conquered the March of Ivrea. Later he became King of Italy and began a dynasty that lasted until the 11th century, in the 12th century Ivrea became a free commune, but succumbed in the first decades of the following century to the rule of Emperor Frederick II. Later Ivrea was disputed between the bishops, the marquisate of Monferrato and the House of Savoy, in 1356 Ivrea was acquired by Amadeus VI of Savoy.
With the exception of the brief French conquest at the end of the 16th century and it was a subsidiary title of the king of Sardinia, although the only Marquis of Ivrea was Benedetto of Savoy. On May 26,1800 Napoleon Bonaparte entered the city along with his victorious troops, during the 20th century its primary claim to fame was as the base of operations for Olivetti, a manufacturer of typewriters, mechanical calculators and, computers. The Olivetti company no longer has an independent existence, though its name appears as a registered trademark on office equipment manufactured by others. In 1970 about 90,000 people lived and worked in the Ivrea Area, the Arduino electronic platform was created in Ivrea, and takes its name from the historical figure of Arduin of Italy. Castle of Ivrea, built during the reign of Amadeus VI of Savoy and it has a quadrangular plan in brick with four round towers at the corners. In 1676, a tower, used as an ammunition store, once a prison, the castle today houses exhibitions.
Cathedral of Ivrea, which originated from a church built in 4th century at the site of a pagan temple. Around 1000 AD, it was reconstructed by bishop Warmondus in Romanesque-style, the latter houses an ancient Roman sarcophagus which according to tradition, preserves the relics of St. Bessus. In 1785, it was again in a Baroque style. The current neo-classical façade was built in the 19th century, one of the old frescoes of the interior is the A Miracle of the Blessed Pierre de Luxembourg. The sacristy has two altarpieces by Defendente Ferrari, the cathedral houses the tomb of Blessed Thaddeus McCarthy
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of liberal/progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It is published by The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place and it is associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has bureaus in Washington, D. C, London and South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, and the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, the Nation was established in July 1865 on Newspaper Row at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. The publisher was Joseph H. Richards, and the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmens Bureau, and ordinary people he met by the side of the road. The articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as examples of masterly journalism, closely related to this was the publications advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system.
Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906, the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post. The offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Posts headquarters at 210 Broadway, in 1900, Henry Villards son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, selling off the latter in 1918. Villards takeover prompted the FBI to monitor the magazine for roughly 50 years, the FBI had a file on Villard from 1915. Villard sold the magazine in 1935 and it became a nonprofit in 1943. Almost every editor of The Nation from Villards time to the 1970s was looked at for subversive activities and ties. S, during the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences.
Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, before Pearl Harbor, The Nation repeatedly called on the United States to enter World War II to resist Fascism, and after the US entered the war, supported the American war effort. It supported the use of the bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed by The Nations Freda Kirchwey, the new publication would have been called The Nation and New Republic. Kirchwey was the most hesitant, and both attempts to merge failed, the two magazines would take very different paths, with The Nation having a higher circulation and The New Republic moving more to the right. In the 1950s, The Nation was attacked as pro-communist because of its advocacy of friendship with the Soviet Union, one of the magazines writers, Louis Fischer resigned from the magazine afterwards, claiming The Nations foreign coverage was too pro-Soviet
The Graian Alps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. The name Graie comes from the Graioceli Celtic tribe, which dwelled in the surrounding the Mont Cenis pass. Other sources claim that the name comes from the Celtic Graig meaning rock/stone, literally the Rocky Mountains The Graian Alps are located in France, the French side of the Graian Alps is drained by the river Isère and its tributary Arc, and by the Arve. The Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Stura di Lanzo, the Graian Alps can be divided into the following four groups, the Mont Blanc group the Central group the Western or French group, and the Eastern or Italian group. The main peaks of the Graian Alps are, The main passes of the Graian Alps are shown in the table below. The group in which the pass is located is indicated with MB for Mont Blanc group, C for Central group, E for Eastern group, and W for Western group. The western group contains the Vanoise National Park, established in 1972 and covering 1250 km², the group contains the Gran Paradiso National Park.
Also on the Italian side is located the Parco Regionale del Monte Avic, ascents in Gran Paradiso group - Czech and English Graian Alps on Summitpost - English
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages. The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci, entered Italy across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium, which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which divided into various groups and gradually moved to central. According to David W. Anthony, between 3100–2800/–2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube Valley and these migrations probably split off Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Hydronymy shows that Proto-Germanic homeland is in Central Germany, which would be close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well.
The origin of a hypothetical ancestral Italo-Celtic people is to be found in todays eastern Hungary and this is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic language family shares more vocabulary with the Italic family than with the Celtic language family. Remains of the prehistoric age have been found in Liguria. The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol. During the Copper Age, at the time as metalworking appeared. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence, the Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans who entered Italy and took over the Po Valley. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture developed in the Po Valley, the Terramare culture takes its name from the black earth residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. The Latino-Faliscan people have associated with this culture, especially by the archaeologist Luigi Pigorini.
The Proto-Villanovans practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of a distinctive double-cone shape, the most important settlements excavated are those of Frattesina in Veneto region, Bismantova in Emilia-Romagna and near the Monti della Tolfa, north of Rome. The Osco-Umbrians, the Veneti, and possibly the Latino-Faliscans too, have associated with this culture. In the early Iron Age, the relatively homogeneous Proto-Villanovan culture shows a process of fragmentation, in Tuscany and in part of Emilia-Romagna and Campania, the Proto-Villanovan culture was followed by the Villanovan culture. The earliest remains of Villanovan culture date back to approx, in the region south of the Tiber, the Latial culture of the Latins emerges, while in the north-east of the peninsula the Este culture of the Veneti appeared. This corresponds with the emergence of the Terni culture, which had similarities with the Celtic cultures of Hallstatt
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Little St Bernard Pass
The Little St Bernard Pass is a mountain pass in the Alps on the France–Italy border. Its saddle is at 2188 metres above sea level and it is located between Savoie and Aosta Valley, Italy, to the south of the Mont Blanc Massif, exactly on the main alpine watershed. There is a Great St. Bernard Pass and a San Bernardino Pass and this mountain pass is famous for giving the St Bernard breed its name. The road across this pass is open from May to October. For current road status see Etat des principaux cols routiers francais, at the summit, the road cuts through a stone circle measuring 72 m in diameter. A standing stone once stood in the middle, from coin finds this is believed to date from the Iron Age, possibly being a ceremonial site of the Tarentaisian culture. The stone circle was restored in the 19th century. In the Roman era, a dedicated to Jupiter was erected nearby along with a mansio serving travellers along the pass. For fit cyclists climbing the pass represents an interesting and historic challenge, from Bourg-Saint-Maurice to the south-west, over this distance, the climb is 1,348 m, with the steepest sections at 8. 1% at the start of the climb.
The first 15.5 km to La Rosière forms the Montée dHauteville climb, from Pré-Saint-Didier, the pass is 23.5 km long. Over this distance the climb is 1,184 m, the Little St Bernard Pass was first crossed by the Tour de France in 1949 and has been featured three times since. In 2007, Montée dHauteville was climbed on stage 8 of the Tour de France, the pass was featured in the 2009 Tour de France Stage 16 on 21 July from Martigny to Bourg-Saint-Maurice,160 km, which features the Great St Bernard Pass. The climb was Everested on September 2,2016 by Lee Townend and they made 7 consecutive ascents on bicycles over the course of 1 day,1 hour and 33 minutes. List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Profile of Little St. Bernard Pass on climbbybike. com Little St. Bernard Pass in Tour de France Photos of Little St. Bernard Pass
Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus was a Roman general and patron of literature and art. Corvinus was the son of the consul in 61 BC, Marcus Valerius Messalla Niger, some dispute his parentage and claim another descendant of Marcus Valerius Corvus to be his father. Valeria, one of the sisters of Corvinus, married the Roman Politician Quintus Pedius and his great-nephew from this marriage was the deaf painter Quintus Pedius. His first wife was in Calpurnia, possibly the daughter of the Roman politician Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, the writings of the poet Ovid reveal that the second wife of Corvinus was a woman called Aurelia Cotta. Another fact supporting that Aurelia Cotta was the mother of Marcus Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus is that he was adopted into the Aurelii Cottae. How and why the name changed from Corvus to Corvinus is unclear, to add to the confusion, Manius is sometimes referred to as Marcus. Corvinus was educated partly at Athens, together with Horace and the younger Cicero, in early life he became attached to republican principles, which he never abandoned, although in life he avoided offending Caesar Augustus by not mentioning them too openly.
In 43 BC he was proscribed, but managed to escape to the camp of Brutus and Cassius, after the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he went over to Antony, but subsequently transferred his support to Octavian. In 31 BC, Corvinus was appointed consul in place of Antony and he subsequently held commands in the East and suppressed the revolt in Gallia Aquitania, for this latter feat he celebrated a triumph in 27 BC. Corvinus restored the road between Tusculum and Alba, and many buildings were due to his initiative. He moved that the title of pater patriae should be bestowed upon Augustus, yet he resigned from the post of Prefect of the city in 25 BC after six days of holding this office because it conflicted with his ideas of constitutionalism. It may have been on occasion that he uttered the phrase I am disgusted with power. With Horace and Tibullus he was on terms, and Ovid expresses his gratitude to him as the first to notice. The two panegyrics by unknown authors indicate the esteem in which he was held, Corvinus was himself the author of various works, all of which are lost.
As an orator, he followed Cicero instead of the Atticizing school, critics considered him superior to Cicero, and Tiberius adopted him as a model. Corvinus had a house on the Palatine Hill in Rome that used to belong to Mark Antony before Augustus presented it to Corvinus and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. An inscription records Corvinus as the owner of the famed Gardens of Lucullus located on the Pincian Hill where the Villa Borghese gardens are today. The Casale Rotondo, a tomb near the sixth milestone on the Appian Way, is often identified as being the tomb of Corvinus
Great St Bernard Pass
Great St. Bernard Pass is the third highest road pass in Switzerland. It connects Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland with Aosta in the region Aosta Valley in Italy and it is the lowest pass lying on the ridge between the two highest summits of the Alps, Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa. The pass itself is located in Switzerland in the canton of Valais and it is located on the main watershed that separates the basin of the Rhône from that of the Po. Great St. Bernard is the most ancient pass through the Western Alps, with evidence of use as far back as the Bronze Age and surviving traces of a Roman road. Having been bypassed by easier and more routes, particularly the Great St Bernard Tunnel which opened in 1964. Straddling the highest point of the road, the Great St Bernard Hospice was founded in 1049, the hospice became famous for its use of St. Bernard dogs in rescue operations. The pass runs northeast-southwest through the Valais Alps at an elevation of 2,469 m. The road running through the pass, highway E27 in both Italy and Switzerland, joins Martigny on the upper Rhône in the canton of Valais, from Martigny Route 9 descends to Lausanne and from Aosta Route A5 descends to Torino.
The Great St Bernard Tunnel plunges through the mountains at a 1,915 m level, since the opening in 1964. Here the river enters the La Buthier in the end of the Valpelline. The route here in the valley of the Val dAoste becomes part of the motorway connecting the Mont Blanc Tunnel to the west. A reduction of utility began after the construction of the Simplon Tunnel, the much smaller historic road winding over the pass itself, which lies a few hundred metres from the Swiss border with Italy, is only passable June to September. The pass at narrowest point runs between the peaks of Grande Chenalette at 2,889 m and Mont Mort at 2,867 m, slightly to the west in Pointe de Drône at 2,949 m, the highest peak. Between it and the pass is Petite Chenalette at 2,885 m, the Tour de France has visited the pass five times. It was climbed four times as a 1st category climb, and one time, in 2009, the snow in the pass in winter may be as much as 10 metres deep. The temperature may drop as low as -30 °C, the lake in the pass is frozen for 265 days per year. A summary of data for the year 1981-2010 is given below.
The pass is well above the tree line, All the wood required for construction and firewood must be hauled in from some distance
Aosta is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps,110 km north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire baltée, Aosta is not the capital of the province, because Aosta Valley is the only Italian region not divided into provinces. Provincial administrative functions are shared by the region and the communes. Aosta was settled in times and became a centre of the Salassi. The campaign was led by Terentius Varro, who founded the Roman colony of Augusta Praetoria Salassorum. After 11 BC Aosta became the capital of the Alpes Graies province of the Empire. Its position at the confluence of two rivers, at the end of the Great and the Little St Bernard Pass, gave it military importance. After the fall of the Western Empire, the city was conquered, in turn, by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, the Lombards, who had annexed it to their Italian kingdom, were expelled by the Frankish Empire under Pepin the Short.
Under his son, Aosta acquired importance as a post on the Via Francigena, after 888 AD it was part of the renewed Kingdom of Italy under Arduin of Ivrea and Berengar of Friuli. In the 10th century Aosta became part of the Kingdom of Burgundy, after the fall of the latter in 1032, it became part of the lands of Count Humbert I of Savoy. The ancient town walls of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum are still preserved almost in their entirety and they are 6.4 metres high, built of concrete faced with small blocks of stone. At the bottom, the walls are nearly 2.75 metres thick, towers stand at angles to the enceinte and others are positioned at intervals, with two at each of the four gates, making twenty towers in total. They are roughly 6.5 metres square, and project 4.3 metres from the wall. Of the 20 original towers, the following are well preserved, Le lépreux de la cité dAoste, a novel by Xavier de Maistre, is named after this leper. Tower of Bramafan, built in the 11th century over a Roman bastion and it was the residence of the Savoy viscounts.
The Franco-Provençal term Bramafan is translated as He who screams for hunger, the east and south gates exist intact. The latter, a gate with three arches flanked by two towers known as the Porta Praetoria was the eastern gate to the city, and has preserved its original forms apart from the marble covering. It is formed by two series of arches enclosing a small square, the rectangular arrangement of the streets is modeled on a Roman plan dividing the town into 64 blocks
Battle of Actium
Octavians fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antonys fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Octavians victory enabled him to consolidate his power over Rome and its dominions and he adopted the title of Princeps and some years was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in times, the battle marked the start of about three centuries of unequalled Roman naval supremacy over the entirety of the Mediterranean and beyond. The alliance between Octavian and Lepidus, commonly known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a term in 38 BC. However, the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. This occurred when Mark Antony, the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the de facto stepfather to Caesarion. Such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal, Antony was inevitably perceived by Octavian and the majority of the Roman Senate as the leader of a separatist movement that threatened to break the unity of the Roman Republic.
Both Octavian and Antony had fought against their enemies in the civil war that followed the assassination of Caesar. After years of cooperation with Octavian, Antony started to act independently, eventually raising his rivals suspicion that he was vying to become sole master of Rome. As a personal challenge to Octavians prestige, Antony tried to get Caesarion accepted as an heir of Caesar. Antony and Cleopatra formally elevated Caesarion, 13, to power in 34 BC, giving him the vague, being a son of Caesar, such an entitlement was felt as a threat to Roman republican traditions. According to a belief, Antony had once offered a diadem to Caesar. It was said that Antony intended to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria, as the Second Triumvirate formally expired on the last day of 33 BC, Antony wrote to the Senate that he did not wish to be reappointed. He hoped that he might be regarded by them as their champion against the ambition of Octavian, the causes of mutual dissatisfaction between the two had been continually accumulating.
Antony complained that Octavian had exceeded his powers in deposing Lepidus, in taking over the countries held by Sextus Pompeius, during 32 BC, a third of the Senate and both consuls allied with Antony. The consuls had determined to conceal the extent of Antonys demands, after staying with his allies at Samos, Antony moved to Athens. His land forces, which had been in Armenia, came down to the coast of Asia, Octavian was not behind in his strategic preparations. Military operations began in 31 BC, when Octavians general Agrippa captured Methone, in addition to the deposition Octavian procured a vote for a proclamation of war against Cleopatra – well understood to mean against Antony, though he was not named