"Sabre Dance" is a movement in the final act of Aram Khachaturian's ballet Gayane, where the dancers display their skill with sabres. It is Khachaturian's most recognizable work, he felt that its popularity "deflected attention from his other works."Its middle section is based on an unnamed Armenian folk song. According to Tigran Mansurian, it is a synthesis of an Armenian wedding dance tune from Gyumri tied in a saxophone counterpoint "that seems to come straight from America.""Sabre Dance" is considered one of the signature pieces of 20th century popular music. It was popularized by covers by pop artists, first in the US and in other countries such as the UK and Germany, its use in a wide range of films and TV series over the decades have contributed to its renown. Sabre Dance has been used by a number of figure skaters from at least five countries in their performances. Tom Huizenga of NPR describes it as "one of the catchiest, most familiar—perhaps most maddening—tunes to come out of the 20th century."
Billboard magazine calls it "a piece that's known to every pops orchestra in existence." In 1948 the "Sabre Dance" became. Due to its popularity, Newsweek suggested that 1948 could be called "Khachaturian Year in the United States." In 1948, three versions of the "Sabre Dance" reached number one in the Billboard Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists: played by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and conducted by Artur Rodziński played by the New York Philharmonic, conducted by Efrem Kurtz played by Oscar LevantThese three versions were included in the Year's Top Selling Classical Artists by Billboard in 1948. The "Sabre Dance" became the first million-selling record of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. According to the Current Biography Yearbook, it was Levant's performance that "received popular attention." The Sabre dance is heard for 2 minutes in one part of Jean-Michel Jarre's Oxygène. The "Sabre Dance" has been used in numerous films, animated films, TV series, video games and commercials over the years, oftentimes for humorous effects.
The piece's popular familiarity has been enhanced by its traditional use as accompaniment by travelling circuses and on television variety shows such as The Ed Sullivan Show when novelty acts such as plate spinners appeared. Some notable TV shows that have used it include The Jack Benny Program, A Piano in the House from The Twilight Zone, The Onedin Line, The Benny Hill Show, Our Very First Telethon episode of Full House, The Simpsons, Two and a Half Men, What's New, Scooby-Doo?, "Peterotica" episode of Family Guy, SpongeBob SquarePants, The Big Bang Theory. On June 6, 2013 on the 110th anniversary of Khachaturian’s birthday a modern take of the Sabre Dance—Sabre Dance on the Street—was performed at Yerevan Cascade by Barekamutyun dance ensemble and Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra. Films in which the "Sabre Dance" was used include The Barkleys of Broadway, Two, The System, Amarcord, Nu, pogodi! 6th episode "Countryside", Jumpin' Jack Flash, Punchline, Hocus Pocus Radioland Murders, The Hudsucker Proxy, Don't Drink the Water, I Married a Strange Person!, Vegas Vacation, A Simple Wish, Blues Brothers 2000, The Lion King 1½, Kung Fu Hustle, Sicko, Ghost Town, Witless Protection, Le Concert, Pájaros de papel, Sabre Dance.
In his frenzied comedy One, Three, director Billy Wilder used the dance for comic effect, including a crazed chase through East Berlin, the chaotic closing ride to the airport featuring James Cagney and Horst Bucholz. It was played in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted. Video games in which the "Sabre Dance" was used include: Road Runner. Sleeping Dogs on the classical Boosey and Hawkes radio station. Final Fantasy IV, as background music for the dancing girls' routines. Aero the Acro-Bat, as the music that plays when Aero is invincible for a short time; the National Hockey League's Buffalo Sabres have used the piece as a theme song since the team was established in 1970. After a hiatus, the "Sabre Dance" was again made their theme song in 2011. In 2010–13, the "Sabre Dance" became popular in the city of Donetsk, because it was played in Donbass Arena, the venue of FC Shakhtar Donetsk, whenever the Armenian football player Henrikh Mkhitaryan scored a goal; the "Sabre Dance" was featured in the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony held in Fisht Olympic Stadium, Russia on February 7.
The "Sabre Dance" has been used by numerous figure skaters, including: Notes Citations
Othello (1956 film)
Othello is a 1956 Soviet drama film directed by Sergei Yutkevich, based on the play Othello by William Shakespeare. It was entered into the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. Sergei Bondarchuk as Othello Irina Skobtseva as Desdemona Andrei Popov as Iago Vladimir Soshalsky as Cassio Yevgeni Vesnik as Roderigo Antonina Maksimova as Emilia Mikhail Troyanovsky as Doge of Venice Yevgeni Teterin as Brabantio Othello on IMDb
House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian
The Aram Khachaturian House-Museum opened in Yerevan, Armenia in 1982 and is devoted to the exhibition of the Armenian composer’s personal artifacts, as well as to the research and study of his creative output. The idea of the museum came about in the 1970s, Khachaturian himself was involved in its design; the composer left his manuscripts, piano, various memorabilia, personal gifts to the institution in his will. The building is an extension of the house where the composer resided whenever he visited the Armenian capital, it was converted into a museum by architect Edvard Altunyan. Under its founding director Gohar Harutiunyan, the museum succeeded in attracting financial support from a wide range of sponsors and benefactors, expanded its collection of artifacts belonging to Khachaturian. Today the museum continues to grow under the directorship of Armine Grigoryan; the multi-storied building houses an attractive concert hall, where a regular music series takes place. It houses an extensive library of CDs and a workshop for the restoration and repair of violins.
The museum maintains strong links to Armenian musicians and composers and is committed to furthering music in Armenia. It publishes a range of scholarly books; the House-Museum is located on Yerevan 0009, Armenia. Tel: 58.94.18. Արամ Խաչատրյան. Նամակներ։, 238 pp. Արամ Խաչատրյան. Նամակներ։, 252 pp. Արամ Խաչատրյան. Նամակներ։, 152 pp. ISBN 5-550-01293-6 Aram Khachaturyan Museum.. List of music museums Official site Museum official site
Nikolai Afanasyevich Kryuchkov was a Soviet film actor. He appeared in 94 films between 1932 and 1993. Two Orders of Lenin Stalin Prize the first degree People's Artist of the RSFSR People's Artist of the Soviet Union Nika Award Nikolai Kryuchkov on IMDb
Music of Armenia
The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs. Armenia has a long musical tradition, collected and developed by Komitas, a prominent priest and musicologist, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Armenian music has been presented internationally by composers Aram Khachaturian, Alexander Arutiunian, Arno Babadjanian, Karen Kavaleryan as well as by pop musicians and performers such as duduk player Djivan Gasparyan, composer/instrumentalist Ara Gevorgyan, singers Sirusho, Eva Rivas and many others. Traditional Armenian folk music as well as Armenian church music is not based on the European tonal system but on a system of Tetrachords; the last note of one tetrachord serves as the first note of the next tetrachord – which makes a lot of Armenian folk music more or less based on a theoretically endless scale. Armenians have had a long tradition of folk music from the antiquity. Under Soviet leadership, Armenian folk music was taught in state-sponsored conservatoires.
Instruments played include qamancha, dhol, duduk, blul, shvi and to a lesser degree saz. Other instruments are used such as violin and clarinet; the duduk is Armenia's national instrument, among its well-known performers are Margar Margarian, Levon Madoyan, Saro Danielian, Vatche Hovsepian, Gevorg Dabaghyan and Yeghish Manoukian, as well as Armenia's most famous duduk player, Djivan Gasparyan. Earlier in Armenian history, instruments like the kamancha were played by popular, travelling musicians called ashoughs. Sayat Nova, an 18th-century Ashough, is revered in Armenia. Performers such as Armenak Shahmuradian, Vagharshak Sahakian, Norayr Mnatsakanyan, Hovhannes Badalyan, Hayrik Muradyan, Raffi Hovhannisyan, Avak Petrosyan, Papin Poghosian, Hamlet Gevorgyan have been famous in Armenia and are still acclaimed; the most notable female vocalists in the Armenian folk genre have been Araksia Gyulzadyan, Ophelia Hambardzumyan, Varduhi Khachatrian, Valya Samvelyan, Rima Saribekyan, Susanna Safarian, Manik Grigoryan, Flora Martirosian.
Armenian emigrants from other parts of the Middle East settled in various countries in the California Central Valley, the second- and third-generation have kept their folk traditions alive, such as Richard Hagopian, a famous oud-player. Another oud player, John Berberian, is noted in particular for his fusions of traditional music with jazz and rock in the 1960s. From Lebanon and Syria, George Tutunjian, Karnig Sarkissian and others performed Armenian Revolutionary Songs which became popular among the Armenian Diaspora, notably ARF supporters. In Tehran Iran the folk music of the Armenian community is characterized by the work of Nikol Galanderian and the Goghtan choir. Other Armenian musicians include Ara Topouzian who performs on the kanun and VANArmenya, who sings both folk, children's and patriotic songs, performs on keyboards, promotes the music of "the other Gomidas," Grikor Mirzaian. There are several folk ensembles from Armenia, the Shoghaken Folk Ensemble, founded in 1995 in Yerevan, has worldwide popularity, others such as the Arev Armenian Folk Ensemble.
Arto Tunçboyacıyan is a well known Turkish musician of Armenian descent, famous in Turkey and worldwide, has his own jazz club in Yerevan, Armenia. He was the founder of the Armenian Navy Band. Ruben Hakobyan is a well recognized Armenian ethnographic and patriotic folk singer who has achieved widespread national recognition due to his devotion to Armenian folk music and exceptional talent. Armenian classical composers include Kemani Tatyos Ekserciyan, one of the best-remembered composers of Ottoman classical music. Alexander Spendiarov, Armen Tigranian, Haro Stepanian are best known for their Armenian operas. Sargis Barkhudaryan and Caro Zakarian are representative composers of the pre- and early Soviet Armenian era; the most famous, was Aram Khatchaturian, internationally well known for his music for various ballets and the immortal Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane. Gevorg Armenian, Anahit Tsitsikian, Arno Babadjanyan, Barseg Kanatchian, Edward Mirzoyan, Boris Parsadanian, Ashot Zohrabyan, Aram Satian represent other Soviet era Armenian composers.
Iosif Andriasov's music and ethics made him internationally recognized as one of the most important figures in contemporary culture. Alexander Arutiunian is best known for his Trumpet Concerto in A-flat major. Alexander Dolukhanian composed/arranged numerous Armenian songs including the well-known "Swallow". Alexander Adgemian, Ashot Satian and Vagarshak Kotoyan are known for their contributions to Armenian choral and vocal music. Eduard Abramian wrote songs on the poetry of Armenian poets Hovhannes Tumanyan and Avetik Isahakian which are now part of the standard repertoire. Artemi Ayvazyan wrote the first Soviet musical comedies, including the popular "Dentist from the Orient". In recent years, Avet Terterian, Tigran Mansurian, Vache Sharafyan and Aram Petrosyan have achieved global success. Another acclaimed, more recent, classical composer is Khachatur Avetissian, many of whose compositions are based on traditional folklore themes. Uruguayan-Armenian composer Coriún Aharonián, besides a notable body of avant-garde compositions has done extensive musicological and political work.
The Armenian nationalist composer Alexander Kaloian is known
Marionettes is a 1934 Soviet antifascist film starring Anatoli Ktorov and directed by Yakov Protazanov and Porfiri Podobed. The film combines the features of social drama and political pamphlet. Anatoli Ktorov - C, the Prince Nikolai Radin - D, the Archbishop Valentina Tokarskaya - E, The Singing Star, the Prince's Fiancee Konstantin Zubov - F, the Fascist Sergei Martinson - G, the Barber Mikhail Klimov - A, The Prime Minister Vladimir Popov - White General Leonid Leonidov - The Munitions Manufacturer Igor Arkadin - Master of Ceremonies Vasili Toporkov - Director of the Marionette Theater Pyotr Galadzhev - Scribe Mikhail Zharov - Head of Frontier Post Marionettes on IMDb Marionettes on YouTube
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi