Pine Island, Minnesota
Pine Island is a city in Goodhue and Olmsted counties in the U. S. state of Minnesota. Most of Pine Island is located within Goodhue County, but a small part extends into Olmsted County, making that small portion part of the Rochester metropolitan area; the city's population was 3,263 at the 2010 census. The community has a strong agricultural base, but has been transitioning over time into a bedroom community for nearby Rochester which employs many local residents. Large development is planned for the Olmsted County side as it becomes a suburb of Rochester, including the Elk Run Bioscience Park, the state's first diverging diamond interchange. Pine Island was platted in 1856. A post office has been in operation at Pine Island since 1856. Pine Island lies along the Middle Fork of the Zumbro River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.61 square miles, of which 5.59 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 52 serves as a main route in the community.
As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $47,500, the median income for a family was $59,792. Males had a median income of $32,788 versus $25,031 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,370. About 4.5% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,263 people, 1,292 households, 873 families residing in the city; the population density was 583.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,399 housing units at an average density of 250.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.6% White, 0.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 1,292 households of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.4% were non-families.
26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 35.2 years. 27.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. Pine Island was temporarily thrown into the national spotlight in 2002 for having been the home town of the Midwest pipe bomber Luke Helder. Ralph Wilford Samuelson, the inventor of water skiing, moved here from Lake City, Minnesota to raise turkeys and remained here until his death in 1977. City of Pine Island, Minnesota Pine Island Area Historical Society Pine Island Public Schools Pine Island Economic Development Authority
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Eyota is a city in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 1,977 at the 2010 census. Eyota was platted in 1864; the name Eyota is derived from the Sioux Indian word iyotak, meaning "greatest" or "most". A post office has been in operation at Eyota since 1864; the city was incorporated in 1875. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.69 square miles, all of it land. The south branch of the Whitewater River passes through the northern edge of the city. U. S. Route 14 and Minnesota State Highway 42 are two of the main routes in the community. Interstate 90 is south of the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,977 people, 758 households, 542 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,169.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 790 housing units at an average density of 467.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 758 households of which 41.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.5% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 34.4 years. 30.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8% male and 50.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,644 people, 597 households, 456 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,058.4 people per square mile. There were 614 housing units at an average density of 395.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.36% White, 0.18% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 597 households out of which 44.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $47,500, the median income for a family was $53,036. Males had a median income of $36,548 versus $28,259 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,471. About 2.8% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
The city government consists of four council members. Mayoral terms are two years. Eyota is part of the Dover-Eyota School District. Donald T. Franke, Minnesota state legislator, was born in Eyota
Dover is a city in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 735 at the 2010 census. An early name of Dover was Dover Center, so named from its location near the geographical center of Dover Township. Dover was platted in 1869. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.00 square mile, all of it land. The south branch of the Whitewater River passes through the northern edge of the city. U. S. Route 14 is the main route serving the community. Interstate 90 is south of the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 735 people, 261 households, 200 families residing in the city. The population density was 735.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 282 housing units at an average density of 282.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.4% Asian, 3.0% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population. There were 261 households of which 49.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 23.4% were non-families.
20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age in the city was 29.7 years. 34% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 438 people, 171 households, 117 families residing in the city; the population density was 410.4 people per square mile. There were 174 housing units at an average density of 163.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.72% White, 1.60% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.51% of the population. There were 171 households out of which 42.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,250, the median income for a family was $47,188. Males had a median income of $29,792 versus $22,857 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,804. None of the families and 3.0% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 4.7% of those over 64. Dover is part of the Dover-Eyota School District
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Viola Township, Olmsted County, Minnesota
Viola Township is a township in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 555 at the 2000 census; the township includes the unincorporated community of Viola. Viola Township was organized in 1858, named after Viola, Wisconsin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 555 people, 199 households, 160 families residing in the township; the population density was 15.5 people per square mile. There were 208 housing units at an average density of 5.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.10% White, 0.18% African American, 0.36% Asian, 0.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.18% of the population. There were 199 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.1% were non-families. 16.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.17. In the township the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.7 males. Of the 1,522 employed civilians reported in the 2000 census, 33.6% were in management-related occupations and 23.2% were in office and sales-related occupations. The median income for a household in the township was $54,250, the median income for a family was $57,500. Males had a median income of $34,250 versus $27,422 for females; the per capita income for the township was $21,587. About 3.5% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. Gopher Count festival – June
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including