Popayán is the capital of the Colombian department of Cauca. It is located in southwestern Colombia between the Western Mountain Range and Central Mountain Range, it has a population of 258,653 people, an area of 512 km2, is located 1760 meters above sea level, has an average temperature of 18 °C. The town is well known for its colonial architecture and its contributions to Colombian cultural and political life, it is known as the "white city" due to the color of most of the colonial buildings in the city center, where several churches are located, such as San Francisco, San José, Belén, Santo Domingo, San Agustín, the Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, known locally as "La Catedral". The city's cathedral was home to the Crown of the Andes, a 16th-century Marianist devotional object featuring emeralds taken from the captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa, it was sold to finance local health care institutions. Popayán has been home to seventeen Colombian presidents, as well as noted poets and composers.
The University of Cauca, one of Colombia's oldest and most distinguished institutions of higher education, is located here, so Popayán is known as the "University City". Nearby is Puracé National Natural Park; the nearest large city is Cali, in the Valle del Cauca Department, north of Cauca. Much of the city's original splendor was destroyed on 31 March 1983, when an earthquake toppled many buildings. Though many were rebuilt and repaired, the heart of the city still has empty lots. In 2005, Popayán was declared by the UNESCO as the first city of gastronomy because of its variety and meaning to the intangible patrimony of Colombian culture; the culinary history of the Cauca Department was chosen because it maintains traditional food preparation methods that have been passed down orally for generations. In 2009, UNESCO declared the Semana Santa processions during Easter Week a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Patrimony of Humanity; the word Popayán comes from an indigenous language. There are different theories about the origin of this word, one claims it means: Po: "Two".
Another theory says that the word Popayán comes from the name of the indigenous cacique, called Payán, who used to live around Eme Hill, nowadays known as Las Tres Cruces Hill. Yet another theory says that according to the historian Arcecio Aragón, the origin of the word Popayán is "Pampayán" from the Quechua language: pampa and yan, the "valley of the river", where "river" refers to the Cauca River. No records exist of the pre-Hispanic history of the indigenous village of Popayán, but on 13 January 1537 the Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar arrived in Popayán. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Popayán was administered by an appointed governor under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito. Popayán was a important town during the colonial period because of its location between Lima and Cartagena. After the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, Popayán remained a transfer point for gold and other riches going to Cartagena on their way to Spain. Popayán served as a colonial mine, produced various denominations of gold escudo coins and silver reales from 1760 through 1819.
The city is the home of an ancient pre-Hispanic pyramid known as El Morro del Tulcán abandoned when the first Spanish arrived. Analyses of dental samples have revealed that individuals buried there belonged to the upper class of their society. Popayán has been destroyed by several earthquakes; the most recent and destructive lasted eighteen seconds and occurred on 31 March 1983. The reconstruction of the colonial city took more than ten years and today it is still possible to see some lots that have not been rebuilt; the first earthquake seismic design code was established in Colombia as a consequence of this earthquake. Popayán's historic downtown includes examples of colonial architecture, preserved for more than four centuries; the cobblestone streets were all paved in 1937. El morro del tulcán is the main archaeological site of Popayán, it consists of a truncated pyramid built between 500 and 1600 A. C. a period known as late chiefdom societies. To commemorate the 400th anniversary of the city's founding, a monument was erected in 1937 in honor of city founder Sebastián de Belalcázar, with an equestrian statue by Spanish artist Victorio Macho.
Better known as the Paraninfo, this imposing mid-18th-century building was part of the Dominican order monastery until 1826. It was first built with a mud and straw roof reinforced over the years with rammed earth and tile. In 1827 Simón Bolivar declared it a property with historic heritage value, when it was a two steps hose in front of the Santo Domingo plaza; the last great governor of Cauca, Don Miguel de Arroyo Hurtado, made more renovations and reforms that gave it the most current look. When the building was given to the University of Cauca in the early twentieth century, several changes and additional extensions were made, which recovered all the original spaces; this park was born at the same time as Popayán in 1537, when the track in grid generated around religious and founders buildings. It was a marketplace. In 1538 a trap was placed in the center of the park, where Jorge Robledo and Álvaro Oyón were beheaded; the trap lasted until 1766 when it was replaced by a water faucet, which remained until 1805 when a stone pile was put in its place, but it was removed too in 1910 after the inauguration of the monument to Sabio Caldas, a piece by
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
Calarcá is a municipality in the eastern part of the department of Quindío, Colombia. It is located 4 km east of the departmental capital Armenia, its nickname is La Villa del Cacique in homage of its writers. The city was founded in 1886 by Segundo Henao during the time of colonization by people from Antioquia Department, it is the second city in Quindío with major quantity of inhabitants. In 2016 it had an estimated population of 78,779; the name derived from an indigenous chief of the Pijaos Tribe. According to the legends, this chief died in a fight with an indigenous converted into the Catholicism, Baltazar Maldonado, to keep the power of the territory, in a fight placed on Peñas Blancas, a characteristic mountain of the city. Calarcá was founded on June 29 of 1886; the city was founded by Roman Mario Valencia and Segundo Henao, people who went from Salento making explorations through the region, in the final part of the antioqueña foundations. In the beginning the city based its economy on commerce.
Years about 30's the coffee arrived in the region and Calarcá became in one of the most important producers of the region and whole the country. The wealthy generated by the coffee, allowed the city to reach good conditions of developed and a cultural progress, which started to characterize the city as a cradle of poets, such as Luis Vidales and Bauidilio Montoya; the city is host of different events, such as the national festival of the coffee, among the many activities there is one called "yippao" where different Jeep's are customized by their owner and go through the city, the national meeting of writers. In 1999 the city was destroyed for an earthquake, which affected the department; this made. The municipality of Calarcá is located between 4° 20’ 40” and 4° 33’ 50” north and between 75° 33’ 40” and 75° 48’ 40” west; the inner city is located 75 ° 39' 00" west. It lies in the Andean zone flanking the Central Cordillera, east of the department of Quindío in the centre-western part of the country, within the area known as the Eje Cafetero.
Calarcá is bordered by the municipalities of Salento to the north, Cajamarca to the east, Córdoba, Pijao in Quindío and Caicedonia in the Cauca Valley to the south, La Tebaida y Armenia to the west. The municipality has an area of 219.23 km². Urban area is 2.44 km². Rural area is 216.79 km². It varies in altitude between 1000 m above sea level at the confluence of the Quindío y Barragán rivers to 3667 m above sea level in the El Campanario highland area; the city itself sits at an average of 1536 m above sea level. Just like in others towns in the Quindio, the economy is based on Colombian coffee crops and manioc. Another important source of income is money remittance from people working in other countries to their families. Ecotourism is strongly supported in the area. Just outside the town is the Quindío Botanical Garden, which opened in 1985, includes an outdoor butterfly house that contains more than 1200 species of butterflies native to Colombia, housed inside a butterfly-shaped structure of 640 m2.
Peñas Blancas consists of a crag and three vertical rock faces located on the western slopes of the Central Cordillera of the Andes near Calarcá. The bright white color of the rock walls is due to the presence of limestone. There are a large number of solutional caves and rock shelters inside the cliff, but access is difficult; the caves are believed by some local people to be the location of a legendary treasure hidden by an indigenous Pijao tribal leader, the Cacique Calarcá, during his battle against the Spanish colonialists The cliffs are a landmark of the region, can be seen from the nearby towns of Armenia and Calarcá. They offer opportunities for rock climbing and abseiling up to heights of 80 meters, as well as a 40-meter zip-line, ecological trails of 3.2 km and 9 km, camping and a restaurant. From the foot of the cliffs there are fine views of Armenia and the surrounding area. Luis Vidales Poet and writer Baudilio Montoya Poet Francisco Noe Torres Rincon Artist Octavio Guzmán Bahen Physicist Noel Estrada Roldan Poet Fabio Botero Cartoonist Hernando Jiménez Sánchez Artist Olga Lucia Roldan Artist Gloria Cecilia Díaz Writer Jaime Lopera Gutierrez Writer Lucelly García de Montoya Politician Jairo Ramon Pelaez Cartoonist Jairo Alvarez Osorio Cartoonist Jairo Ramon Pelaez Cartoonist Carlos A. Villegas U.o Writer Laura del Sol Jiménez, Flutist Official web page of the city council Quindío Botanical Garden Lopera Gutiérrez, Jaime, La Colonización del Quindío.
Loaiza Piedrahita, Los corredores del tiempo: Guía turística por la historia del Quindío. ISBN 958-33-7088-6. Book in Spanish on the history of the municipalities of Quindío until the foundation of the department in 1966; the local history is placed in the context of wider events in Colombia
Panama the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century, it broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914; the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties led to the transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce and tourism are major and growing sectors.
It is regarded as a high-income country. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. In 2018, Panama was ranked seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on the planet. Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO and NAM; the definite origin of the name Panama is unknown. There are several theories. One postulates that the country was named after a found species of tree. Another that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, that the name means "many butterflies" in one or several of indigenous Amerindian languages that were spoken in the territory prior to Spanish colonization. Most scientifically corroborated theory, that by Panamanian linguists, states that the word is a hispanicization of Kuna language word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".
A relayed legend in Panama is that there was a fishing village that bore the name "Panamá", which purportedly meant "an abundance of fish", when the Spanish colonizers first landed in the area. The exact location of the village is unspecified; the legend is corroborated by Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán's diary entries, who reports landing at an unnamed village while exploring the Pacific coast of Panama in 1515. In 1517, Don Gaspar de Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post in the same location Guzmán described. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Spanish Empire's Pacific port at the site; the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific began. The official definition and origin of the name as promoted by Panama's Ministry of Education is the "abundance of fish and butterflies"; this is the usual description given in social studies textbooks.
At the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have nearly disappeared; the Isthmus of Panama was formed about three million years ago when the land bridge between North and South America became complete, plants and animals crossed it in both directions. The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of people and technology throughout the American continent from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of villages and cities; the earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points. Central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC; these evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, their beautiful Gran Coclé style polychrome pottery. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was settled by Chibchan and Cueva peoples. The largest group were the Cueva; the size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people developed by regular regional routes of commerce; when Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives; the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases, chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries. Rodrigo de Bastidas sailed westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, became the first European to explore the isthmus of Panama. A year Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus, established a short-lived settlement in the Darien.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa's tortuous
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are used in cooking. They may be eaten ripe or unripe and are starchy. Many cooking bananas are referred to as plantains or green bananas, although not all of them are true plantains. Bananas are treated as a starchy fruit with a neutral flavour and soft texture when cooked. Bananas fruit all year round. Cooking bananas are a major food staple in West and Central Africa, the Caribbean islands, Central America, northern, coastal parts of South America. Members of the genus Musa are indigenous to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and Oceania, including the Malay Archipelago and Northern Australia. Africa is considered a second centre of diversity for Musa cultivars: West Africa for some plantains and the central highlands for East African Highland bananas, most of which are cooked, although some are used to make beer; the term "plantain" is loosely applied to any banana cultivar, cooked before it is eaten. However, there is no botanical distinction between plantains.
Cooking is a matter of custom, rather than necessity, for many bananas. In fact, ripe plantains can be eaten raw. In some countries, where only a few cultivars of banana are consumed, there may be a clear distinction between plantains and bananas. In other countries, where many cultivars are consumed, there is no distinction in the common names used. In botanical usage, the term "plantain" is used only for true plantains, while other starchy cultivars used for cooking are called "cooking bananas". All modern true plantains have three sets of chromosomes. Many are hybrids derived from the cross of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the accepted scientific name for all such crosses is Musa × paradisiaca. Using Simmonds and Shepherds' 1955 genome-based nomenclature system, cultivars which are cooked belong to the AAB Group, although some belong to the AAA Group, others belong to the ABB Group. Fe'i bananas from the Pacific Islands are eaten roasted or boiled, thus informally referred to as "mountain plantains."
However, they do not belong to either of the two species that all modern banana cultivars are descended from. Plantains contain more starch and less sugar than dessert bananas, therefore they are cooked or otherwise processed before being eaten, they are always fried when eaten green. At this stage, the pulp is hard and the peel so stiff that it has to be cut with a knife to be removed. Mature, yellow plantains can be peeled like typical dessert bananas, they can be eaten raw, but are not as flavourful as dessert bananas, so are cooked. When mature, yellow plantains are fried, they tend to caramelize, they can be boiled, microwaved or grilled over charcoal, either peeled or unpeeled. Plantains are a staple food in the tropical regions of the world, ranking as the tenth most important staple food in the world; as a staple, plantains are treated in much the same way as potatoes and with a similar neutral flavour and texture when the unripe fruit is cooked by steaming, boiling or frying. Since they fruit all year round, plantains are a reliable all-season staple food in developing countries with inadequate food storage and transportation technologies.
In Africa and bananas provide more than 25 percent of the carbohydrate requirements for over 70 million people. Musa spp. Do not stand high winds well, however, so plantain plantations are liable to destruction by hurricanes. An average plantain is a good source of potassium and dietary fiber; the sap from the fruit peel, as well as the entire plant, can stain clothing and hands, can be difficult to remove. Linnaeus classified bananas into two species based only on their uses as food: Musa paradisiaca for plantains and Musa sapientum for dessert bananas. Both are now known to be hybrids between the species Musa Musa balbisiana; the earlier published name, Musa × paradisiaca, is now used as the scientific name for all such hybrids. Most modern plantains are sterile triploids belonging to the AAB Group, sometimes known as the "Plantain group". Other economically important cooking banana groups include the East African Highland bananas of the AAA Group and the Pacific plantains of the AAB Group. In countries in Central America and the Caribbean, the plantain is either fried, boiled or made into plantain soup.
In Ghana, West Africa, boiled plantain is eaten with kontomire stew, cabbage stew or fante-fante stew. The boiled plantain can be mixed with groundnut paste, pepper and palm oil to make eto, eaten with avocado. Ripe plantains can be fried and eaten with black eyed beans cooked in palm oil – a popular breakfast dish. Kelewele, a Ghanaian snack, is spiced ripe plantain deep fried in vegetable oil. In Nigeria, plantain is eaten fried or roasted. In Guatemala, ripe plantains are eaten boiled, fried, or in a special combination where they are boiled and stuffed with sweetened black beans. Afterwards, they are deep fried in corn oil; the dish is call
Simón José Antonio de la cruz Santa maria Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco known as Simón Bolívar and colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led the secession of what are the states of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama from the Spanish Empire. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808; the campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. He established an organized national congress within three years.
Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which made Venezuela an independent country. Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador and Bolivia, the last of, named after him, he was president of Gran Colombia and Bolivia, but soon after his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.
Bolívar fought 472 battles of which 79 were important ones, during his campaigns rode on horseback 123,000 kilometers, 10 times more than Hannibal, three times more than Napoleon, twice as much as Alexander the Great. Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. Towards the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea". In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest." The surname Bolívar originated with aristocrats from La Puebla de Bolívar, a small village in the Basque Country of Spain. Bolívar's father came from the female line of the Ardanza family.
His maternal grandmother was descended from families from the Canary Islands. The Bolívars settled in Venezuela in the 16th century. Bolívar's first South American ancestor was Simón de Bolívar, who lived and worked in Santo Domingo from 1559 to 1560 and where his son Simón de Bolívar y Castro was born; when the governor was reassigned to Venezuela by the Spanish Crown in 1569, Simón de Bolívar went with him. As an early settler in Spain's Venezuela Province, he became prominent in the local society, he and his descendants were granted estates and positions in the local cabildo; when Caracas Cathedral was built in 1569, the Bolívar family had one of the first dedicated side chapels. The majority of the wealth of Simón de Bolívar's descendants came from the estates; the most important was a sugar plantation with an encomienda that provided the labor needed to run the estate. Another portion of the Bolívars' wealth came from silver and copper mines. Small gold deposits were first mined in Venezuela in 1669, leading to the discovery of much more extensive copper deposits.
From his mother's side, Bolívar inherited the Aroa copper mines at Cocorote. Native American and African slaves provided the majority of the labor in these mines. Toward the end of the 17th century, copper mining became so prominent in Venezuela that the metal became known as cobre Caracas. Many of the mines became the property of the Bolívar family. Bolívar's grandfather, Juan de Bolívar y Martínez de Villegas, paid 22,000 ducats to the monastery at Santa Maria de Montserrat in 1728 for a title of nobility, granted by King Philip V of Spain for its maintenance; the crown never issued the patent of nobility, so the purchase became the subject of lawsuits that were still in progress during Bolívar's lifetime, when independence from Spain made the point moot. Bolívar devoted his personal fortune to the revolution. Having been one of the wealthiest persons within the Spanish American world at the beginning of the revolution, he died in poverty. Simón Bolívar was born in a house in Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela, on 24 July 1783.
He was baptized as Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios. His mother was María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco, and
Stations of the Cross
The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers. The stations grew out of imitations of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, believed to be the actual path Jesus walked to Mount Calvary; the object of the stations is to help the Christians faithful to make a spiritual pilgrimage through contemplation of the Passion of Christ. It has become one of the most popular devotions and the stations can be found in many Western Christian churches, including Anglican, Lutheran and Roman Catholic ones. A series of 14 images will be arranged in numbered order along a path and the faithful travel from image to image, in order, stopping at each station to say the selected prayers and reflections; this will be done individually or in a procession most during Lent on Good Friday, in a spirit of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during his passion.
The style and placement of the stations vary widely. The typical stations are small plaques with paintings placed around a church nave. Modern minimalist stations can be simple; the faithful might say the stations of the cross without there being any image, such as when the pope leads the stations of the cross around the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday. The Stations of the Cross originated in pilgrimages to Jerusalem and a desire to reproduce the Via Dolorosa. Imitating holy places was not a new concept. For example, the religious complex of Santo Stefano in Bologna, replicated the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other religious sites, including Mount of Olives and Valley of Josaphat. After the siege of 1187, Jerusalem fell to the forces of Saladin, the first sultan of Egypt and Syria. Forty years Franciscans were allowed back into the Holy Land, their founder, Saint Francis of Assisi, held the Passion of Christ in special veneration and is said to have been the first person to receive stigmata.
In 1217, St. Francis founded the Custody of the Holy Land to guard and promote the devotion to holy places, their efforts were recognized when Franciscans were proclaimed custodians of holy places by Pope Clement VI in 1342. Although several travelers who visited the Holy Land during the 12–14th centuries, mention a "Via Sacra", i.e. a settled route that pilgrims followed, there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Way of the Cross, as we understand it. The earliest use of the word "stations", as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in the mid-15th century, described pilgrims following the footsteps of Christ to the cross. In 1521, a book called Geystlich Strass was printed with illustrations of the stations in the Holy Land. During the 15th and 16th centuries the Franciscans began to build a series of outdoor shrines in Europe to duplicate their counterparts in the Holy Land.
The number of stations varied between thirty. These were placed in small buildings, along the approach to a church, as in a set of 1490 by Adam Kraft, leading to the Johanniskirche in Nuremberg. A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right on attractive wooded hills; these include the Sacro Monte di Domodossola and Sacro Monte di Belmonte, form part of the Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy World Heritage Site, together with other examples on different devotional themes. In these the sculptures are approaching life-size and elaborate. Remnants of these are referred to as calvary hills. In 1686, in answer to their petition, Pope Innocent XI granted to the Franciscans the right to erect stations within their churches. In 1731, Pope Clement XII extended to all churches the right to have the stations, provided that a Franciscan father erected them, with the consent of the local bishop. At the same time the number was fixed at fourteen. In 1857, the bishops of England were allowed to erect the stations by themselves, without the intervention of a Franciscan priest, in 1862 this right was extended to bishops throughout the church.
The early set of seven scenes was numbers 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11 and 14 from the list below. The standard set from the 17th to 20th centuries has consisted of 14 pictures or sculptures depicting the following scenes: Jesus is condemmed to death Jesus carries His cross Jesus falls for the first time Jesus meets His mother, Mary Simon helps Jesus carry the cross Veronica wipes the face of Jesus Jesus falls for the second time Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem Jesus falls for the third time Jesus is stripped of His clothes Jesus is nailed to the cross Jesus dies on the cross Jesus is taken down from the cross Jesus is placed in the tombAlthough not traditionally part of the Stations, the Resurrection of Jesus is, in rare instances, included as a fifteenth station. Out of the fourteen traditional Stations of the Cross, only eight have a clear scriptural foundation. Stations 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 are not attested to in the gospels and Station 13 seems to embellish the gospels' record, which states that Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus down from the cross and buried him.
To provide a version of this devotion more aligned with the biblical accounts, Pope John Paul II introduced a new