Salghurids

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Salghurids
سلغُریان
1148–1282
Capital Shiraz
Languages Persian
Turkic
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Monarchy
Atabeg
 •  1148–1161 Sunqur ibn Mawdud
 •  1264–1282 Abish Khatun
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Established 1148
 •  Disestablished 1282
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Great Seljuq Empire
Ilkhanate
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek Khanate
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [1][2][3] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
  Ottoman Empire 1299–1923

The Salghurids of Fars (Persian: اتابکان فارس 'Atābakān-e Fārs' or سلغُریان 'Salghoriān'), were a dynasty of Turkmen origin[4] that ruled Fars, first as vassals of the Seljuqs then for the Khwarazm Shahs in the 13th century. The Salghurids were established by Sunqur in 1148, who had profited from the rebellions during the reign of Seljuq sultan Mas'ud b. Muhammad. Later the Salghurids were able to solidify their position in southern Persia to the point of campaigning against Kurds and involving themselves in the succession of the Kirman Seljuqs,[5] holding Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah III's son Mahmud as a possible claimant to the Seljuq throne.[6] They captured Isfahan in 1203-4,[7] and later occupied Bahrain taken from the Uyunid dynasty in 1235.[8]

Under Sa'd I b. Zangi, the Salghurids experienced a significant prosperity, which was marred by his acknowledging the Khwarazm Shahs as his overlord. Saadi Shirazi, the Persian poet, dedicated his Bostan and Gulistan to Sa'd I and Sa'd II.[9] Following Sa'd I's death, his brother Zangi b. Mawdud took power in 1161. Dekele/Tekele followed his father, Zangi, only after eliminating Sonqur's son Toghril.[10]

During the 13th century, the Salghurids patronized a cultural and intellectual atmosphere which included, Kadi al-Baydawi, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Saadi Shirazi and the historian Wassaf.[11]

During the closing years of Aku Bakr and Sa'd II, Fars fell under the dominion of Mongol empire and later the Ilkhanate of Hulegu. Under the Mongols, Abu Bakr was given the title of Qutlugh Khan. Later Salghurids were powerless figureheads, until the daughter of Sa'd II, Abish Khatun was given the title of Atabegate of Fars. She was the sole ruler of Fars for one year whereupon she married, Mengu Temur, eleventh son of Hulegu.[12] Following their deaths, Fars was ruled directly by the Ilkhanate.[13]

List of Atabegs[edit]

  • Sunqur b. Mawdud (1148–1161)
  • Zangi b. Mawdud (1161–1178)
  • Degele/Tekele b. Zangi (1178–1198)
  • Sa'd I b. Zangi (1198–1226)
  • Qutlugh Khan Abu Bakr b. Sa'd I (1226–1260)
  • Sa'd II b. Qutlugh Khan (1260–1262)
  • Muhammad Shah b. Salghur Shah b. Sa'd I (1262–1263)
  • Seljuq Shah b. Salghur Shah (1263)
  • Abish Khatun b. Sa'd II (1263)
  • Abish Khatun w/ Mengu Temur b. Hulegu (1264–1282)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364. 
  2. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280. 
  3. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 
  4. ^ Salghurids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and G. Lecomte, (E.J.Brill, 1995), 978;"SALGHURIDS, a line of Atabegs which ruled in Pars during the second half of the 12th century and for much of the 13th one (1148-1282). They were of Turkmen origin.."
  5. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 207.
  6. ^ The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 169.
  7. ^ Salghurids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, 978.
  8. ^ Curtis E. Larsen, Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society, (University of Chicago Press, 1984), 66.
  9. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 207.
  10. ^ Salghurids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, 978.
  11. ^ Salghurids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, 979.
  12. ^ Salghurids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VIII, 979.
  13. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 207.