Aeshna isoceles is a small hawker dragonfly, found in Europe around the Mediterranean, the lowlands of North Africa. Its common name in English is green-eyed hawker. In Britain it is known as the Norfolk hawker, it has a brown colour with green eyes and clear wings and a yellow triangular mark on the second abdominal segment which gave rise to its scientific name. It used to be in the genus Anaciaeschna as it has several differences from the other members of the genus Aeshna, its specific name is spelt isosceles. A. isoceles is one of only two brown hawkers found in Europe, the other is A. grandis. Both have a brown thorax and abdomen but A. isoceles has green eyes and clear wings and a diagnostic yellow triangular mark on the second abdominal segment. The hindwings have an amber patch at their base. In contrast A. grandis has blueish eyes. The green eye of A. isoceles stand out in flight and in practice it is not difficult to tell these two dragonflies apart. In addition to the morphological differences A. isoceles is on the wing much earlier in the year than A. grandis.
A. isoceles is found in central Europe and around the Mediterranean and, the lowlands of North Africa. It is more common in eastern Europe than the south western Europe, it is found wet areas, ponds and marshes, with dense vegetation and, in studies carried out in England, was found to be associated with Water-soldier. The Norfolk hawker has always been a local insect in Britain, it used to be found in the Cambridgeshire fens but by the early 1980s the populations had declined. It is now confined to unpolluted fens and grazing marshes in the Broadlands of Norfolk and north-east Suffolk, it can be found in Hickling Broad and two national nature reserves: Mid-Yare NNR and Ludham - Potter Heigham NNR and at Castle Marshes in the Barnby Broad and Marshes SSSI. Since 2011 the species has been recorded in the Stour valley in east Kent where egg laying has been observed and it appears to be spreading, it is protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and listed in Category 1 in the British Red Data Books on Insects.
It is one of the earliest Aeshna dragonflies to be on the wing with a flight period from May to August. Adults do not spend as much time on the wing as other Aeshnas. Males will fly around over a stretch of water defending a territory and if the pond is small the male will hover over the centre of the pond. Unlike other aeshnas, where the adults seem to be continuously on the wing beating up and down their territory, male A. isoceles come to rest on vegetation from time to time. Females oviposit onto the eggs hatch in about 2 weeks. Larval development takes 2 years; this species was first described as Libellula quadrifasciata, var. 36. Isoceles by Muller in 1764, it has since been called Aeshna rufescens and Aeshna chysophthalmus and more Anaciaeschna isosceles. It is by this last name, it has since been included into the genus Aeshna and in many books is called Aeshna isosceles: however the original specific name was isoceles. Dijkstra and Lewington and Boudot JP. et al. both call it Aeshna isoceles whereas Askew, R.
R.and earlier books, refer to it as Aeshna isosceles. Askew, R. R; the Dragonflies of Europe. Harley Books. ISBN 0-946589-75-5 d'Aguilar, J. Dommanget, JL. and Prechac, R. A field guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and North Africa. Collins. Pp336. ISBN 0-00-219436-8 Boudot JP. et al. Atlas of the Odonata of the Mediterranean and North Africa. Libellula Supplement 9:1-256. Dijkstra, K-D. B & Lewington, R. Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and Europe. British Wildlife Publishing. ISBN 0-9531399-4-8. Clausnitzer, V.. "Aeshna isoceles". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e. T158692A5258302. Doi:10.2305/IUCN. UK.2009-2. RLTS. T158692A5258302.en. Retrieved 24 December 2017. "Norfolk Hawker". The Dragonflies and Damselflies of Norfolk. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 15 October 2010
Hoveton Great Broad
Hoveton Great Broad lies within The Broads in Norfolk, between Wroxham Broad and Salhouse Broad. The broad is connected to the River Bure, but not open to boat traffic. A nature trail was laid out in 1968 - the first in the region, it is accessible only by boat. Mooring is allowed opposite Salhouse Broad. Natural England has established a Nature trail. From the boardwalk, one can see the broad with its adjoining fens and alder carr. Media related to Hoveton Great Broad at Wikimedia Commons
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
The Broads is a network of navigable rivers and lakes in the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The lakes, known as broads, were formed by the flooding of peat workings; the Broads, some surrounding land, were constituted as a special area with a level of protection similar to a national park by the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads Act 1988. The Broads Authority, a special statutory authority responsible for managing the area, became operational in 1989; the area is 303 square kilometres, most of, in Norfolk, with over 200 kilometres of navigable waterways. There are seven rivers and 63 broads less than 4 metres deep. Thirteen broads are open to navigation, with a further three having navigable channels; some broads have navigation restrictions imposed on them in autumn and winter, although the legality of the restrictions is questionable. Although the terms Norfolk Broads and Suffolk Broads are used to identify specific areas within the two counties the whole area is referred to as the "Norfolk Broads".
The Broads has similar status to the national parks in Wales. Because of its navigation role the Broads Authority was established under its own legislation on 1 April 1989; the Broads Authority Act 2009, promoted through Parliament by the authority, is intended to improve public safety on the water. In January 2015 the Broads Authority approved a change in name of the area to the Broads National Park, to recognise that the status of the area is equivalent to the English National Parks, that the Broads Authority shares the same two first purposes as the English National Park Authorities, receives a National park grant; this followed a three-month consultation which resulted in support from 79% of consultees, including unanimous support from the 14 UK national parks and the Campaign for National Parks. Defra, the Government department responsible for the parks expressed it was content that the Authority would make its own decision on the matter; this is the subject of ongoing controversy among some Broads users who note that the Broads is not named in law as a National Park and claim the branding detracts from the Broads Authority's third purpose, to protect the interests of navigation.
In response to this the Broads Authority has stated that its three purposes will remain in equal balance and that the branding is for marketing the National Park qualities of the Broads. The Broads are administered by the Broads Authority. Special legislation gives the navigation of the waterways equal status with the conservation and public enjoyment of the area. Specific parts of the Broads have been awarded a variety of conservation designations, for instance: Special Protection Area status for an area named'Broadland' composed of 28 Sites of Special Scientific Interest Environmentally Sensitive Area status for parts of the Halvergate Marshes National nature reserve status for: Bure Marshes NNR Ant Broads & Marshes NNR Hickling Broad NNR Ludham - Potter Heigham NNR Redgrave and Lopham Fen Martham Broad NNR Calthorpe Broad NNR Mid-Yare NNRA specific project being considered under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan is re-introduction of the large copper butterfly, whose habitat has been reduced by reduction of fens.
The Broads, although administered by the Broads Authority, give their name to the Broadland local government district, while parts of the Broads lie within other council areas: North Norfolk, South Norfolk and Great Yarmouth and Waveney district in Suffolk. For many years the lakes known as broads were regarded as natural features of the landscape, it was only in the 1960s that Dr Joyce Lambert proved that they were artificial features—flooded medieval peat excavations. In the Middle Ages the local monasteries began to excavate the peatlands as a turbary business, selling fuel to Norwich and Great Yarmouth. Norwich Cathedral took 320,000 tonnes of peat a year; the sea levels began to rise, the pits began to flood. Despite the construction of windpumps and dykes, the flooding continued and resulted in the typical Broads landscape of today, with its reedbeds, grazing marshes and wet woodland. Various attempts were made to extend the navigable rivers; the longest-lasting was on the River Waveney, where an Act of Parliament passed on 17 March 1670 authorised improvements which included three locks, at Geldeston and Wainford.
The head of navigation became a new staithe at Bungay. The new section was a private navigation, not controlled by the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners, who had responsibility for the rest of the Broadland rivers, it remained in use until 1934 and, although the upper two locks have been replaced by sluices and Geldeston lock is derelict, the Environment Agency have negotiated with local landowners to allow use by canoes and unpowered vessels which can be portaged around the locks. The next attempt was to extend navigation on the River Bure from Coltishall to Aylsham, authorised by an Act of Parliament on 7 April 1773. Five locks were built, to bypass mills, at Coltishall, Oxnead Lamas, Oxnead and Aylsham. There were financial difficulties during construction, but the works were completed and opened in October 1779. At Aylsham, a 1-mile cut was made from the river to a terminal basin, where several warehouses were constructed. Despite the arrival of the railways in 1879, goods continued to be carried to Aylsham by wherries until 1912, when major flooding badly damaged the locks.
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Salhouse is a village and civil parish in the Broads in the English county of Norfolk. It lies south of about 10 kilometres north-east of Norwich; the civil parish has an area of 8.96 km2 and in the 2001 census had a population of 1,462 in 604 households, increasing to 1,486 in 638 households at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of Broadland although areas adjoining the river and broad fall into the executive area of the Broads Authority. Salhouse All Saints church, thatched and believed to date from the 14th century, stands on a hill beside the Salhouse-Wroxham Road; the church contains among other features an oak rood screen, a unique sacring bell which hangs in the chancel and dates from the reign of Queen Mary, two coffin lids discovered under the nave floor in 1839 and dated to the 13th century. There is a red brick Baptist church in Chapel Loke, off Lower Street, which dates from 1802. To the west of All Saints Church stands the grade II listed Salhouse Hall, now uninhabited, built in red brick with limestone detailing.
Parts of this building may date from the 16th century although it is 18th century with 19th-century Gothic style remodelling. The village features the Bell Inn, a 17th-century public house and the Lodge Inn, located halfway between Salhouse and Wroxham. Salhouse is served by Salhouse railway station, on the Bittern Line from Norwich to Cromer and Sheringham and once featured two waiting rooms, although they are no longer in regular use. Salhouse has a post office, Village store and Coffee shop in Lower Street and several other small businesses including kennels, a Cattery and a Potter; the 32-acre Salhouse Broad, lying about half a mile to the north of the village, is owned and jointly managed with the local community. It is accessible by boat via a footpath from the village. Salhouse is first recorded in 1291 as Salhus; the first element is believed to derive from Old English a kind of willow. The word still exists in dial. English saugh. Sallow descends itself from OE inflexional salg-; the second element is the Old English hūs or Old Norse hús "house".
Homonymy with Sahurs in the low Seine valley, which shows together with other place-names and anthroponyms in Normandy, that there were Anglo-Saxons among the Danish settlers. During 2008, proposals were made for a controversial new eco-town, to contain over 3000 homes, to be built in Rackheath and Salhouse; the proposals have attracted much criticism because it is to be built on a greenfield site, within a mile of The Broads National Park. Map sources for Salhouse Information from Genuki Norfolk on Salhouse. Salhouse village web site
The black swan is a large waterbird, a species of swan which breeds in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia. Within Australia they are nomadic, with erratic migration patterns dependent upon climatic conditions. Black swans are large birds with black plumage and red bills, they are monogamous breeders, are unusual in that one-quarter of all pairings are homosexual between males. Both partners share cygnet rearing duties. Black swans were introduced to various countries as an ornamental bird in the 1800s, but have escaped and formed stable populations. A small population of black swans exists on the River Thames at Marlow, on the Brook running through the small town of Dawlish in Devon, near the River Itchen and the River Tees near Stockton on Tees. Described scientifically by English naturalist John Latham in 1790, the black swan was placed into a monotypic genus, Chenopis. Black swans can be found singly, or in loose companies numbering into the hundreds or thousands. Black swans are popular birds in zoological gardens and bird collections, escapees are sometimes seen outside their natural range.
Black swans are black-feathered birds, with white flight feathers. The bill is bright red, with tip. Cobs are larger than pens, with a longer and straighter bill. Cygnets are a greyish-brown with pale-edged feathers. A mature black swan weighs 3.7 -- 9 kilograms. Its wing span is between 2 metres; the neck is curved in an "S" - shape. The black swan utters a musical and far reaching bugle-like sound, called either on the water or in flight, as well as a range of softer crooning notes, it can whistle when disturbed while breeding and nesting. When swimming, black swans hold their necks arched or erect and carry their feathers or wings raised in an aggressive display. In flight, a wedge of black swans will form as a line or a V, with the individual birds flying with undulating long necks, making whistling sounds with their wings and baying, bugling or trumpeting calls; the black swan is unlike any other Australian bird, although in poor light and at long range it may be confused with a magpie goose in flight.
However, the black swan can be distinguished by slower wing beat. One captive population of black swans in Lakeland, Florida has produced a few individuals which are a light mottled grey color instead of black; the black swan is common in the wetlands of southwestern and eastern Australia and adjacent coastal islands. In the south west the range encompasses an area between Cape Leeuwin and Eucla, it is uncommon in northern Australia. The black swan's preferred habitat extends across fresh and salt water lakes and rivers with underwater and emergent vegetation for food and nesting materials. Permanent wetlands are preferred, including ornamental lakes, but black swans can be found in flooded pastures and tidal mudflats, on the open sea near islands or the shore. Black swans were once thought to be sedentary, but the species is now known to be nomadic. There is no set migratory pattern, but rather opportunistic responses to drought. In high rainfall years, emigration occurs from the south west and south east into the interior, with a reverse migration to these heartlands in drier years.
When rain does fall in the arid central regions, black swans will migrate to these areas to nest and raise their young. However, should dry conditions return before the young have been raised, the adult birds will abandon the nests and their eggs or cygnets and return to wetter areas. Black swans, like many other water fowl, lose all their flight feathers at once when they moult after breeding and they are unable to fly for about a month. During this time they will settle on large, open waters for safety; the species has a large range, with figures between one and ten million km2 given as the extent of occurrence. The current global population is estimated to be up to 500,000 individuals. No threat of extinction or significant decline in population has been identified with this numerous and widespread bird. Black swans were first seen by Europeans in 1697, when Willem de Vlamingh's expedition explored the Swan River, Western Australia. Before the arrival of the Māori in New Zealand, a related species of swan known as the New Zealand swan had developed there, but was hunted to extinction.
In 1864, the Australian black swan was introduced to New Zealand as an ornamental waterfowl and populations are now common on larger coastal or inland lakes Rotorua Lakes, Lake Wairarapa, Lake Ellesmere, the Chatham Islands. Black swans have naturally flown to New Zealand, leading scientists to consider them a native rather than exotic species, although the present population appears to be descended from deliberate introductions; the black swan is very popular as an ornamental waterbird in western Europe Britain, escapees are reported. As yet, the population in Britain is not considered to be self-sustaining and so the species is not afforded admission to the official British List, but the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust have recorded a maximum of nine breeding pairs in the UK in 2001, with an estimate of 43 feral birds in 200
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm