Lod is a mixed Jewish-Arab city 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv in the Central District of Israel. In 2015 it had a population of 72,819, the name is derived from the Biblical city of Lod, and it was a significant Judean town from the Maccabean Period to the early Christian period. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War most of the citys Arab inhabitants were expelled in the 1948 Palestinian exodus from Lydda, the town was resettled by Jewish immigrants, most of them from Arab countries, alongside 1,056 Arabs who remained. Israels main international airport, Ben Gurion International Airport is located on the outskirts of the city, the Hebrew name Lod appears in the Bible as a town of Benjamin, founded by Shamed or Shamer. In the New Testament, it appears as its Greek form, the city also finds reference in an Islamic Hadith, as the location of the battlefield where the antichrist will be slain before the Day of Judgment. Pottery finds have dated the citys initial settlement to 5600–5250 BC, the earliest written record is in a list of Canaanite towns drawn up by the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III at Karnak in 1465 BC. From the fifth century BC until the Roman conquest in 70 CE, according to Martin Gilbert, during the Hasmonean period, Jonathan Maccabee and his brother Simon Maccabaeus enlarged the area under Jewish control, which included conquering the city. In 43 BC, Cassius, the Roman governor of Syria, sold the inhabitants of Lod into slavery, during the First Jewish–Roman War, the Roman proconsul of Syria, Cestius Gallus, razed the town on his way to Jerusalem in 66 CE. It was occupied by Emperor Vespasian in 68 CE, in the period following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, Rabbi Tarfon, who appears in many Tannaitic and Jewish legal discussions, served as a rabbinic authority in Lod. During the Kitos War, 115-117 CE, the Roman army laid siege to Lod, torah study was outlawed by the Romans and pursued mostly in the underground. The distress became so great, the patriarch Rabban Gamaliel II, other rabbis disagreed with this ruling. Lydda was next taken and many of the Jews were executed, in 200 CE, emperor Septimius Severus elevated the town to the status of a city, calling it Colonia Lucia Septimia Severa Diospolis. The name Diospolis may have been bestowed earlier, possibly by Hadrian, at that point, most of its inhabitants were Christian. The earliest known bishop is Aëtius, a friend of Arius, in December 415, the Council of Diospolis was held here to try Pelagius, he was acquitted. In the sixth century, the city was renamed Georgiopolis after St. George, a soldier in the guard of the emperor Diocletian, the Church of St. George is named for him. The Madaba map shows Lydda as a city under a black inscription with a cluster of buildings. An isolated building with a plaza in front of it might represent the St. George shrine. The population of al-Ludd was relocated to Ramla, as well, with the relocation of its inhabitants and the construction of the White Mosque in Ramla, al-Ludd lost its importance and fell into decay
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Maccabi Sha'arayim F.C.
Maccabi Shaarayim is an Israeli football club from the city Rehovot, currently playing in Liga Leumit. The club spent the past seven seasons in the top division from 1963 to 1969, the club was promoted to Liga Leumit for the first time in 1963. In their first season in the league they finished 11th out of 15, the following season the club finished sixth, which remains their highest ever league position. In the 1965–66 season they avoided relegation, finishing one place above the relegation zone. In 1969 Maccabi reach the cup final for the first time, in the same season they finished second bottom of the league and were relegated back to Liga Alef. The final match of the 1971–72 season saw the club have a chance to return to the top flight, but they lost 2–1 to Hapoel Marmorek, which were promoted instead. Two years later qualified for the promotion/relegation play-offs, but failed to win any of their five matches. At the end of the 1977–78 season they finished bottom of Liga Artzit and were relegated to Liga Alef, however, they finished bottom, and were relegated back to Liga Artzit. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club returned to Liga Alef, in the 2015–16 season, the club won Liga Alef South division and promoted to Liga Leumit. Thus, the returned to the second tier of Israeli football after 23 years
Gadna Tel Aviv Yehuda F.C.
Gadna Tel Aviv Yehuda Football Club, is a football club in Tel Aviv, Israel. The club is one of the most successful youth academies in the history of Israel, gadna Yehuda was created in 1947 as a feeder team in the hope of transferring young Israeli players to the top clubs in Israel. In 2008, after more than 61 years as working in the youth leagues. In the 2010–11 season the side of the club got promoted to Liga Bet after they won Liga Gimel Tel Aviv Division. In the 2012–13 season they finished 14th in Liga Bet South A Division, the senior club did not enter Liga Gimel at the 2013–14 season. Salim Tuama Kobi Dajani Michael Kadosh Moshe Romano Haim Revivo Avi Yehiel Dela Yampolsky An article about the clubs 60th Anniversary on Livegames. co. il
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Maccabi Petah Tikva F.C.
Maccabi Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. It is part of the Maccabi sports club and currently plays in the Israeli Premier League. In 1921, after the death of founder member Avshalom Gisin during the 1921 Palestine riots, the club added his name to the name. In 1927 the club moved to the Maccabi Petah Tikva Ground, in 1935 they won their first piece of silverware, beating Hakoah Tel Aviv 1–0 in the cup final. In 1939 they reached the final again, but lost 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, the following year they won the Haaretz tournament. The club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949, in the next season they finished as runners-up to champions Maccabi Tel Aviv and also won the State Cup, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0. In 1953–54 they also finished second with Eliezer Spiegel finishing as the top goalscorer on 16 goals from 22 matches. After several seasons of mid-table finishes, Maccabi finished bottom of the table in 1962–63 and were due to be relegated to Liga Alef, however, the Israel Football Association decided to expand the league from 12 to 15 clubs and they were spared demotion. However, the club was relegated at the end of the 1965–66 season after finishing second from bottom, after two seasons in Liga Alef the club returned to the top division in 1969. At the end of the 1970–71 season the club was relegated again after finishing second from bottom, although Maccabi finished bottom in 1974–75, they were again reprieved from relegation due to league expansion. However, after a performance in 1976–77 they did go down. After making another return to the top flight, the club maintained several mid-table finishes. In 1990 and 1991 the club won the Liga Artzit Toto Cup and they returned to the top division in 1991 and have remained there since. In 1995 the club won the top divisions Toto Cup for the first time, in 2001 the club reached the cup final for the first time in 49 years, losing 3–0 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 2003–04 they finished third, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, however, the home leg of their third qualifying round tie against SC Heerenveen was cancelled by UEFA due to a baggage handlers strike, and they lost the away leg 5–0. In 2004–05 the club finished second in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup again and this time they were more successful, beating Macedonian side FK Baskimi 11–0 on aggregate, before knocking out Partizan Belgrade. However, in the stage they finished bottom having lost all four matches. As of 1 February 201604 – Morad Megamadov, Center back, the club played at the Maccabi Petah Tikva ground between 1926 and the 1970s
Kayserispor is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Kayseri. The club colours are red and yellow, and the play their home matches at Kadir Has Stadium. The club has won one Türkiye Kupası, in 2008, and they became fifth in the Süper Lig four times, in 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, and 2012–13. The club was one of the co-winners of the 2006 Intertoto Cup. Erciyespor, which was Kayserispors predecessor, was founded as Erciyesspor with red-white colours, in 1937, Erciyesspor merged with Yılmazspor and changed their colours to yellow-red. It was merged into Kayseri Gençlik in 1940 and they were refounded in 1948 with yellow-navy colours. They merged with Kayseri Gençlik in 1949 and changed their colours to yellow-red, but they were refounded by Naci Ulucan in 1952. They played in a league until 1966. These new clubs would compete in the newly created 2. Lig, after several meetings, representatives of the city merged Erciyesspor, Sanayispor, and Ortaanadoluspor to form Kayserispor. The club submitted the paperwork and were officially founded as Kayserispor on 1 July 1966. They began competing in the 1966–672. Lig, erdoğan Gürhan was the first manager, signing a contract worth 1,500 TL. In their first season, the competed in the Beyaz Grup. Yener scored the first goal in history when he netted a shot in the 17th minute against Ankara Toprakspor. The club finished with a nine win, nine draw, and twelve loss record in 30 matches while scoring 21 goals and it was refounded as Kayseri Emniyetspor with red-navy colours. They merged with Kayserigücü, whose name was Mahrumlarspor in 1985. They were promoted to 3rd level in 1988, however changed their name to Kayseri Erciyesspor due to the Security General Directorates decision to withdraw Security teams from leagues. They changed their colours to black-white and they became Büyükşehir Belediye Erciyesspor with blue-white colours in 1992, Melikgazi Belediyesi Erciyesspor with yellow-red in 1997, and Hacılar Erciyesspor with yellow-navy colours in 1999. They were promoted to level in the 1999–2000 season
Athlitiki Enosi Larissa F.C.
AEL F. C. also known with its full name Athlitiki Enosi Larissa, simply called AEL or Larissa, is a Greek association football club based in the city of Larissa, capital of Greeces Thessaly region. Founded in 1964, it is associated with the city of Larissa. The clubs emblem, is a horse and its colors are crimson. It is the team outside the two major Greek cities to have won the Greek Championship in the season 1987–88. AEL has also won twice the Greek Cup and played in additional in two Cup finals and this record places the club among the top teams in the history of Greek football. They play their games at AEL FC Arena, a newly built stadium with a capacity of 16,118 seats. The team currently competes in the Greek Super League, the first division of football championships. Athletic Union of Larissa, The Queen of Thessaly, the Queen of the lowlands, AEL, is the club that represents one of the greatest Greek football prefectures. One Championship, two cups, four finals and many important successes at European level compose the temporal profile of the top team of the Greek region, AEL was created from a vision of a powerful team that will represent a city like Larisa in the top category. Yugoslavian Alexander Petrovic, was the first foreign coach that was hired to ensure the impartiality of the team lineup. Thus, names of players like Zampas, Karelias, Kyriakos, Lellis, Papazoglou, Kassas, Saltapidas, Delfos, Katsianis and many others, the team ends the season 1964–65 in the 5th place. The next year claimed the promotion again, improving however by two seats in the final table, the promotion was lost in a game on 8 May 1966 at Megara with the home side Vyzas opponent. During the entry of the team on the field, player Dimitrios Zambas was hit in the head by a ladder thrown from the stands and was taken to the hospital. The team with 10 players due to the elimination of Kyriakidis from the first quarter, and with 3 of the 10 remaining players injured, had formal presence, disappointment was soon made its appearance. In Fact, there was a rationalization of the Second Division, but the effort was left unfinished. Because, ultimately there has no relegation and it was decided the next season each group to have 18 teams. Otherwise, like the season, the winners of groups went to the final phase. The team indeed, with the entrance to the 1970s, the emergence of the forefront of Kantonias family
Israel national under-21 football team
Israels national Under-21 team is considered to be the feeder team for the Israel national football team. It has recently qualified for the European Championships to be held in the Netherlands after beating the French under-21 team 2-1 on aggregate. This team is for Israeli players aged 21 or under at the start of a two-year UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship campaign, so players can be, also in existence are teams for Under-20s, Under-19s and Under 17s. As long as they are eligible, players can play at any level, making it possible to play for the U-21s, senior side and again for the U-21s and it is also possible to play for one country at youth level and another at senior level. The U-21 team came into existence, following the Israels acceptance as a member of UEFA. A draw in a qualifier against Greece in Greece was Israel U-21s first result, Israel U-21s do not have a permanent home. They play in stadia dotted all around Israel in an attempt to encourage fans in all areas of the country to get behind Israel, because of the lack of appeal compared to the senior national team, smaller grounds are used. There is no Under-21 World Cup, although there is an Under-20 World Cup, European U-21 teams compete for the European Championship, with the finals every even-numbered year. It will be held in odd-numbered years from 2007, Israel has never fared well in European Under-21 Football Championships. The current campaign started shortly after the 2006 finals - the qualification stage of the 2007 competition, UEFA have decided to shift the next tournament forward to avoid a clash with senior tournaments taking place in even-numbered years. The competition has therefore been reduced as qualifying must be completed in a less time. In their three-team qualification group, Israel finished ahead of Turkey, in the two-legged play-off against France for a place in the final stage, the team achieved a surprising 1-1 draw in France and won the home match 1-0, with Amir Taga scoring in stoppage time. Note, The year of the tournament represents the year in which it ends, note, Club represents the permanent clubs during the players time in the Under-21s. Note, Club represents the permanent clubs during the time in the Under-21s. The following players were named in the squad for friendly match against Cyprus
Israel national football team
The Israel national football team is the national football team of Israel, governed by the Israel Football Association. Israels national team is the successor of the Mandatory Palestine/Eretz Israel national team. The Israeli side qualified for their only FIFA World Cup to date in 1970, Israel also hosted and won the AFC Asian Cup in 1964, and was finalist in 1956 and in 1960. Football has a tradition in Israel. The game was introduced during the time of the Ottoman Empire. The British Mandate of Palestine national team made its debut against Egypt in 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, the team played five international matches, including a friendly match against Lebanon, until the British Mandate for Palestine was dissolved. Upon the creation of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Israel national teams first match as an independent nation was on 26 September 1948, against the USA Olympic Team. The game was won by the USA 1–3, and in the 20th minute of the game Shmuel Ben-Dror scored the first goal after the creation of the State of Israel, Israel competed in the Asian Football Confederation between 1954 and 1974. Due to the Arab–Israeli conflict, several Muslim states refused to compete against Israel, Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. In 1968, Israel went to their first Olympic Games and lost to Bulgaria in the quarterfinals. In 1969, Israel qualified for its first and only FIFA World Cup, via Asia/Oceania, in 1976, Israel went to its second Olympic Games and lost in the quarterfinals again, this time against Brazil. In 1972 and 1977, it attempted World Cup qualification as part of Asia, in 1974, Israel was excluded from AFC competitions, as a result of a proposal by Kuwait which was adopted by a vote of 17 to 13 with 6 abstentions. The vote coincided with the 1974 Asian Games, where the competition was marred by the refusal of both North Korea and Kuwait to play second-round matches against Israel. During the 1980s, it played the majority of its matches against European teams, for the next two tournaments, it entered Oceanias qualification stage. In 1989, Israel made it to the CONMEBOL–OFC play-offs for the 1990 World Cup to play against Colombia, which qualified from the South American group, but lost. In 1991, Israeli clubs began participating in European club competitions, in 1994, Israel received full UEFA membership,20 years after it had left Asia. Within Europe, Israel has been a minor nation, though with some successes, notably winning 3–2 in Paris against France in 1993. That year, Israel made it to the playoffs of UEFA Euro 2000, the Swiss had a better goal difference, though, and advanced to the qualification play-off
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is also the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin. Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has also borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time. To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
Hebrew is a language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide, of whom over 5 million are in Israel. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, the earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family, Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language. Hebrew had ceased to be a spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt. Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and it survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to Ethnologue, had become, as of 1998, the language of 5 million people worldwide. After Israel, the United States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers, Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon Hakodesh, the modern word Hebrew is derived from the word Ivri, one of several names for the Israelite people. It is traditionally understood to be a based on the name of Abrahams ancestor, Eber. This name is based upon the root ʕ-b-r meaning to cross over. Interpretations of the term ʕibrim link it to this verb, cross over, in the Bible, the Hebrew language is called Yәhudit because Judah was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation. In Isaiah 19,18 it is called the Language of Canaan, Hebrew belongs to the Canaanite group of languages. In turn, the Canaanite languages are a branch of the Northwest Semitic family of languages, according to Avraham ben-Yosef, Hebrew flourished as a spoken language in the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah during about 1200 to 586 BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew was a vernacular in ancient times following the Babylonian exile. In July 2008 Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a ceramic shard at Khirbet Qeiyafa which he claimed may be the earliest Hebrew writing yet discovered, dating around 3000 years ago. The Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the beginning of the Monarchic Period, classified as Archaic Biblical Hebrew, the calendar presents a list of seasons and related agricultural activities. The Gezer calendar is written in an old Semitic script, akin to the Phoenician one that through the Greeks, the Gezer calendar is written without any vowels, and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places where later Hebrew spelling requires it
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Arab citizens of Israel
Arab citizens of Israel or Arab population of Israel are Israeli citizens, whose cultural and linguistic heritage or ethnic identity is Arab. The majority of the Arabs in Israel are Muslim but some are Christian or Druze, many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic, Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam, There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israels Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, the majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria, Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services, how to refer to the Arab citizenry of Israel is a highly politicized issue and there are a number of self-identification labels used by members of this community. According to The New York Times, most prefer now to identify themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel rather than as Israeli Arabs, the New York Times uses both Palestinian Israelis and Israeli Arabs to refer to the same population. Common practice in academic literature is to identify this community as Palestinian as it is how the majority self-identify. There are, however, individuals from among the Arab citizenry who reject the term Palestinian altogether, a minority of Israels Arab citizens include Israeli in some way in their self-identifying label, the majority identify as Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship. The Israeli establishment prefers Israeli Arabs or Arabs in Israel, and also uses the terms the minorities and these labels have been criticized for denying this population a political or national identification, obscuring their Palestinian identity and connection to Palestine. The term Israeli Arabs in particular is viewed as a construct of the Israeli authorities and it is nonetheless used by a significant minority of the Arab population, reflecting its dominance in Israeli social discourse. Other terms used to refer to this population include Palestinian Arabs in Israel, Israeli Palestinian Arabs, and the Arabs inside the Green Line. The latter appellation, among others listed above, are not applied to the East Jerusalem Arab population or the Druze in the Golan Heights, as these territories were occupied by Israel in 1967. In the aftermath of the 1948 war, British Mandate of Palestine was de facto divided into three parts, the State of Israel, the Jordanian-held West Bank, and the Egyptian-held Gaza Strip. Of the estimated 950,000 Arabs that lived in the territory that became Israel before the war, Benny Morris says, Most of Palestines 700,000 refugees fled their homes because of the flail of war. But it is true that there were several dozen sites, including Lydda and Ramla. The other 20%, some 156,000, remained, Arab citizens of Israel today are largely composed of the people who remained and their descendants
In British sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a players appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in a match of association football. An early illustration of the first international match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, and the English wearing a variety of school caps. These to be termed International Caps, the act of awarding a cap is now international and is applied to other sports. Thus, a cap is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a debut or, particularly for national teams. As an example, the England mens association football teams still awards physical caps, Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament. Then they are given a cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. In mens association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt, the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of Englands Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England,90 of them he obtained whilst he was a captain, however, it is a players choice to refuse to play for or retire from his or her national team. In cricket, there are two types of caps, firstly, there is the international type, as described above. Some countries also award a domestic type generally known as a county cap, the latter system is most commonly applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance, instead, indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, and have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without ever winning a cap. The world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, Tendulkar also holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union,35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012, Players from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, and caps are awarded, the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Niue and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps. Players still active at Test level are in bold type, the record for most caps is held by former Australian Kangaroos player & captain Darren Lockyer with 59 games and second place is former New Zealand Kiwis player & captain Ruben Wiki with 55 games. Players still active at Test level are in bold type, mens Records and Facts FIFA Players with 100+ Caps RSSSF Picture of International Football Cap National Museum of Scotland Gallery of International Caps and Honours Caps
Pini Balili is an Israeli-Turkish former footballer who now works as a manager. As a youngster, Balili grew up supporting Hapoel Tel Aviv and was part of the system there before moving to Shimshon Tel Aviv in his teens. It wasnt long before he caught the eye of Hapoel scouts who saw Balili as a missed opportunity so the club purchased his contract after just one professional season and his breakout did not come until the Dror Kashtan era at Hapoel Tel Aviv. Instrumental in the success in the UEFA Cup, Balili found himself featuring for the national team as well. After the 2002–03 season, Hapoel decided to cut wages and Pini left for Turkish club Istanbulspor, balilis Turkish league debut was sensational, on August 10,2003, he scored a beautiful chip as his team surprised city rivals Fenerbache 3–0. Troubles at Istanbulspor led to Balili being let go after just one season, though he immediately signed with newly promoted Kayserispor. In 2006, Sivasspor applied for Turkish citizenship for Balili stating that he is a citizen in Turkey and has full grasp of the Turkish language. A somewhat religious man, rumors were started that a match between Sivasspor and Ankaraspor, was postponed during the 2006–07 on account of it coinciding with Yom Kippur. The Turkish Football Federation denied these claims, the story garnered some press coverage, namely because Israeli goalkeeper, Dudu Aouate claimed that he was willing to play on the Jewish day of atonement. On August 12,2007 Balili was viciously tackled by Trabzonspors Egyptian defensive midfielder, allegedly, Ayman swore at Balili in Arabic before the tackle and it caused the Sivasspor players to fight with the Trabzonspor players. A spectator then jumped onto the pitch and threw punches, Sivasspor players responded which led to a big fight on the field. Trabzonspor got punished for this incident, on the June 16,2010 Balili signed a two-year contract with Bnei Yehuda reuniting with his former coach Dror Kashtan. On October 17,2012 he moved to play for Maccabi Ironi Bat Yam in Liga Alef, on December 10,2012 Balili took over as the caretaker manager of Maccabi Ironi Bat Yam while still playing for them. The next season Balili worked as the assistant manager of Bat Yam until the club folded at the end of the 2013-14 season, in the 2014-15 season, Balili worked as the manager of Maccabi Holon in the Ligat Nashim. On July 30,2015 Balili was appointed as the manager of F. C. Shikun HaMizrah. List of select Jewish football players
Associazione Calcio Milan, commonly referred to as A. C. Milan, is a professional football club in Milan, Italy, founded in 1899. The club has spent its entire history, with the exception of the 1980–81 and 1982–83 seasons, in the top flight of Italian football, known as Serie A since 1929–30. With 18 officially recognised UEFA and FIFA titles, they are the fourth most successful club in the world, with 18 league titles, Milan is the joint-second most successful club in Serie A, along with local rivals Internazionale. They have also won the Coppa Italia five times, and the Supercoppa Italiana seven, Milans home games are played at San Siro, also known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza. The stadium, which is shared with city rivals Internazionale, is the largest in Italian football, inter are considered their biggest rivals, and matches between the two teams are called Derby della Madonnina, which is one of the most followed derbies in football. The owner of the club is former Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, the club is one of the wealthiest in Italian and world football. It was a member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europes leading football clubs as well as its replacement. A. C. Milan was founded as Milan Cricket and Foot-Ball Club on 13 December 1899 by English expatriates Alfred Edwards and Herbert Kilpin, who came from the English city of Nottingham. In honour of its English origins, the club has retained the English spelling of the name, as opposed to the Italian spelling Milano. Milan won its first Italian championship in 1901 and a two in succession in 1906 and 1907. In 1908, Milan experienced a split caused by disagreements over the signing of foreign players. Following these events, Milan did not manage to win a domestic title until 1950–51. The 1950s saw the return to the top of Italian football, headed by the famous Gre-No-Li Swedish trio Gunnar Gren, Gunnar Nordahl. This was one of the clubs most successful periods domestically, with the Scudetto going to Milan in 1951,1955,1957,1959 and 1962, in 1963, Milan won its first continental title by beating Benfica in the final of the European Cup. This success was repeated in 1969, with a 4–1 win over Ajax in the final, during this period Milan also won its first Coppa Italia, with victory over Padova in the 1967 final, and two European Cup Winners Cups, in 1967–68 and 1972–73. Milan won a league title in 1979, but after the retirement of Gianni Rivera in the same year. The club was involved in the 1980 Totonero scandal and as punishment was relegated to Serie B for the first time in its history, the scandal was centred around a betting syndicate paying players and officials to fix the outcome of matches. Milan achieved promotion back to Serie A at the first attempt, winning the 1980–81 Serie B title, in 1983, Milan won the Serie B title for the second time in three seasons to return to Serie A, where they achieved a sixth-place finish in 1983–84
Sivasspor is a Turkish sports club based in Sivas, Turkey formed in 1967. They play in the Turkish TFF First League and they finished fifth in the 2013–14 season, and contended for the Süper Lig title for two consecutive seasons, ultimately finishing fourth and second respectively. Sivasspor were originally formed on 14 May 1932 in Sivas as Sivas Gençlik and they sported Kırmızı-Beyaz shirts and Beyaz shorts. They played many matches at the level in their early years before they were allowed to play professionally. By the mid-1960s, Sivas Gençlik merged with Yolspor and Kızılırmak and they had hoped that this merger would help their push to join the professional leagues, the league closed their doors to Sivasspor once more. There were several boycotts until 1 July 1967, when Sivasspor was allowed to play football in Turkey. Sivasspor started out in the Second League, White Group, due to there being many new clubs, the Turkish Football Federation decided to create a third league. They were permitted into the Second League along with Afyonspor, Balıkesirspor, Giresunspor, Kastamonuspor, Malatyaspor, Orduspor, Uşakspor, during their first professional season, Sivasspor finished 16th in their group, a mere four points from relegation. They also finished in the half of the table the following season. They came close to promotion to First League in 1971–72 and 1972–73 seasons but finished second behind Şekerspor, Sivasspor would remain in the lower leagues until winning the Second League in 2005, gaining automatic promotion. The club finished 8th in their first season in the Turkcell Super League, werner Lorant lead the team to key victories over clubs like Beşiktaş J. K. and Gençlerbirliği. At the end of their first season in the top flight, they finished with a record of ten wins, thirteen draws, and eleven losses, totaling out to 43 points. The club then finished 4th in the 2007–08 season, finishing on the number of points as the second and third place teams. Sivasspor had the championship in their sights until the penultimate match, the 2008–09 season saw them finish 2nd after leading the table for much of the season. After losing their match of the season, they finished behind leaders Beşiktaş by 5 points. Almost all casualties were Sivasspor fans, who perished in a stampede after chaos broke out in their ranks, the match was finished 1–0 in favour of the Kayseri side. After the disaster, Kayseri Erciyesspor and Sivasspor played different groups of the 2nd league until the 1990–91 season and that year, both teams reconciled and played in the Fourth Group of the Third League. Kayseri Erciyesspor were champions and promoted to Second League, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Super League is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in Europe. The league has twelve teams, eleven from England and one from France, canadian and Welsh clubs that also compete in the Rugby Football League can also qualify. Commonally known in the UK as the Super League it is referred to internationally as the European Super League, the current champions are Wigan Warriors. Super League began in 1996, replacing the RFL Championship and switching from a winter to a summer season, each team plays 23 games between February and July,11 home games,11 away games and a Magic Weekend game at a neutral venue. After 23 games, teams enter a Super 8 stage, the top eight play each other once more, the top four then enter the play-off series leading to the Grand Final which determines the champions. The bottom four teams go on to play the top four Championship teams in The Qualifiers to determine who will play in Super League the following season, Leeds Rhinos are the most successful club in the Super League era, having won 7 titles. However, Wigan Warriors are the most successful overall, having won 21 British Championships. The Super League champions play the National Rugby League champions from Australasia in the World Club Challenge at the start of the season, murdoch also approached the British clubs to form Super League. A large sum of money aided the decision, and the competition got under way in 1996, part of the deal saw rugby league switch from a winter to a summer season. The 12 founding teams of Super League were, Bradford Bulls Castleford Tigers Halifax Leeds Rhinos London Broncos Oldham Roughyeds Paris Saint-Germain Sheffield Eagles St. C, however this proved so unpopular that only existing clubs were selected for the competition. London Broncos, who had come fourth in the Second Division, were fast-tracked in on commercial grounds, a new team, Paris Saint-Germain, was created to give a French dimension. Between 1998 and 2000 there was no relegation from Super League, after two years Paris were dropped from the competition. In 2006, French side Catalans Dragons from Perpignan joined the league, Super League licences were announced in May 2005 by the RFL as the new determinant of the Super League competitions participants from 2009 in place of promotion and relegation. The licences were awarded after consideration of more factors than just the performance of a club. After 2007 automatic promotion and relegation was suspended for Super League with new teams to be admitted on a basis with the term of the licence to start in 2009. The RFL stated that applying to compete in Super League would be assessed by criteria in four areas with the final evaluations and decisions being taken by the RFL board of directors. Points attained by each application are translated into licence grades A, B or C. First licensing period In June 2008, the RFL confirmed that Super League would be expanded from 12 teams to 14 in 2009, the teams announced were the 12 existing Super League teams along with National League 1 teams, Celtic Crusaders and Salford
UEFA Europa League
The UEFA Europa League, previously called the UEFA Cup, is an annual football club competition organized by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their national leagues, previously called the UEFA Cup, the competition has been known as the UEFA Europa League since the 2009–10 season, following a change in format. For UEFA footballing records purposes, the UEFA Cup and UEFA Europa League are considered the same competition, in 1999, the UEFA Cup Winners Cup was abolished and merged with the UEFA Cup. For the 2004–05 competition a group stage was added prior to the knockout phase, the 2009 re-branding included a merge with the UEFA Intertoto Cup, producing an enlarged competition format, with an expanded group stage and changed qualifying criteria. The winner enters at least at the round, and will enter the group stage if the berth reserved for the Champions League title holders is not used. The title has been won by 27 different clubs,12 of which have won the more than once. The UEFA Cup was preceded by the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, which was a European football competition played between 1955 and 1971, the competition grew from 11 teams during the first cup to 64 teams by the last cup which was played in 1970–71. It had become so important on the European football scene that in the end it was taken over by UEFA, the UEFA Cup was first played in the 1971–72 season, with an all-English final of Wolverhampton Wanderers versus Tottenham Hotspur, with Spurs taking the first honours. The title was retained by another English club, Liverpool in 1973, Borussia would win the competition in 1975 and 1979, and reach the final again in 1980. Liverpool won the competition for the time in 1976, beating Club Brugge in the final. During the 1980s, IFK Göteborg and Real Madrid won the competition twice each,1989 saw the commencement of the Italian clubs domination, when Maradonas Napoli beat Stuttgart. The 1990s started with two finals, and in 1992, Torino lost the final to Ajax on the away goals rule. Juventus won the competition for a time in 1993 and Internazionale kept the cup in Italy the following year. 1995 saw a third final, with Parma proving their consistency. The only final with no Italians during that decade was in 1996, Parma won the cup in 1999, which ended the Italian club era. Liverpool won the competition for the time in 2001 and Porto triumphed in the 2003 and 2011 tournaments. In 2004, the cup returned to Spain with Valencia being victorious, either side of Sevillas success, two Russian teams, CSKA Moscow in 2005 and Zenit Saint Petersburg in 2008, had their glory and yet another former Soviet club, Ukraines Shakhtar Donetsk, won in 2009. Atlético Madrid would themselves win twice in three seasons, in 2010 and 2012, the latter in another all-Spanish final, in 2013, Chelsea would become the first Champions League holders to win the UEFA Cup/Europa League the following year
Israeli Premier League
The Israeli Premier League is an Israeli professional league for association football clubs. It is the highest tier of the professional Israeli football league system, contested by 14 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Liga Leumit. Seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 32 matches each, five games are played on Saturdays, with one game played on Sundays and one game on Mondays. It is sponsored by Toto Winner and therefore known as Ligat Winner. The competition formed on 1999 following the decision of the Israeli Football Association to form a new league, since 1923, a total of 14 clubs have been crowned champions of the Israeli football system. The current champions are Hapoel Beer Sheva, who won the 2015–16 season, the Israeli Premier League was created in 1999 to replace Liga Leumit when the Israel Football Association decided to reshuffle all the leagues in hopes of improving competition. In its first season there were 14 clubs, the top thirteen clubs from the 1998–99 season and that season three clubs were relegated and one from Liga Leumit was promoted. Over the years the league has changed names though the new names were simply commercial rebranding, including Ligat Pelephone, Ligat Toto, there are 14 clubs in the league. At the end of season, the two lowest-placed teams are relegated to Liga Leumit while two highest-placed teams of Liga Leumit are promoted in their place. For the 2012–13 season the league was decreased from 16 to 14 clubs as a result of reforms passed by the IFA on 27 June 2011, the participating clubs first play a conventional round-robin schedule for a total of 26 matches. Following this, the top six teams play in a championship playoff, upon its conclusion, the first place team wins the Israeli championship and qualifies to participate in the second qualifying round of the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League. The runners-up and the third-placed teams qualify for the qualifying round of the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League. In Addition, the Israeli State Cup winners qualify for the qualifying round of the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League. If the State Cup winners are also one of the teams to finish in the top three places then the fourth-placed team will also play in Europa League. In case the State Cup winners also win the Israeli Premier League then the league team will play in Europa League second qualifying round. In addition, the eight teams will play each other once to avoid two relegation spots. A total of 27 clubs have played in the Israeli Premier League from its inception in 1999, for a list of winners and runners-up of the Israeli Premier League since its inception, and top scorers for each season, see List of Israeli football champions. Four clubs have been members of the Israeli Premier League for every season since its inception and this group is composed of Beitar Jerusalem, Hapoel Tel Aviv, Maccabi Haifa, and Maccabi Tel Aviv
Maccabi Haifa F.C.
Maccabi Haifa Football Club is an Israeli professional football club, based in City of Haifa, a section of Maccabi Haifa sports club. The club plays in the Israeli Premier League, Maccabi Haifa home games are played at Sammy Ofer Stadium. The stadium, which is shared with rivals Hapoel Haifa, is the second largest in Israel football, Maccabi Haifa is one of four clubs in the Big Four in Israeli football. It has won twelve League titles, Six State Cups and four Toto Cups, Maccabi has won the championship and the cup in the same season one time, and was the First Israeli club to qualify for the group stage of the UEFA Champions League. Maccabi Haifa Football Club was established in 1913 in the city of Haifa. It was a small, struggling club that spent most of its time shifting between Liga Leumit and the lower leagues, the club was overshadowed by its city rival Hapoel Haifa. But even in its first years the club adapted a very adventurous and offensive style of play based on technique, in 1942, the club reached the Israel State Cup final, but was defeated 12–1 by Beitar Tel Aviv in the final. In 1962, the team defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 5–2 in the State Cup final, in 1963 it reached the final again, but lost to Hapoel Haifa 1–0 in the first Haifa derby in State Cup final. In the 1980s Maccabi Haifa finally entered the Israeli champions club, in the 1983–84 season Maccabi Haifa won its first ever championship, under coach Shlomo Sharf and general manager Yochanan Vollach, overcoming Beitar Jerusalem and Hapoel Tel Aviv. The Yerukim were known for their all-around-offense and flashy technique football style, often resulting in bad defensive formation, a year later, Maccabi Haifa won a second championship in a decisive performance. In 1986 Maccabi lost the championship in a final match against runners-up Hapoel Tel Aviv. Due to poor TV coverage, the issue has never been resolved, in 1988, Maccabi Haifa decimated Maccabi Tel Aviv 10–0 to earn its biggest win ever. That game, one of the famous in Israelis football lore. Furthermore, it probably was the beginning of the rivalry between the two clubs. In 1989, under the hands of Amazzia Levkovic, the club won another championship. In 1990 Maccabi Haifa established itself as a dominant club in Israel, in 1992 Maccabi Haifa was purchased by Yaakov Shahar, who became the owner and president of the club. Under Shahars management, Maccabi Haifa enjoyed financial stability and professional working regulations on a par with European football clubs standards, Maccabi Haifas highlight season was 1993–94. After winning the 1993 cup, Maccabi Haifa gave a performance in the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, beating Torpedo Moscow 3–1 and Parma 1–0 in the last 16
Israel State Cup
The State Cup, is a knockout cup competition in Israeli football, run by the Israeli Football Association. The State Cup was first held in 1928 as the Peoples Cup, the holders of the State Cup are the Israeli Premier League side Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona, who beat Maccabi Netanya in the 2014 final on 7 May 2014. Maccabi Tel Aviv have 23 titles, having the record for most titles won, Hapoel Tel Aviv in 1937–1939 and 2010–2012 are the only club to have retained the State Cup for three consecutive seasons. The draw also determines which teams play at home. Each tie is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, though until 1964 replays would be played until one team was victorious. Some ties took as many as three matches to settle, there are a total of 13 rounds in the competition—nine rounds, followed by quarter-finals, semi-finals, and the final. Which are contested by the lowest-ranked clubs, clubs playing in the Liga Alef are given exemption to the Fifth Round, and Liga Leumit teams are given exemption to the Eighth Round. The 18 winners from that round join the 14 clubs from the Israeli Premier League, as well as being presented with the trophy, the winning team also qualifies for the UEFA Europa League. If the winners have qualified for the UEFA Champions League via the Israeli Premier League. If they also have qualified for the UEFA Champions League, the place goes to the next highest placed finisher in the league table. The draw for round, performed by drawing the clubs name from a jar, is a source of great interest to clubs and their supporters. Sometimes two top clubs may be drawn against each other in the rounds, removing the possibility of them meeting in the final. Mid-ranked teams hope for a draw against a peer to improve their chances of reaching future rounds, top-ranked teams look for easy opposition, but have to be on their guard against giant-killers and lower teams with ambition. The balls are being drawn by the officials of the Israel Football Association, the semifinals and the finals are traditionally held in the national Ramat Gan Stadium in the middle of the week. The match considered more interesting to the public is usually the second, for the final, the two winning teams of the semifinal return to Ramat Gan, with the winning team being awarded the State Cup from the President of Israel. The presidents role is traditional, and entered the Israeli sports lexicon, Israel Football Association List of winners on IFA website State Cup Soccerway Israel – List of Cup Finals
Stade Josy Barthel
Stade Josy Barthel is the national stadium of Luxembourg, home to the Luxembourg national football team and also used for rugby union and athletics. It is located on route dArlon, in Luxembourg City, originally called Stade Municipal after its construction in 1928-1931, it was entirely rebuilt in 1990. Since July 1993, it has borne the name of Josy Barthel, the stadium is also home to the biggest athletics club in the country, CAL Spora Luxembourg. The spectator capacity is 8,000, some under cover, in 2014 it was announced that an investment of €230,000 would be required to get the stadium up to a sufficient standard to hold the qualifying matches for Euro 2016. In June 2014, it was decided that a new stadium will be built in Kockelscheuer, the stadium would seat 9,000 people and would be dedicated to football and rugby. Illustrated page from Racing FC StadiumDB photos
Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture, people and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there. In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held
Luxembourg national football team
The Luxembourg national football team is the national football team of Luxembourg, and is controlled by the Luxembourg Football Federation. The team plays most of its matches at the Stade Josy Barthel in Luxembourg City. Luxembourg has participated in FIFA World Cup qualifiers since those for the 1934 World Cup, as of 2016, they never qualified for any of these major tournaments. The national side of Luxembourg did compete in six Olympic football events between 1920 and 1952, Luxembourg played their first ever international match on 29 October 1911, in a friendly match against France, it resulted in a 1–4 defeat. Their first victory came on 8 February 1914, also in a match against France, the national side of Luxembourg competed in six Olympic football events between 1920 and 1952, and survived the preliminary round twice. In between, Luxembourg started participating at qualifiers for the FIFA World Cup, but as of 2014 they still never qualified. After their last Olympic tournament in 1952, the team also started playing in qualifying groups for UEFA European Championships. The only time that the team was close to qualify was for a European or World Championship was for the Euro 1964, in the first qualification round they defeated the Netherlands with a score of 3–2 on aggregate after two matches. A Dutch newspaper commented this stunt after the match with David Luxembourg won with 2–1. In the round of eight, Luxembourg and Denmark fought for a spot in the final tournament, the winner was decided after three matches, Denmark was the winner with a total score of 6–5. When the national team win a competitive match, they are often celebrated by national media and fans. In modern times, the team played games in entirely red strips, in accordance with their nickname. The Luxembourg national team plays its home matches at the Stade Josy Barthel in Luxembourg City. At this location, the team played 235 games by August 2015. It is also used for rugby union and athletics, originally called Stade Municipal after its construction in 1928–1931, it was entirely rebuilt in 1990. Since July 1993, it has carried the name of Josy Barthel, the stadium is also home to the biggest athletics club in the country, CAL Spora Luxembourg. The spectator capacity is 8,000, some seats are under cover, the following players have also been called up to the Luxembourg squad during last 12 months. At the Summer Olympics,1920 ·1924 ·1928 ·1936 ·1948 ·1952 As of 28 March 2017, *Two of these seven matches, played against the Indonesian clubs Pardedetex and NIAC Mitra are not regarded as full internationals by the Luxembourg Football Federation
The Toto Cup is an association football tournament that exists separately in the two highest divisions in Israel, the Premier League and Liga Leumit. From 1999 to 2009, the Toto Cup tournament was held for the third division which was later canceled due to the cancellation of Liga Artzit. However, the Israeli Sports Betting Council pays 1.25 million NIS for the winner, League cups, in different formats, were played in Israel irregularly since the 1950s. In 1975–76 a League Cup competition was played, won by Hapoel Hadera and Maccabi Ramat Amidar, in 1982 the IFA introduced a league cup, called Lilian Cup, after former IFA treasurer Yehuda Lilian, who died in February 1982. The competition, played at the beginning of the season, involved the top four teams from previous season and its format was changed during its years of play, at times being played in league format and at times being played as a knock-out competition. The competition was last played in 1989–90 and this cup is sometimes being referred as a predecessor of the Toto Cup, but these competitions are unconnected. In 1984–85 the IFA introduced a League Cup competition for the two top tiers of the Israeli football league system. The first round of the competition was played on 30 October 1984, while the first finals, played on 7 May 1985, was won by Maccabi Yavne and Hapoel Ashkelon. The IFA and the Israeli Sports Betting Council reached an agreement in October 2013, the group stages are usually played before the opening of the football leagues and take place from August to October, and the finals take place in January. The 14 teams in league are divided into three groups, Five teams in two groups, and four teams in one group, each team plays against each team once. The two teams placed last in group are eliminated with the rest of teams advance to the quarterfinals. The group stages are played before the opening of the football leagues and take place from August to September. The 16 teams in league are divided into four groups, four teams in each group, each team plays against each team once, making a total of three games for each team. The best two teams in each group advances to the quarterfinals, until 2009, the eight teams that played in the quarterfinals played in a regular knock-out, two meetings for each team in the quarterfinals. Each team played one meeting at their home in the order determined in a raffle, since the 2012–13 season, Al teams play each other twice in the quarterfinals while Leumit play each other once. The four winning teams who progressed to the play against their opponent once. The two winners reaches the final and the winner is the cup winner. The final and the Toto Cup semifinals are all played in the same stadium, from the quarterfinals and above if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts
Belgian First Division A
The Belgian First Division A is the top league competition for association football clubs in Belgium. Following the 2015–16 season it was renamed from the Belgian Pro League, contested by 16 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Belgian First Division B. Seasons run from late July to early May, with teams playing 30 matches each in the regular season, play-offs 1 are contested by the top 6 clubs in the regular season, with each club playing each other twice. Play-offs 2 are contested by teams ranked 7 to 15 in the regular season, the team finishing in 16th place is relegated. As of 2014 the league was sponsored by AB InBev, brewers of Jupiler beer, and officially known as Jupiler Pro League, the competition was created in 1895 by the Royal Belgian Football Association and was first won by FC Liégeois. Of the 74 clubs to have competed in the first division since its creation,15 have been crowned champions of Belgium, RSC Anderlecht is the most successful league club with 33 titles, followed by Club Brugge KV, Union Saint-Gilloise and Standard Liège. It is currently ranked 10th in the UEFA rankings of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five-years. The competition was ranked 3rd when the UEFA first published their ranking in 1979 and also the year in 1980. FC Liégeois became the first champion of Belgium, the first 8 titles in Belgian football were all won by FC Liégeois or RC de Bruxelles. There was no promotion and relegation system at the time but the last two clubs of the league withdrew and a new club entered the competition, during the 1896–97 season, SC de Bruxelles withdrew so the 1897–98 season was played among 5 clubs only. In the seasons 1898–99 and 1899–1900, the association introduced a new format with two leagues at the top level and then a final game in two legs. The format though changed back to one league with 9 clubs in 1900–01, in 1904–05 the championship was organised with one league of 11 teams. In 1906–07, Union Saint-Gilloise won their 4th consecutive title as RC de Bruxelles had from 1899–1900 to 1902–03, both clubs claimed the next 3 titles before CS Brugeois won their first title, finishing one point ahead their rival of FC Brugeois. As World War I approached, Daring Club de Bruxelles confirmed its status of challenger, even winning the title in 1911–12, only Union Saint-Gilloise could face them in that period, winning the 1912–13 championship with a better goal difference. Since 1911–12, two clubs are relegated each year to the Promotion and two clubs from the Promotion are promoted, during World War I, the football championship was suspended. It resumed in 1919–20 with FC Brugeois claiming their first title after 5-second places, among which were 2 lost final games, the challengers at the time were CS Brugeois, Union Saint-Gilloise, Daring Club de Bruxelles and Standard Club Liégeois. Starting 25 December 1932, Union Saint-Gilloise had a record 60 games unbeaten run in the championship, winning the 1932–33, 1933–34, the rival of Union during this period was Daring Club de Bruxelles. They claimed the two championships