Province of Messina
Messina was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital was the city of Messina and it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Messina. It had an area of 3,247 square kilometres, which amounts to 12.6 percent of area of the island. There are 108 comuni in the province, see Comuni of the Province of Messina, the province included the Aeolian Islands, all part of the comune of Lipari. The territory is mountainous, with the exception of alluvial plain at the mouths of the various rivers. Much of the population is concentrated in the area, after the hill towns have been largely abandoned from the 19th century. The main mountain ridges are the Peloritani, up to 1,300 metres in elevation, and the Nebrodi, up to 1,900 metres, rivers of the province include the Alcantara and the Pollina, which forms the border with the province of Palermo to the west
Filicudi is one of eight islands that make up the Aeolian archipelago, situated 30–50 km northeast of the island of Sicily, southern Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Lipari and its total area is 9.5 km2. There are several villages on the island, which include Pecorini Mare. Filicudis lands are capable of producing wine, olive oil, grain, in 1997, three quarters, approximately 7 km2 of Filicudi was turned into a Natural Reserve. The highest point is Monte Fossa Felci at 774 m, other points include Monte Montagnola at 349 m and Monte Terrione at 278 m. At Capo Graziano are the remains of a Bronze Age village dating back to the second millennium BCE, off the coast, the volcanic finger-like rock of La Canna rises about 74 metres above the sea. The modern name of Filicudi is a corruption of the ancient Greek name for the island, the island, like the other Aeolian Islands, was settled since the Neolithic Age, around 3000 BCE. As evidenced by archaeological findings, the island was occupied by a new people during the Bronze Age, the island was uninhabited for many centuries until occupied by the Greeks.
Roman and Byzantine remains can be found on the island, since the 1970s Filicudi was rediscovered and populated by photographers and artists such as Sergio Libiszewsky, Ettore Sottsas, novelist Roland Zoss, and editor Giulio Einaudi. Their perceptions brought the island into the focus of modern tourism, john Bonica and professional wrestler Roland Zoss and composer List of volcanoes in Italy
Malfa derived its name from Amalfi. In the 12th century some families established their lives in Malfa on the island of Salina, the island of Salina is one of seven Eolian islands. Salina is the greenest of the seven, the main economic activities are agriculture and fishing. Cultivated products are grapes, olives and pricklypears, Malfa is famous for producing and exporting the sweet white wine, Malvasia. The fertile soil produces tons of capers for export, Malfa celebrates the festival of San Lorenzo on 10 August each year, with a street parade and fireworks. As of September 2011, Malfa has a population of 943, all demographics and other statistics, Italian statistical institute Istat. Many tourists from mainland Italy and foreign countries, especially Australia, there are various small hotels and B&Bs. During the last century, many Malfitani migrated to Australia and to a degree the United States. The Italian and Australian flags can be seen waving in the wind at the Malfa Municipal Office, Malfa borders the following municipalities, Santa Marina Salina.
The other six Aeolian Islands are Lipari, Vulcano, the islands were formed millions of years ago by a volcanic eruption. The last eruption took place in 10,000 BC from a crater near the village
The chestnut group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name refers to the edible nuts they produce, Chestnuts belong to the family Fagaceae, which includes oaks and beeches. Unrelated but externally similar species of horse chestnut are abundant around Europe, other trees commonly mistaken for chestnut trees are the chestnut oak and the American beech, both of which are in Fagaceae. The name chestnut is derived from an earlier English term chesten nut, the name Castanea is probably derived from the old name for the sweet chestnut, either in Latin or in Ancient Greek. Another possible source of the name is the town of Kastania in Thessaly, more probable, in the Mediterranean climate zone, chestnut trees are rarer in Greece because the chalky soil is not conducive to the trees growth. Kastania is located on one of the relatively few sedimentary or siliceous outcrops and they grow so abundantly there, their presence would have determined the places name.
Still others take the name as coming from the Greek name of Sardis glans – Sardis being the capital of Lydia, Asia Minor, the name is cited twice in the King James Version of the Bible. In one instance, Jacob puts peeled twigs in the troughs to promote healthy offspring of his livestock. Although it may indicate another tree, it indicates the fruit was a staple food in the early 17th century. These synonyms are or have been in use, Fagus castanea, Sardian nut, Jupiters nut, husked nut, Chestnut trees are of moderate growth rate to fast-growing for American and European species. Their mature heights vary from the smallest species of chinkapins, often shrubby, to the giant of past American forests, C. dentata that could reach 60 m. Between these extremes are found the Japanese chestnut at 10 m average, followed by the Chinese chestnut at about 15 m, when standing on their own, they spread on the sides and develop broad, dense crowns at maturity. The two latters foliage has striking yellow autumn colouring and its bark is smooth when young, of a vinous maroon or red-brown colour for the American chestnut, grey for the European chestnut.
The leaves are simple, ovate or lanceolate, 10–30 cm long and 4–10 cm wide, with sharply pointed, the flowers follow the leaves, appearing in late spring or early summer or into July. They are arranged in long catkins of two kinds, with both kinds being borne on every tree, some catkins are made of only male flowers, which mature first. Each flower has eight stamens, or 10 to 12 for C. mollissima, the ripe pollen carries a heavy, sweet odour that some people find too sweet or unpleasant. Other catkins have these pollen-bearing flowers, but carry near the twig from which these spring, two or three flowers together form a four-lobed prickly calybium, which ultimately grows completely together to make the brown hull, or husk, covering the fruits. Chestnut flowers are not self-compatible, so two trees are required for pollination, all Castanea species readily hybridize with each other
The Aeolian Islands are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands inhabitants are known as Aeolians, the Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. The largest island is Lipari and the islands are referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group. The other islands include Vulcano, Stromboli, Alicudi, the present shape of the Aeolian Islands is the result of volcanic activity over a period of 260,000 years. There are two active volcanoes – Stromboli and Vulcano, the volcanic activity of steaming fumaroles and thermal waters are on most of the islands. The volcanic activity has left the islands with very fertile soil that is conductive to the growth of natural flora. Geologically the archipelago is defined as a volcanic arc, the origin of the Aeolian Islands is due to movement of the Earths crust as a result of plate tectonics. The African continental shelf is in constant movement towards Europe, the resulting collision has created a volcanic area with ruptures in the Earths crust with consequent eruptions of lava.
The Aeolian Arc extends for more than 140 km, but the area of instability caused by the collision of Africa. It includes Sicily and Campania together with Greece, the complex of the eight Aeolian Islands, covering an area of 1,600 km2, originated in the Tyrrhenian Basin, a great plain at the bottom of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Curbing urban development has been a key to preserving the Aeolian islands in a natural state, existing residences can be bought and restored but must be constructed to resemble its whitewashed houses. Traditional houses consist of modular cubes constructed from indigenous building materials—stone, pumice, almost all houses have a large outdoor terrace, usually shaded by grape-vines and flowering vines. The houses and terraces are decorated with brightly patterned terra-cotta tiles. The first evidence of Sicilian migration was in Lipari, a manufacture and commerce of obsidian objects was highly developed until the introduction of metals. During the Bronze Age, the Aeolians prospered by means of commerce in an area which extended from Mycenae to the British Isles.
Villages on the Aeolian islands flourished on Capo Graziano, Serro dei Cianfi, Capo Milazzese, all these settlements were destroyed by new Italic invasions in 1250 BC. The Aeolian Islands were occupied by the Ausonians led by Liparus, Liparus was succeeded by Aeolus whose house, according to the Odyssey by Homer, gave hospitality to Odysseus. In 580 BC, Greeks exiled from Rhodes and Knidos landed at Lipari and began a period of Greek domination, there was production of vases and other ceramics
Olea europeana sylvestris is a subspecies that corresponds to a smaller tree bearing noticeably smaller fruits. The olives fruit, called the olive, is of agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The tree and its fruit give their name to the plant family, which includes species such as lilacs, Forsythia. The word derives from Latin ŏlīva a borrowing from the Greek ἐλαία, the oldest attested forms of the Greek words are the Mycenaean
Maria Grazia Cucinotta
Maria Grazia Cucinotta is an Italian actress who has featured in films and television series since 1990. She worked as a producer and model. Internationally she is best known for her roles in Il Postino and as the Bond girl, credited as the Cigar Girl, Cucinotta was born in Messina in Sicily, Italy. She is well-known in Italy as a movie and television actress and she guest-starred in The Sopranos episode Isabella as the titular character. She appeared on The Simpsons episode The Italian Bob voicing Sideshow Bobs wife and she won the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2010. Official website Official website Maria Grazia Cucinotta at the Internet Movie Database Maria Grazia Cucinotta at askmen. com CNN interview with Maria Grazia Cucinotta
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. English names variously applied to different species include poplar /ˈpɒp. lər/, aspen, in the September 2006 issue of Science Magazine, the Joint Genome Institute announced that the western balsam poplar was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing. The genus has a genetic diversity, and can grow from 15–50 m tall. The shoots are stout, with the terminal bud present, leaf size is very variable even on a single tree, typically with small leaves on side shoots, and very large leaves on strong-growing lead shoots. The leaves often turn bright gold to yellow before they fall during autumn, the flowers are mostly dioecious and appear in early spring before the leaves. They are borne in long, sessile or pedunculate catkins produced from buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the previous year. The flowers are each seated in a disk which is borne on the base of a scale which is itself attached to the rachis of the catkin.
The scales are obovate and fringed, hairy or smooth, the female flower has no calyx or corolla, and comprises a single-celled ovary seated in a cup-shaped disk. The style is short, with two to four stigmata, variously lobed, and numerous ovules, pollination is by wind, with the female catkins lengthening considerably between pollination and maturity. Poplars of the section are often wetlands or riparian trees. The aspens are among the most important boreal broadleaf trees and aspens are important food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species. Pleurotus populinus, the oyster mushroom, is found exclusively on dead wood of Populus trees in North America. The genus Populus has traditionally divided into six sections on the basis of leaf and flower characters. Recent genetic studies have supported this, confirming some previously suspected reticulate evolution due to past hybridisation and introgression events between the groups. Some species had differing relationships indicated by their nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA sequences and they have the advantage of growing to a very large size at a rapid pace.
Almost all poplars take root readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground, trees with fastigiate branching are particularly popular, and are widely grown across Europe and southwest Asia. Common poplar varieties are, G48 w22 The trees are grown from kalam or cuttings, harvested annually in January and February, most commonly used to make plywood, Yamuna Nagar in Haryana state has a large plywood industry reliant upon poplar. It is graded according to known as over, under
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent.
The end of the Dark Ages is dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field.
Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, vinegar. Grapes are a type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters. The cultivation of the grape began 6, 000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC, by the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians. The growing of grapes would spread to regions in Europe, as well as North Africa.
Vitis vinifera cultivars were imported for that purpose, Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. White grapes are actually green in color, and are derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid, most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Vitis riparia, a vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking. It is native to the entire Eastern U. S. Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. Vitis amurensis is the most important Asian species, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization,75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes.
Approximately 71% of world production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world