Salley Historic District
The Salley Historic District, located in Salley, South Carolina, consists of 99 contributing structures and 51 non-contributing resources, provides a good example of a South Carolina rural community during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The town, located in Aiken County, South Carolina and incorporated in 1887, is named after D. H. Salley, owner of a large nearby plantation, instrumental in the area's original development; the Salley Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 27, 2000
Aiken County, South Carolina
Aiken County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 160,099, its county seat and largest city is Aiken. Aiken County is a part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is in the Sandhills region, with the northern parts reaching in the Piedmont and southern parts reaching into the Coastal Plain. Both Aiken County and its county seat of Aiken are named after William Aiken, the first president of the South Carolina Railroad Company. Aiken County was organized during the Reconstruction era in 1871 from portions of Barnwell, Edgefield and Orangeburg counties. Prince Rivers, a freedman and state legislator from Edgefield County, had been a leader in the United States Colored Troops, he was named to head the commission. He was dubbed "The Black Prince" by local newspapers, including the Edgefield Advertiser, he led the commission that selected the site of Aiken County's present-day courthouse. Other freedmen who were part of the founding of the county were Samuel J. Lee, speaker of the state House and the first black man admitted to the South Carolina Bar.
Political tensions kept rising in South Carolina during the 1870s around elections. In the months prior to the 1876 elections, Aiken County was one of the areas to suffer white paramilitary Red Shirts attacks and violence directed against black Republicans to suppress the black vote. Between the Hamburg Massacre in July and several days of rioting in September in Ellenton, more than 100 black men were killed by white paramilitary groups in this county. Two white men died in the violence. In the late 19th century, the county became a popular winter refuge for affluent Northerners, who built luxury housing; the county remains popular with horse trainers and professional riders because mild winters allow lengthy training seasons. In the 1950s, Aiken County, along with the nearby counties of Allendale and Barnwell was chosen as the location for storage of nuclear materials and various fissile materials, now known as the Savannah River Site. Ellenton, South Carolina was acquired and its buildings demolished for its development for this plant.
Its residents and businesses were all moved north about eight miles to New Ellenton. Developed during Cold War tensions, the facility is now scheduled for decommissioning of various parts of the site. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,081 square miles, of which 1,071 square miles is land and 9.6 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in South Carolina by land area. Saluda County - north Lexington County - northeast Orangeburg County - east Barnwell County - south Burke County, Georgia - southwest Edgefield County - west Richmond County, Georgia - west I-20 I-520 U. S. 1 US 25 US 78 US 278 As of the census of 2000, there were 142,552 people, 55,587 households, 39,411 families residing in the county. The population density was 133 inhabitants per square mile. There were 61,987 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.37% White, 25.56% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from two or more races.
2.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.0% were of American, 9.7% English, 8.4% German and 7.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 55,587 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 13.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 12.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,889, the median income for a family was $45,769. Males had a median income of $36,743 versus $23,810 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,772. About 10.60% of families and 13.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 160,099 people, 64,253 households, 43,931 families residing in the county; the population density was 149.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 72,249 housing units at an average density of 67.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 69.6% white, 24.6% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 2.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.6% were American, 10.0% were English, 9.9% were German, 8.6% were Irish. Of the 64,253 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 40.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,468 and the median income for a family was $57,064. Males had a median income of $44,436 versus $33,207 for females; the pe
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Chitterlings are a prepared food made from the small intestines of a pig, although the intestines of cattle and other animals are sometimes used. Chitterling is first documented in Middle English by the Oxford English Dictionary, in the form cheterling, c1400. Various other spellings and dialect forms were used; the primary form and derivation are uncertain. A 1743 English cookery book The Lady's Companion: or, An Infallible Guide to the Fair Sex contained a recipe for "Calf's Chitterlings", a bacon and offal sausage in a calf's intestine casing; the recipe explained the use of calf's, rather than the more usual pig's, intestines with the comment that " sort of... puddings must be made in summer, when hogs are killed". This recipe was repeated by the English cookery writer Hannah Glasse in her 1784 cookery book Art of Cookery. Linguist Paul Anthony Jones has written, "in the late 1500s a chitterling was an ornate type of neck ruff, so called because its frilled edge looked like the folds of a slaughtered animal's entrails".
As pigs are a common source of meat in many parts of the world, the dish known as chitterlings can be found in most pork-eating cultures. Chitterlings made from pig intestines are popular in many parts of Europe, are still eaten in the southern U. S. Chitterlings were common peasant food in medieval England, remained a staple of the diet of low-income families right up until the late 19th century and not uncommon into the mid 20th century. Thomas Hardy wrote of chitterlings in his novel Tess of the D'Urbervilles, when the father of a poor family, John Durbeyfield, talks of what he would like to eat: Tell'em at home that I should like for supper, – well, lamb's fry if they can get it, it illustrates. George Sturt, writing in 1919 details the food eaten by his farming family in Farnborough when he was a child: During the winter they had chance to weary of every form and kind of pig-meat: hog's puddings, chitterlings, salted spareribs -they knew all the varieties and welcomed any change. Mutton they never tasted: but sometimes they had a calf's head.
Chitterlings are the subject of a song by 1970s Scrumpy and Western comedy folk band, The Wurzels, who come from the southwest of England. Chitterlings, though much declined in popularity, are still enjoyed in the UK today. Kokoretsi, kukurec, or kokoreç, are prepared and stuffed grilled on a spit. In several countries such as Turkey, Albania, lamb intestines are used. In Turkish cuisine, the intestines are chopped and cooked with oregano and other spices. Gallinejas are a traditional dish in Madrid; the dish consists of sheep's small intestines and pancreas, fried in their own fat in such a manner that they form small spirals. The dish is served hot with French fries. Few establishments today serve gallinejas, as this is considered to be more of a speciality than a common dish, it is most served during festivals. Zarajo: A traditional dish from Cuenca is zarajo, braided sheep's intestines rolled on a vine branch and broiled, but sometimes fried, sometimes smoked served hot as an appetizer or tapa.
A similar dish from La Rioja is embuchados, from the province of Aragon, all made with sheep's intestines and served as tapas. Tricandilles are a traditional dish in Gironde, they are made of pig's small intestines, boiled in bouillon grilled on a fire of grapevine cane. This is considered an expensive delicacy. Andouillette is a type of sausage, found in Troyes, made predominantly of pig chitterlings. Andouille is another kind of French chitterlings sausage found in Brittany and Normandy. People in the Caribbean and Latin America eat chitterlings. Chinchulín or chunchule is the cow's small intestine used as a foodstuff. Other name variations from country to country are caldo avá, tripas or mondongo, chunchullo, chinchurria or chunchurria, tripa mishqui and tripa. In Mexico, tripas are considered a delicacy, they are popular served as a guisado in tacos. They are cleaned, boiled and fried until crispy, they are served with a spicy, tangy tomatillo-based salsa. In Guadalajara, along with the traditional preparation for tacos, they are prepared as a dish, served with a specialized sauce in a bowl and accompanied by a stack of tortillas, additional complementary sauces and salt.
Chunchullo Chitterlings are eaten as a dish in many East Asian cuisines. Both large and small intestine is eaten throughout China. Large intestine is called feichang "fat intestine" because it is fatty. Small intestine is called zhufenchang "pig powder intestine" because it contains a white, pasty or powdery substance; the character "zhu" or "pig" is added at the beginning to disambiguate. This is because, in Cantonese cuisine, there is a dish called chang fen which uses intestine-shaped noodles. Large intestine is chopped into rings and has a stronger odor than small intestine, it is added to stir-fry soups. It is slow-cooked or boiled and served as a standalone dish, it releases oil. Small intestine is chopped into tubes and may be boiled and served with a dipping sauce. Preparation techniques and ser
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Area code 803
Area code 803 is the area code for most of central South Carolina. It is anchored by the state capital, it includes most of the South Carolina portions of the Charlotte and Augusta metropolitan areas. 803 is one of the original 86 North American Numbering Plan area codes assigned in 1947. Until 1995, it served the entire state of South Carolina. In 1995, the Upstate was split off as area code 864; this was intended as a long-term solution, but within two years 803 was close to exhaustion once again due to rapid growth in Columbia and the coastal region, as well as the proliferation of cell phones and fax machines. Additionally, portions of the area code are part of the Charlotte and Augusta LATAs, several numbers in Charlotte's 704/980 and Augusta's 706/762 aren't available for use. To solve this problem, in 1998 the coastal region became area code 843. In mid 2020, 803 will receive an overlay, 839; this would ease expense of changing numbers. Aiken pop. 29,494 Columbia pop. 133,803 Rock Hill pop. 71,459 Sumter pop.
40,524 Richland Sumter Kershaw Fairfield Lee Clarendon Orangeburg Calhoun Lexington Aiken Lancaster York Chester Newberry Barnwell Bamberg Edgefield NANPA Area Code Map of South Carolina List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 803 Area Code