Salé is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town. Founded in about 1030 by Arabic-speaking Berbers, the Banu Ifran, it became a haven for pirates in the 17th century as an independent republic before being incorporated into Alaouite Morocco; the city's name is sometimes transliterated as Sallee. The National Route 6 connects it to Fez and Meknes in the east and the N1 to Kénitra in the north-east, it recorded a population of 890,403 in the 2014 Moroccan census. The Phoenicians established a settlement called Sala the site of a Roman colony, Sala Colonia, on the south side of the Bou Regreg estuary, it is sometimes confused with Salé, on the opposite north bank. Salé was founded in about 1030 by Arabic-speaking Berbers who cultivated the legend that the name was derived from that of Salah, son of Ham, son of Noah; the Banu Ifran Berber dynasty began construction of a mosque about the time.
The present-day Great Mosque of Salé was built during the 12th-century reign of the Almohad sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf, although not completed until 1196. During the 17th century, Rabat was known as New Salé, or Salé la neuve, as it expanded beyond the ancient city walls to include the Chellah, which had become a fortified royal necropolis under the rule of Abu Yaqub Yusuf's son, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur. In September 1260, Salé was raided and occupied by warriors sent in a fleet of ships by King Alfonso X of Castile. After the victory of the Marinid dynasty, the historic Bab el-Mrissa was constructed by the Sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq which remains as a landmark of the city. In the 17th century, Salé became a haven for Barbary pirates, among them Moriscos turned corsair, who formed an independent Republic of Salé. Salé pirates roamed the seas, cruised the shipping routes between Atlantic colonial ports and Europe, seizing ships from the Americas and Europe for goods and captives, they sold their sometimes passengers into slavery in the Arabic world.
Despite the legendary reputation of the Salé corsairs, their ships were based across the river in Rabat, called "New Salé" by the English. The European powers took action to try to subdue the threat from the Barbary Coast. On 20 July 1629, the city of Salé was bombarded by French Admiral Isaac de Razilly with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Catherine, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. During the decades preceding the independence of Morocco, Salé was the stronghold of some "national movement" activists; the reading of the "Latif" became popular in some cities of Morocco. In 1851, Salé was bombarded in retaliation for piracy being practiced by Moroccan ships against European traders. A petition against the so-called "Berber Dahir" was given to Sultan Mohamed V and the Resident General of France; the petition and the "Latif" prayer led to the withdrawal and adjustment of the so-called "Berber Decree" of May 1930. The activists who opposed the "Berber Decree" feared that the explicit recognition of the Berber Customary Law would threaten the position of Islam and its Sharia law system.
Others believed that opposing the French-engineered "Berber Decree" was a means to turn the table against the French occupation of Morocco. The widespread storm, created by the "Berber Dahir" controversy created a somewhat popular Moroccan nationalist elite based in Salé and Fez; this period helped develop the political awareness and activism that would lead fourteen years to the signing of the Manifest of Independence of Morocco on 11 January 1944 by many "Slawi" activists and leaders. Salé has been deemed to have been the stronghold of the Moroccan left for many decades, where many leaders have resided. Salé has played a important part in Moroccan history; the first demonstrations for independence against the French, for example, began in Salé. Numerous government officials, decision makers, royal advisers of Morocco have been from Salé. Salé people, the Slawis, have always had a "tribal" sense of belonging, a sense of pride that developed into a feeling of superiority towards the "berranis", i.e. Outsiders.
The prefecture is divided administratively into the following: Salé features a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot dry summers and mild damp winters. Located along the Atlantic Ocean, Salé has a mild, temperate climate, shifting from cool in winter to warm days in the summer months; the nights are always cool, with daytime temperatures rising about +7/8 C°. The winter highs reach only 17.2 °C in December–February. Summer daytime highs hover around 25 °C, but may exceed 30 °C during heat waves. Summer nights are pleasant and cool, ranging between 11 °C and 19 °C and exceeding 20 °C. Rabat belongs to the sub-humid bioclimatic zone with an average annual precipitation of 560 mm. Salé's climate resembles the southwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the coast of SoCal. Recent developments, including the new bridge connecting to Rabat, the new Rabat-Salé tramway and coastal development demonstrate government investment. Private development companies such as Emaa
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain