Bombardier Dash 8
The DHC-8 Dash 8 is a series of turboprop-powered regional airliners, introduced by de Havilland Canada in 1984. DHC was bought by Boeing in 1988 by Bombardier in 1992. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100s, it was developed from the Dash 7 with improved cruise performance, lowered operational costs but without STOL performance. Three sizes were offered: the 37-40 seat -100 until 2005 and the more powerful -200 from 1995, the stretched 50-56 seats -300 from 1989, both until 2009, the 68-90 seats -400 from 1999, still in production; the Q Series are post-1997 variants with quieter cabins. In the 1970s, de Havilland Canada had invested in its Dash 7 project, concentrating on STOL and short-field performance, the company's traditional area of expertise. Using four medium-power engines with large, four-bladed propellers resulted in comparatively lower noise levels, which combined with its excellent STOL characteristics, made the Dash 7 suitable for operating from small in-city airports, a market DHC felt would be compelling.
However, only a handful of air carriers employed the Dash 7, as most regional airlines were more interested in operational costs than short-field performance. In 1980, de Havilland responded by dropping the short-field performance requirement and adapting the basic Dash 7 layout to use only two, more powerful engines, its favoured engine supplier, Pratt & Whitney Canada, developed the new PW100 series engines for the role, more than doubling the power from its PT6. Designated the PT7A-2R engine, it became the PW120; when the Dash 8 rolled out on April 19, 1983, more than 3,800 hours of testing had been accumulated over two years on five PW100 series test engines. The Dash 8 first flight was on June 20, 1983. Certification of the PW120 followed on December 16, 1983; the airliner entered service in 1984 with NorOntair, Piedmont Airlines Henson Airlines, was the first US customer the same year. The Dash 8 was introduced at a advantageous time; the older generation of regional airliners from the 1950s and 1960s was nearing retirement, leading to high sales figures.
De Havilland Canada was unable to meet the demand with sufficient production. In 1986, Boeing bought the company in a bid to improve production at DHC's Downsview Airport plants, as well as better position itself to compete for a new Air Canada order for large intercontinental airliners. Air Canada was a crown corporation at the time, both Boeing and Airbus were competing via political channels for the contract, it was won by Airbus, which received an order for 34 A320 aircraft in a controversial move. The allegations of bribery are today known as the Airbus affair. Following its failure in the competition, Boeing put de Havilland Canada up for sale; the company was purchased by Bombardier in 1992. The market for new aircraft to replace existing turboprops once again grew in the mid-1990s, DHC responded with the improved "Series 400" design. All Dash 8s delivered from the second quarter of 1996 include the Active Noise and Vibration System designed to reduce cabin noise and vibration levels to nearly those of jet airliners.
To emphasize their quietness, Bombardier renamed the Dash 8 models as the Q-Series turboprops. The last Dash 8–100, a –102, was built in 2005. In April 2008, Bombardier announced that production of the classic versions would be ended, leaving the Series 400 as the only Dash 8 still in production. Production of the Q200 and Q300 was to cease in May 2009. A total of 671 Dash 8 classics were produced; the 1,000th Dash 8 was delivered in November 2010. Bombardier proposed development of a Q400 stretch with two plug-in segments, called the Q400X project, in 2007, it would compete in the 90-seat market range. In response to this project, as of November 2007, ATR was studying a 90-seat stretch. In June 2009, Bombardier commercial aircraft president Gary Scott indicated that the Q400X will be "definitely part of our future" for possible introduction in 2013–14, although he has not detailed the size of the proposed version or committed to an introduction date; as of July 2010, Bombardier's vice president, Phillipe Poutissou, made comments explaining the company was still studying the prospects of designing the Q400X and talking with potential customers.
At the time, Bombardier was not as committed to the Q400X. As of May 2011, Bombardier was still committed to the stretch, but envisioned it as more as a 2015 or launch, complicating launch date matters were new powerplants from GE and PWC to be introduced in 2016; as of February 2012, Bombardier was still studying the issue, but as of 2011, the launch date is no longer targeted for the 2014 range. At least a three-year delay was envisioned. In October 2012, a joint development deal with a government-led South Korean consortium was revealed, to develop a 90-seater turboprop regional airliner, targeting a 2019 launch date; the consortium was to have included Korean Air Lines. At the February 2016 Singapore Airshow, Bombardier announced a high-density, 90-seat layout of the Q400, which should enter service in 2018; the payload is increased by 2,000 pounds and the aircraft maintenance check intervals
Kuujjuarapik Airport, is located adjacent to the Inuit community of Kuujjuarapik, Canada. It serves the nearby Cree community of Whapmagoostui. Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Kuujjuarapik Airport from Nav Canada as available
Air Inuit is an airline based in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent, Canada. It operates charter and cargo services in Nunavik and Nunavut, its main base is Kuujjuaq Airport. The airline was established and started operations in 1978 using a de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver aircraft; the airline is collectively owned by the Inuit of Nunavik through the Makivik Corporation. In 2012, Air Inuit relocated their headquarters to a new multi-purpose facility on Côte-Vertu Boulevard near the Montreal-Trudeau International Airport. In 2016, Air Inuit pilot Melissa Haney became the first female Inuk pilot to reach the rank of captain, she was featured on a commemorative postage stamp released by the Canadian Ninety-Nines. Air Inuit operates scheduled services to the following domestic destinations: Kattiniq - via Val-d'Or - Nunavik Nickel mining project Air Inuit offers other charter services to anywhere in Canada, the United States and abroad; as of April 2018 the Air Inuit fleet includes the following aircraft: Air Inuit has access to a Eurocopter Ecureuil through Nunavik Rotors and a de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter through Johnny May's Air Charters.
On 1 March 2016, Bombardier Inc. announced that Air Inuit would be the launch customer for the Bombardier Q300 Large Cargo Door freighter. On 16 March 1981, Douglas C-47A C-FIRW was damaged beyond repair when it broke through the frozen surface of Lac Bienville while taxiing for take-off on a cargo flight. Official website
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities for commercial air transport. Airports have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation. An airport serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base; such a base includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements.
Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals. The terms aerodrome and airstrip may be used to refer to airports, the terms heliport, seaplane base, STOLport refer to airports dedicated to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft. In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements; that is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision.
In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, airport means "a landing area used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo". Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m. Larger airports for airline flights have paved runways of 2,000 m or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway, only 122 m long. In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths; these include considerations for safety margins during takeoff. The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China, it has a length of 5,500 m. The world's widest paved runway is 105 m wide; as of 2009, the CIA stated that there were 44,000 "... airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15,095 in the US, the US having the most in the world. Most of the world's large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation.
For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority operated eight of the nation's major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group; the rest of India's airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia. In the United States, commercial airports are operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.
In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned. Many U. S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U. S. all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA. Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US, the government-owned, contractor-operated arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. Airports are divided into airside areas; the landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airpo
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
Kuujjuaq Airport, is located 1.5 nautical miles southwest of Kuujjuaq, Canada. The airport site at Fort Chimo was located and surveyed on 12 July 1941 by a USAAF team under Captain Elliott Roosevelt, operating by amphibious aircraft out of Gander and Labrador; the chosen site was five miles upstream on the opposite shore. River access was difficult due to sandy banks and ice and high tides in the estuary. Code-named Crystal I, Fort Chimo was founded on 10 October 1941 by about a 12-man weather station and radio communications crew under Antarctic veteran Lt. Cdr. Isaac Schlossbach. Runway construction commenced next summer; the Crystal stations were part of the Crimson East project for trans-Atlantic ferry flights, Chimo being referred to as "Bookie". Fort Chimo did not serve in this intended capacity, but the station was useful for weather reporting and local support duties. Canada took control in 1944, although American crews remained for a period. Seasonal resupply was by U. S. Coast Guard cutters.
Fort Chimo was one of three "Crystal" sites in the Canadian Arctic Region, Frobisher Bay Air Base, Northwest Territories being "Crystal II", a station on Padloping Island being "Crystal III". A detachment of the 8th Weather Squadron, Air Transport Command took up residence at the station on 1 October 1942; the initial mission of the Crystal sites was to provide long-range weather information to the combat forces building up in the United Kingdom. Crystal I was planned to be a transport hub between the Eastern Route, which originated at Presque Isle Army Airfield and the Central Route, which originated at Romulus Army Airfield, Michigan. From Crystal I, the aircraft would be ferried via Baffin Island; the development of the Mid-Atlantic Transport through the Azores and improved performance of the Gander-Iceland main route led to the cancellation of the Crimson Route project in 1943. The United States presence at Crystal I was reduced to a skeleton weather squadron. Nav Canada opened a $7-million air traffic control facility near the airport.
The radar station allows controllers in Montreal to monitor the steady stream of transatlantic air traffic over northern Quebec. A large-scale terminal expansion project was carried out at the airport between 2006 and 2008; the $14.9 million project included the expansion of the airport apron and the construction of a brand new 1,225m2 terminal to replace the cramped building built in 1972. The building, designed by architect Alain Fournier, received a silver certification under the Canadian Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program. Kuujjuaq Airport is a mandatory frequency airport with an operating Flight Service Station. Passenger Cargo Christie, Carl: Ocean Bridge The History of RAF Ferry Command. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1995 Hansen, Chris: Enfant Terrible: The Times and Schemes of General Elliott Roosevelt. Able Baker, Tucson, 2012 Pocock, Arthur: Red Flannels and Green Ice. Random House, New York, 1949. See station reports at AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.
Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Kuujjuaq Airport from Nav Canada as available
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000