University of Sussex
The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, England. Its campus is located in the South Downs National Park and is a short distance away from Central Brighton; the university received its Royal Charter in August 1961, the first of the plate glass university generation, was a founding member of the 1994 Group of research-intensive universities. It has more than a third of its students enrolled in postgraduate programs and around a third of its staff is drawn from outside the United Kingdom. Sussex has a diverse community of over 17,000 students, with around one in three being foreign students, over 2,600 academics, representing over 140 different nationalities; the annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £286.1 million with an expenditure of £270.4 million. In 2017, over 25,000 students applied to the University of Sussex, with around 5,000 joining the institution; the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018 placed Sussex 147th in the world overall,39th in the world for Social Sciences and 49th globally for Business and Law studies.
Sussex is known for its Humanities and Social Sciences departments, with its Development studies program being placed at number 1 globally in the QS World University Ranking. Sussex counts 5 Nobel Prize winners, 15 Fellows of the Royal Society, 9 Fellows of the British Academy, 24 fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences and a winner of the Crafoord Prize among its faculty. By 2011, many of its faculty members had received the Royal Society of Literature Prize, the Order of the British Empire and the Bancroft Prize. Alumni include heads of states, politicians, eminent scientists and activists. In an effort to establish a university to serve Sussex, a public meeting was held in December 1911 at the Royal Pavilion in order to discover ways to fund the construction of a university; the idea was revived in the 1950s and, in June 1958, the government approved the corporation's scheme for a university at Brighton, to be the first of a new generation of what came to be known as plate glass universities.
The university was established as a company in 1959, with a Royal Charter being granted on 16 August 1961. This was the first university in the UK since the Second World War; the university's organisation broke new ground in seeing the campus divided into Schools of Study, with students able to benefit from a multidisciplinary teaching environment. Sussex would emphasise cross-disciplinary activity, so that students would emerge from the university with a range of background or'contextual' knowledge to complement their specialist'core' skills in a particular subject area. For example, arts students spent their first year taking sciences; the university grew, starting with 52 students in 1961–62, to having 3200 in 1967–68. After starting at Knoyle Hall in Brighton, the Falmer campus was built with Falmer House opening in 1962, its campus was praised as gorgeously groundbreaking, receiving numerous awards. Its Student Union was quite active, organising concerts. Performers like Pink Floyd, Jimi Hendrix and Chuck Berry performed at the University Common Room, giving the university a reputation for Rock and Roll.
Academically, Sussex was home to figures such as Lord Asa Briggs, Helmut Pappe, Gillian Rose, Jennifer Platt and Tom Bottomore. In its first years, the university attracted a number of renowned academics such as Sir John Cornforth, John Maynard Smith, Martin Wight, David Daiches, Roger Blin-Stoyle and Colin Eaborn. Renowned scholars like Marcus Cunliffe, Gabriel Josipovici, Quentin Bell, Dame Helen Wallace, Stuart Sutherland and Marie Jahoda became central figures at the university and founded many of its current departments. In the late 1960s, the United Nations asked for science policy recommendations from a team of renowned academics at Sussex; the ensuing report became known as the Sussex Manifesto. Sussex came to be identified with student radicalism. In 1973, a mob of students physically prevented United States government adviser Samuel P. Huntington from giving a speech on campus, due to his involvement in the Vietnam War; when the spokesperson for the US embassy, Robert Beers, visited to give a talk to students entitled'Vietnam in depth' three students were waiting outside Falmer House and threw a bucket of red paint over the diplomat as he was leaving.
This came to be known as the Vietnam Bucket of Paint incident. In both 1967 and 1969, Sussex won the UK University Challenge. In 1980, Sussex edged out the University of Oxford to become the university with the highest income from research grants and contracts. In an attempt to appeal to a modern audience, the university chose in 2004 to cease using its coat of arms and to replace it with the "US" logo.2011 marked Sussex's 50th anniversary and saw the production of a number of works including a book on the university's history and an oral history and photography project. The university launched its first major fundraising campaign, Making the Future, gathered over $51.3 million. The university underwent a number of changes with the Sussex Strategic Plan 2009–2015, including the introduction of new academic courses, the opening of new research centres, the renovation and refurbishment of a number of its schools and buildings as well as the ongoing expansion of its student housing facilities.
The university has spent over £100 million on campus redevelopment, ongoing with £500 million set to be spent by the year 2021. Sussex is involved with the larger community across England in East Sussex. There are many regular community projects, such as children's
University of Brighton
The University of Brighton is a public university based on five campuses in Brighton and Hastings on the south coast of England. Its roots can be traced back to 1858 when the Brighton School of Art was opened in the Royal Pavilion, it achieved university status in 1992. The university focuses on professional education, with the majority of degrees awarded recognised by professional organisations or leading to professional qualifications. Subjects include pharmacy, ecology, mathematics, geology, teaching, sport science, journalism and business, it has 2,700 staff. In 1858 the Brighton School of Art opened its doors to its first 110 students, in rooms by the kitchens of the Royal Pavilion, it moved in 1876 to its own building in Grand Parade, with the Prime Minister, William Gladstone, witnessing the laying of the new building's foundation stone. The Municipal School of Science and Technology opened in Brighton in 1897 with 600 enrolled students. In the 1960s new buildings were constructed in Moulsecoomb for what had become the Brighton College of Technology.
In 1970 the School of Art and Brighton College of Technology merged to form Brighton Polytechnic. In 1976 the Brighton College of Education merged with Brighton Polytechnic, giving the Polytechnic a campus at Falmer, it had opened in 1909 as the Municipal Day Training College in Brighton. There was a further merger in 1979, when the East Sussex College of Higher Education merged with the polytechnic, creating a campus in Eastbourne; that institution had opened in London in 1898 as an institution training women and girls in physical education and moved to Eastbourne in 1949. The polytechnics were granted university status in 1992 and the Polytechnic became the University of Brighton under the provisions of the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992. In 1994 the Sussex and Kent Institute of Nursing and Midwifery became part of the university, increasing the number of students based in Eastbourne. In 2003 the Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened as a partnership between the University of Brighton, the University of Sussex and the Universities Hospitals Trust, the first medical school in South East England outside London.
University Centre Hastings is opened in 2004, managed by the University of Brighton. In 2011 the Brighton International College, part of Kaplan International Colleges, opened on the Brighton campus, to provide international students with English language courses and preparatory academic tuition for undergraduate and postgraduate courses; the university has five campuses: three in Brighton, at Falmer, Grand Parade and Moulsecoomb, one in Eastbourne and one in Hastings. In 2018, the University of Brighton gained a first class award in the People & Planet's University League table – UK universities ranked by environmental and ethical performance; the Falmer campus is three miles from Brighton city centre. The School of Humanities, School of Health Sciences, School of Applied Social Science, Centre for Nursing and Midwifery Research, International Health Development and Research Centre, Social Science Policy and Research Centre, School of Education, Education Research Centre, the Centre for Learning and Teaching and the Brighton and Sussex Medical School are all based on this campus.
Falmer railway station is adjacent, as is the Falmer Stadium, home to Brighton & Hove Albion FC, which opened in 2011. Facilities on the Falmer campus include a library, computer pool rooms and cafe/bar, the Students' Union cafe, aka The Hive, shop. Sports facilities on the campus include floodlit 3G AstroTurf pitch and tennis courts, a sports centre with fitness suite, two activity studios and a sports hall with six badminton courts, a new sports pavilion which opened in 2015. Grand Parade campus in Brighton city centre is home to the university's College of Arts and Humanities, the University of Brighton gallery and Sallis Benney Theatre; the university's archives include the University of Brighton Design Archives, which houses collections from the Design Council and other British and global design organisations, the moving image archive Screen Archive South East. Facilities include the specialist humanities and design library at St Peter's House, computer pool rooms, a media centre, a restaurant and cafe.
The School of Art and Media and the School of Humanities are based at Grand Parade. The Moulsecoomb campus is to the north of Brighton city centre. Moulsecoomb railway station is nearby, it is the largest of the five campuses with over 8,000 students. Brighton Business School, School of Architecture and Design, School of Computing and Mathematics, School of Environment and Technology, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences are based on the Moulsecoomb campus. Teaching and learning resources include rapid prototyping and design equipment including 3D scanners, CNS lathes and laser cutters, clinical skills and molecular biology laboratories, specialist labs for structural dynamics, thermal dynamics and avionics, a flight simulator, real-time trading room, architecture and interior architecture studios. Facilities include computer pool rooms, two restaurants and five cafes; the new advanced engineering building opened in September 2017. The University of Brighton and Ricardo UK jointly opened the Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratories on 14 November 2006.
The laboratories are one of the largest UK research teams dedicated to internal combustion engines, the development of laser-based measurement techniques, fundamental modelling and computational simulation. The University of Brighton Students Un
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Spain, South Africa, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Russia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country. Australian equivalent of post graduate diploma is called Graduate Diploma. AQF level of the graduate diploma is eight. New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. NZQA level of post graduate diploma is eight. A postgraduate diploma indicates master's-level studies, it constitutes as the first year of a two-year master's degree. A university degree is required. In Canada, a postgraduate certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances.
A University's degree or a master's degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of to focus on a concise subject, it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary: Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, Post-Baccalaureate or D. E. S. S.. See links to the Canadian education system. In India, there are a number of universities offering postgraduate diploma programs; these post-graduate diploma programs are one-year programs that are divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work, credit requirements. These are master's level programs; these programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for the better employment opportunity and industry readiness. It is designed to provide in-depth exposure to concepts, scientific principles, implementation methodology of new approaches.
Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Post-graduate diploma in Banking & Finance, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, are examples of courses offered in India. Certain institutes provide postgraduate diploma programs which satisfies the credit requirement for a master's program with increased number of lower credit courses for 2 years, this programs are provisionally considered equivalent to a master's level. Postgraduate diploma programs are meant for those with a bachelor's degree to gain an advanced technical grasp and to those with a master's degree to enhance their interdisciplinary/translation grasp. Referred to as PgD, the postgraduate diploma has been awarded by the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, since June 2005 in institutions associated with and accredited by the council; this postgraduate qualification is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 8 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelor's degree or vocational degrees, such as the Meister or Staatlich Geprüfter Betriebswirt in Germany.
Most institutions operate under the Recognition of Prior Experiential Learning scheme meaning applicants who do not meet the normal academic requirements may be considered based on publications, relevant work or research experience, which will involve an assessment centre or interview process. In Ireland, the vast majority of postgraduate diplomas require the same duration and level of studies as a Master's degree, namely EQF Level 9, yet additional coursework or an independent research project replace the thesis. While progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the Irish postgraduate diploma is accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 doctoral degree's in most countries. In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances: 1) as part of an independent program of studies; the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelor's degree. It is awarded by a university or a graduate school, it takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered.
It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a master's degree. Only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry; the postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System grading system. For example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International; the University of the Basque Country offers an English-language PgDip in International Election Observation and Electoral Assistance, run in cooperation with many organisations in the field of election monitoring, such as The Carter Center, Electoral Reform I
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is an inland and in relative terms upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in moors of the Pennines and has a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. West Yorkshire consists of five metropolitan boroughs and is bordered by the counties of Derbyshire to the south, Greater Manchester to the south-west, Lancashire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north and east, South Yorkshire to the south and south-east. Remnants of strong coal and iron ore industries remain in the county, having attracted people over the centuries, this can be seen in the buildings and architecture. Leeds may become a terminus for a north-east limb of High Speed 2. Major railways and two major motorways traverse the county, which contains Leeds Bradford International Airport. West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 so its five districts became unitary authorities.
However, the metropolitan county, which covers an area of 2,029 square kilometres, continues to exist in law, as a geographic frame of reference. Since 1 April 2014 West Yorkshire has been a combined authority area, with the local authorities pooling together some functions over transport and regeneration as the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. West Yorkshire includes the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the biggest and most built-up urban area within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire. West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, corresponds to the core of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire and the county boroughs of Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield and Wakefield. West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council inherited the use of West Riding County Hall at Wakefield, opened in 1898, from the West Riding County Council in 1974. Since 1987 it has been the headquarters of Wakefield City Council; the county had a two-tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and five districts providing most services.
In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. Organisations such as the West Yorkshire Metro continue to operate on this basis. Although the county council was abolished, West Yorkshire continues to form a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire and a High Sheriff. Wakefield's Parish Church was raised to cathedral status in 1888 and after the elevation of Wakefield to diocese, Wakefield Council sought city status and this was granted in July 1888; however the industrial revolution, which changed West and South Yorkshire led to the growth of Leeds and Bradford, which became the area's two largest cities. Leeds was granted city status in 1893 and Bradford in 1897; the name of Leeds Town Hall reflects the fact that at its opening in 1858 Leeds was not yet a city, while Bradford renamed its Town Hall as City Hall in 1965. The county borders, going anticlockwise from the west: Lancashire, Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire.
It lies entirely on rocks of carboniferous age which form the southern Pennine fringes in the west and the Yorkshire coalfield further eastwards. In the extreme east of the metropolitan county there are younger deposits of magnesian limestone; the Bradford and Calderdale areas are dominated by the scenery of the eastern slopes of the Pennines, dropping from upland in the west down to the east, dissected by many steep-sided valleys. Large-scale industry, housing and commercial buildings of differing heights, transport routes and open countryside conjoin; the dense network of roads and railways and urban development, confined by valleys creates dramatic interplay of views between settlements and the surrounding hillsides, as shaped the first urban-rural juxtapositions of David Hockney. Where most rural the land crops up in the such rhymes and folklore as On Ilkley Moor Bah'Tat, date unknown, the early 19th century novels and poems of the Brontë family in and around Haworth and long-running light comedy-drama Last of the Summer Wine in the 20th century.
The carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield further east have produced a rolling landscape with hills and broad valleys. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of former industrial activity. There are numerous derelict or converted mine buildings and landscaped former spoil heaps; the scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. However, many areas are affected by urban fringe pressures creating fragmented and downgraded landscapes and present are urban influences from major cities, smaller industrial towns and former mining villages. In the magnesian limestone belt to the east of the Leeds and Wakefield areas is an elevated ridge with smoothly rolling scenery, dissected by dry valleys. Here, there is a large number of country houses and estates with parkland, estate woodlands and game coverts.
The rivers Aire and Calder drain the area, flowing from west to east. The table below outlines many of the co