Vigas are wooden beams used in the traditional adobe architecture of the American Southwest New Mexico. In this type of construction, the vigas are the main structural members carrying the weight of the roof to the load-bearing exterior walls; the exposed beam ends projecting from the outside of the wall are a defining characteristic of Spanish Colonial Architecture in New Mexico and replicated in modern Pueblo Revival architecture. The vigas are peeled logs with a minimum of woodworking. In traditional buildings, the vigas support latillas which are placed crosswise and upon which the adobe roof is laid with intermediate layers of brush or soil; the latillas may be hewn boards, or in more rustic buildings peeled branches. These building techniques date back to the Ancestral Puebloan peoples, vigas are visible in many of their surviving buildings. Since the modern Pueblo Revival style was popularized in the 1920s and 1930s, vigas are used for ornamental rather than structural purposes. Noted architect John Gaw Meem incorporated ornamental vigas into many of his designs.
Contemporary construction in Santa Fe, New Mexico, controlled by stringent building codes incorporates ornamental vigas, although the latest revision of the residential building code gives credit for structural vigas. Older structures that have been reconstructed may contain both ornamental vigas. Vigas are about 6 to 10 inches in diameter and average 15 feet long and are used in interior spaces. Pinyon and Ponderosa Pine were the most common wood species used in Viga construction during the 17th century. Engelmann spruce is the preferred wood "for the wood character and lack of cracking," but Ponderosa pine is more used. Wood characteristics, availability of trees, transportation issues defined room depths that were no longer than 15 feet. A layer of smaller branches or saplings known as latillas or Latias covers the top of the Vigas with Adobe for insulation and water repeal. Although in prehistoric times Vigas were reused from old constructions to new buildings, this practice depended on the history of some sites since some Spanish settlement reused them such as the Walpi.
In the 19th century, the traditional craftsmanship of Vigas changed with the arrival of the railroad in the 1880s and immigrants from the east coast. New dimensioned 2'. Cutting trees for Vigas was done in Winter because of the good temperatures. “Dead and down” trees were the preferred source for Vigas in the adjacent forests. Traditional Vigas were cut to length with metal axes. Latillas were collected, along with other construction materials at the same time. To make transportation easier wood preparation was done before shipment. Large labor crews were involved and Vigas were transported by teams of Oxen from the mountains; some construction historians have mentioned the use of latillas under the vigas for carrying poles. Wood cutting was an important aspect of material production. If cutting was done shorter than needed, the builders had to wait until one year to get the same material thus representing a problem; these issues led to some structural and designing decisions in constructions like the building of second walls inside the proposed building so shorter materials can be used.
Large diameter Vigas were cut first so they can cury for a longer period. As lighter elements for transportation, Latillas or Latias were cut last of various types of wood. In buildings, these were laid in different patterns to the Vigas and painted in a different colors; the 1846 American immigration brought notions of New England architecture. New technologies substituted the use of Vigas for Machine-sewed beams, among other construction technologies that followed to the 20th century; this practice did not interfere with the use of Vigas for decorative purposes in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture between the 1920s and 1930s. Traditional Vigas were used for structural purposes in buildings. Vigas were spaced among other 3 feet apart, although irregular or unequal spaced was characteristic of Spanish colonial architecture. Forms of Vigas varies from large institutional buildings to small ones; the amount of Vigas used in rooms vary. Some rooms like in Acoma, are roofed with five to nine Vigas.
Other structural practices were added to buildings such as placing horizontal bond beams to transfer structural loads to the adobe roof. The extension of Vigas some feet outside of the Wall as a standard practice; this was covered porches. An Umbral or lintel was added for support of the Viga along with vertical posts in these spaces; the portal's roof treatment was the same as the space provided for different uses. Vigas were installed with the smaller ends to one side of the roof to facilitate good drainage. Vigas sat directly on the adobe or stone walls and strapped. Decorative Corbels were used in the interiors. New technologies in the Pueblo Revival Architecture were integrated; the practice of anchoring Vigas with rebar through pre-drilled holes at opposing angles and the designing of parapets for anchoring, was ideal for Vigas in low flat roofs. This was used to prevent roof uplift; the vaulted Viga roof is another type of structural system using vigas, using parapets on the two side and eaves on the ends.
The roof is left exposed on the interior and latillas are placed parallel with oth
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continent, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were exterminated, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Many pre-Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent settlements, agriculture and monumental architecture, major earthworks, complex societal hierarchies.
Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European colonies and the arrival of enslaved Africans, are known only through archaeological investigations and oral history. Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records; because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few hidden documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era. Many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives.
Before the development of archaeology in the 19th century, historians of the pre-Columbian period interpreted the records of the European conquerors and the accounts of early European travelers and antiquaries. It was not until the nineteenth century that the work of men such as John Lloyd Stephens, Eduard Seler and Alfred P. Maudslay, of institutions such as the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, led to the reconsideration and criticism of the European sources. Now, the scholarly study of pre-Columbian cultures is most based on scientific and multidisciplinary methodologies. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait and along the coast. Genetic evidence found in Amerindians' maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout South America; when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate.
One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago. However, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed; some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago. The chronology of migration models is divided into two general approaches; the first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the Americas occurring no earlier than 14,000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at a much earlier date 50,000–40,000 years ago or earlier. Artifacts have been found in both North and South America which have been dated to 14,000 years ago, accordingly humans have been proposed to have reached Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America by this time. In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a much date no more than 2,000 years ago, moving across the ice from Siberia into Alaska.
The North American climate was unstable. It stabilized by about 10,000 years ago. Within this time frame pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified; the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The Paleo-Indians were hunter-gatherers characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of 20 to 50 members of an extended family; these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon and ancient bison. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included distinctive projectile points and knives, as well as less distinctive implements used for butchering and hide processing. The vastness of the North American continent, the variety of its climates, vegetation and landforms, led ancient peoples to coalesce into many distinct linguistic and cultural groups.
This is reflected in the oral histories of the indigenous peoples, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories which say that a given people have been living in a certain territory since the creation of the world. Over the course of thousands of years, paleo-Indian
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. It appears around 11,500–11,000 uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present at the end of the last glacial period, is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest this radiocarbon age is equal to 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas; the only human burial, directly associated with tools from the Clovis culture included the remains of an infant boy researchers named Anzick-1. Paleogenetic analyses of Anzick-1's ancient nuclear, Y-chromosome DNA reveal that Anzick-1 is related to modern Native American populations, which lends support to the Beringia hypothesis for the settlement of the Americas.
The Clovis culture was replaced by several more localized regional societies from the Younger Dryas cold-climate period onward. Post-Clovis cultures include the Folsom tradition, Suwannee-Simpson, Plainview-Goshen and Redstone; each of these is thought to derive directly from Clovis, in some cases differing only in the length of the fluting on their projectile points. Although this is held to be the result of normal cultural change through time, numerous other reasons have been suggested as driving forces to explain changes in the archaeological record, such as the Younger Dryas postglacial climate change which exhibited numerous faunal extinctions. After the discovery of several Clovis sites in eastern North America in the 1930s, the Clovis people came to be regarded as the first human inhabitants who created a widespread culture in the New World. However, this theory has been challenged, in the opinion of many archaeologists, by several archaeological discoveries, including sites such as Cactus Hill in Virginia, Paisley Caves in the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, the Topper site in Allendale County, South Carolina, Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, the Friedkin site in Texas, Cueva Fell in Chile, Monte Verde in Chile.
The oldest claimed human archaeological site in the Americas is the Pedra Furada hearths, a site in Brazil that precedes the Clovis culture and the other sites mentioned by 19,000 to 30,000 years. This claim has become an issue of contention between North American archaeologists and their South American and European counterparts, who disagree on whether it is conclusively proven to be an older human site. A hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted-stone spear point, known as the Clovis point; the Clovis point is bifacial and fluted on both sides. Archaeologists do not agree on whether the widespread presence of these artifacts indicates the proliferation of a single people, or the adoption of a superior technology by diverse population groups; the culture is named after artifacts found between 1936 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, an archaeological site between the towns of Clovis and Portales, New Mexico. These finds were deemed important due to their direct association with mammoth species and the extinct Bison antiquus.
The in situ finds of 1936 and 1937 included most of four stone Clovis points, two long bone points with impact damage, stone blades, a portion of a Clovis blade core, several cutting tools made on stone flakes. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America, into northern South America. Clovis people are accepted to have hunted mammoths, as well as extinct bison, gomphotheres, tapir, camelops and other smaller animals. More than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have been used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited; the oldest Clovis site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora, discovered during a 2007 survey. It features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP. In 2011, remains of gomphotheres were found; the Aubrey site in Denton County, produced an identical radiocarbon date. The most held perspective on the end of the Clovis culture is that a decline in the availability of megafauna, combined with an overall increase in a less mobile population, led to local differentiation of lithic and cultural traditions across the Americas.
After this time, Clovis-style fluted points were replaced by other fluted-point traditions with an uninterrupted sequence across North and Central America. An continuous cultural adaptation proceeds from the Clovis period through the ensuing Middle and Late Paleoindian periods. Whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, controversial, question, it has been hypothesized that the Clovis culture had its decline in the wake of the Younger Dryas cold phase. This'cold shock', lasting 1500 years, affected many parts of the world, including North America; this appears to have been triggered by a vast amount of meltwater – from Lake Agassiz – emptying into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline circulation. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, or Clovis comet hypothesis proposed that a large air burst or earth impact of a comet or comets from outer space initiated the Younger Drya
Farmington, New Mexico
Farmington is a city in San Juan County in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2013 population estimate from the United States Census Bureau the city had a total population of 45,426 people. Farmington makes up one of the four Metropolitan Statistical Areas in New Mexico; the U. S. Census Bureau's population estimate in 2011 for Farmington was about 45,256. Farmington is located at the junction of the San Juan River, the Animas River, the La Plata River, is located on the Colorado Plateau. Farmington is the largest city of San Juan County, one of the geographically largest counties in the United States covering 5,538 square miles; the county seat and the other city in San Juan County is Aztec. Farmington serves as the commercial hub for most of northwestern New Mexico and the Four Corners region of four states. Farmington lies at or near the junction of three important highways: U. S. Highway 550, U. S. Highway 64, New Mexico Highway 371, it is on the Trails of one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways.
The primary industries of San Juan County are the production of petroleum, natural gas, coal. Major coal mines are the Navajo and San Juan mines, operated by BHP Billiton 15 to 19 miles southwest of Farmington; the coal mined from the Navajo and San Juan mines is used for fuel for the nearby Four Corners Generating Station and San Juan Power Plant to produce electric power. Farmington is known across New Mexico and throughout the southwest for its baseball tournaments, Ricketts Park is the home of the Connie Mack World Series. Farmington High School claimed the AAAA Baseball State Championship four years in a row from 2005 through 2008. Piedra Vista High School in Farmington claimed the AAAA Baseball State Championship in 2010 and 2011; the area, now Farmington was settled by Ancestral Pueblo people in the 7th Century. Ruins can be visited at Aztec Ruins; when the Ancestral Puebloans left the area, the Navajos, Jicarilla Apaches, Utes moved into the area. A key part of the region was known in Navajo as Tóta' which means "where three rivers meet".
Although Spanish and American mineral prospecting happened in the area, there were few permanent settlements. In 1868, the Navajo Nation was created. Six years the U. S. government offered territory in the rest of San Juan County to the Jicarilla Apache but they refused. As a result, the area was opened for settlement and a number of settlers moved into the region from Southern Colorado; the area was known as "Junction City" because of the access to the three rivers. In 1901 the town was incorporated and named Farmington with a population of 548. By September 19, 1905, the railroad was finished connecting Farmington to Durango, expanding economic and settlement opportunities, it was unusual in that it was a standard gauge railroad that connected to the Denver & Rio Grande Western narrow gauge lines of southwestern Colorado. The railroad converted the line to narrow gauge in 1923; the line was abandoned in 1968 and the line was dismantled to Durango in 1969. In addition, in the 1920s there was significant investment in natural gas and oil in the area, although actual production remained low until the 1950s.
With construction of a developed road connecting Farmington to U. S. Route 66 and Albuquerque in the 1940s and the construction of the San Juan Basin Natural Gas Pipeline in 1953 – a venture led by Tom Bolack – the population expanded significantly, it grew from 3,637 in 1950 to 35,000 in 1953 and the expansion continued after that. However, the significant connection to the energy industry made the economics of the town vulnerable to international market fluctuations during the 1970s energy crisis and resulted in some economic diversification. In 1967, as part of a joint U. S. Government-El Paso Electric operation, an underground nuclear detonation occurred 50 miles east of Farmington and about 25 miles south of Dulce, New Mexico in present-day Carson National Forest; this pilot project of Operation Plowshare, code-named Project Gasbuggy, was an attempt to fracture a large volume of underground bedrock to make more natural gas available for extraction by gas wells. The people of Farmington have been the subject of several civil rights investigations, including the 2005 report, The Farmington Report: Civil Rights for Native Americans 30 Years Later.
On March 18, 1950, Farmington was the site of a mass UFO sighting in which over half the town's population was reported to have seen large saucers in the sky flying at rapid speeds. On June 7, 2006, a chemical spill at Halliburton's Farmington facility created a toxic cloud that forced more than 200 people to evacuate their homes. Farmington is located at 36°45′6″N 108°11′23″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Farmington has a total area of 32.0 square miles, of which 31.5 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. The Navajo Nation is west of Farmington, the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation is to the northwest, the Southern Ute Indian Reservation is northeast of the city. Prehistoric Native American ruins are located nearby. Aztec Ruins National Monument and the Salmon Ruins are ancient dwellings located just to the northeast and the east of Farmington. Mesa Verde National Park lies about 40 miles to the northwest, Chaco Culture National Historical Park is about 50 miles to the southeast.
Farmington has a semi-arid climate. The city can experience cold winters with low precipitation throughout the year; the average annual snowfall is 12.3 inches. As of the census of 2010, there were 45,895 people and 17,548 housing unit
Glacial Kame Culture
The Glacial Kame Culture was a culture of Archaic people in North America that occupied southern Ontario, Michigan and Indiana from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC. The name of this culture derives from its members' practice of burying their dead atop glacier-deposited gravel hills. Among the most common types of artifacts found at Glacial Kame sites are shells of marine animals and goods manufactured from a copper ore, knows as float copper; the type site for Glacial Kame is the Ridgeway Site near the village of Ridgeway in Hardin County, Ohio. The site was discovered in 1856 by workers building a railroad line nearby, who mined the kame for ballast. Archaeologists specializing in Ohio became familiar with Glacial Kame sooner than with the state's other cultures. Other regional cultures include the Maple Creek Culture of southwestern Ohio, Red Ocher Culture and Old Copper Culture of Wisconsin. For a time, it was thought that the Glacial Kame Culture did not produce ceramics, but this understanding was disproven by the discovery of basic pottery at the Zimmerman Site near Roundhead, Ohio.
Excavation of Glacial Kame sites yields few projectile points — some of the most important sites have yielded no projectile points at all — and their few points that have been found are of diverse styles. For this reason, it appears that different groups of Glacial Kame peoples independently developed different methods of manufacturing their projectile points; this diversity appears in the culture's heartland in Champaign and Logan counties in western Ohio. Keller, Christine K. Glacial Kame sandal-sole shell gorgets: an exploration of manufacture, use and public exhibition. 2008. Indian Culture History of Ohio
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Fort Walton culture
The Fort Walton culture is the term used by archaeologists for a late prehistoric Native American archaeological culture that flourished in southeastern North America from 1200~1500 CE and is associated with the historic Apalachee people. The Fort Walton culture was named by archaeologist Gordon Willey for the Fort Walton Mound site near Fort Walton Beach, based on his work at the site. Through more work in the area archaeologist have now come to believe the Ft. Walton site was built and used by people of the contemporaneous Pensacola culture; the peoples of the Ft. Walton culture used sand, grog, or combinations of these materials as tempering agents in their pottery, whereas the Pensacola culture peoples used the more typical Mississippian culture shell tempering for their pottery. Using this unique combination of sand/grit/grog tempering as its criterion Fort Walton culture is now defined within the geographical area stretching from the Aucilla River in the east to a Pensacola–Fort Walton transitional area around Choctawhatchee Bay in the west and north into the interior of south Alabama and Georgia, 107 miles up the Apalachicola River and 50 miles up the Chattahoochee River.
1000 to 1200 CE local Weeden Island peoples began adapting and adopting intensive maize agriculture, the building of platform mounds for ceremonial and religious purposes and making a new variety of ceramics, changes influenced by contact with the major Mississippian culture centers to the north and west. Early archaeologists thought that the Fort Walton culture represented the intrusion of peoples from Mexico or Mississippian cultures from the northwest replacing the indigenous Weeden Island peoples, but by the late 1970s this theory was discounted. Layouts and locations for Fort Walton sites are similar to other Mississippian culture sites, with the exception of sites in the Tallahassee Hills area which because of the local geography are located around lakes and swamps instead of rivers. Settlement types include single family homesteads, multi family hamlets, small single mound centers, large multimound centers; the hierarchical settlement patterns suggests. By the Late Fort Walton period increased contact with Lamar Phase peoples from central Georgia saw another change in styles of decoration and manufacture of ceramics.
This new phase is known as the Leon-Jefferson culture. This period sees the collapse of the chiefdoms as aboriginal populations declined following contact with European explorers and colonizers, such as the Hernando de Soto Expedition in 1539; the Fort Walton and Leon-Jefferson peoples are the direct ancestors of the Apalachee peoples. The Lake Jackson Mounds site in Leon County is the largest known ceremonial center of the Fort Walton culture, although there are eight other known ceremonial sites in the Apalachee Province, it was occupied during the entire Fort Walton period, but abandoned at about 1500 CE when the capital of the chiefdom was moved to nearby Anhaica, the capital when the de Soto entrada encamped there in the winter of 1539. Another large site located nearby is the Velda Mound, occupied from 1450 to 1625. Other sites include the Yon Mound and Village Site in Liberty County, the Thick Greenbriar Site in Jackson County. Woodville Karst Plain Project Gabrielle Shahramfar. Determining Fort Walton burial patterns and their relationship within the greater Mississippian world.
University of South Florida