Maritime patrol aircraft
A maritime patrol aircraft known as a patrol aircraft, maritime reconnaissance aircraft, or by the older American term patrol bomber, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles — in particular anti-submarine warfare, anti-ship warfare, search and rescue. The first aircraft that would now be identified as maritime patrol aircraft were flown by the Royal Naval Air Service and the French Aéronautique Maritime during World War I on anti-submarine patrols. France and Austria-Hungary used large numbers of smaller patrol aircraft for the Mediterranean and other coastal areas while the Germans and British fought over the North Sea. At first and zeppelins were the only aircraft capable of staying aloft for the longer 10 hour patrols whilst carrying a useful payload while shorter-range patrols were mounted with landplanes such as the Sopwith 1½ Strutter. A number of specialized patrol balloons were built by the British, including the SS class airship of which 158 were built including subtypes.
In the war, aircraft were developed for the role including small flying boats such as the FBA Type C as well as large floatplanes such as the Short 184 or flying boats such as the Felixstowe F.3. Developments of the Felixstowe served with the Royal Air Force until the mid 20s, with the US Navy as the Curtiss F5L and Naval Aircraft Factory PN whose developments saw service until 1938. During the war, Dornier did considerable pioneering work in all aluminium aircraft structures while working for Zeppelin and built four large patrol flying boats, the last of which, the Zeppelin-Lindau Rs. IV influenced development elsewhere resulting in the replacement of wooden hulls with metal ones, such as on the Short Singapore; the success of long range patrol aircraft led to the development of fighters designed to intercept them, such as the Hansa-Brandenburg W.29. Many of the World War II patrol airplanes were converted from either bombers or airliners such as the Lockheed Hudson which started out as the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra, as well as older biplane designs such as the Supermarine Stranraer which had begun to be replaced by monoplanes just before the outbreak of war.
The British in particular used obsolete bombers to supplement purpose-built aircraft for maritime patrol, such as the Vickers Wellington and Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley while the US relegated the Douglas B-18 Bolo to the same role until better aircraft became available. Blimps were used by the U. S. Navy in the warmer and calmer latitudes of the Caribbean Sea, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico and the Azores. Special-purpose aircraft were used, including the American-made twin-engine Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boats, the large, four-engine British Short Sunderland flying boats of the Allies. In the Pacific, the Catalina was superseded by the longer-ranged Martin PBM Mariner flying boat. For the Axis Powers, there were the long-range Japanese Kawanishi H6K and Kawanishi H8K flying boats, the German Blohm & Voss BV 138 diesel-engined trimotor flying boat as well as the converted Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor airliner landplane. To close the Mid-Atlantic gap, or "Black Gap", the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the U.
S. Army Air Forces employed the long range American Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber which saw service in the Pacific as the PB4Y with the U. S. Navy. New developments in airborne radar and sonobuoys enhanced the ability of aircraft to find and destroy submarines at night and in poor weather, while the need for effective camouflage came under fresh review, with the widespread adoption of white paint schemes in the Atlantic to reduce the warning available to surfaced U-boats, while US Navy aircraft transitioned from an upper light blue-gray and lower white to an all-over dark blue due to the increasing threat of Japanese forces at night-time. In the decades following World War II, the patrol duties were taken over by aircraft derived from civilian airliners; these had performance factors better than most of the wartime bombers. The latest jet-powered bombers of the 1950s did not have the endurance needed for long, overwater patrolling, they did not have the low loitering speeds necessary for antisubmarine operations.
The RAF flew a derivative of the Avro Lancaster bomber – the Avro Shackleton –, eventually replaced it with the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, a derivation of the De Havilland Comet airliner. The U. S. Navy flew a mixture of patrol planes such as the Lockheed P2V Neptune and the carrier-based Grumman S-2 Tracker; the P2V was replaced by the Lockheed P-3 Orion, still in service after many decades. The P-3 is derived from the 1950s Lockheed Electra airliner with four turboprop engines. Produced in United States and Canada, the P-3 has been operated by the air forces and navies of United States, Canada, Brazil, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway and Taiwan; the Canadian version is called the CP-140 Aurora. At first, the Royal Australian Air Force and the Royal Australian Navy had to make do with a stretched-fuselage modification of the Avro Lincoln bomber, before replacing those with the P2V and the P-3C, still in service. In addition to their ASW and SAR capabilities, most P-3Cs have been modified to carry Harpoon and Maverick missiles for attacking surface ships.
American P-3s were armed with the Lulu nuclear depth charge for ASW, but those were removed from the arsenal and scrapped decades ago. The Soviet Union developed the Ilyushin Il-38 from a civilian airliner; the Royal Canadian Air Forc
French Air Force
The French Air Force Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army was made an independent military arm in 1934; the number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 225 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 117 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale; as of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve; the Chief of Staff of the French Air Force is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. French military aviation was born in 1909. After the approval of the law by the French National Assembly on March 29, 1912, French Military Aeronautics became part of the French Army, alongside the four traditional branches of the French Army, the infantry, cavalry and engineers.
France was one of the first states to start building aircraft. At the beginning of First World War, France had a total of 148 planes (8 from French Naval Aviation and 15 Airships. By the time of the armistice in November 1918, 3608 planes were in service. 5,500 pilots and observers were killed from the 17,300 engaged in the conflict, amounting to 31% of endured lossesMilitary Aeronautics was established as a "special arm" by the law of December 8, 1922. However, the remained under the auspices of the French Army, it wasn't until July 2, 1934, that the "special arm" became an independent service and was independent. The initial air arm was the cradle of French military parachuting, responsible for the first formation of the " Air Infantry Groups " Groupements de l'Infanterie de l'Air in the 1930s, out of which the Air Parachute Commandos descended; the French Air Force maintained a continuous presence across the French colonial empire from the 1920s to 1943. The French Air Force played an important role, most notable during the Battle of France of 1940.
The engagement of the Free French Air Forces from 1940 to 1943 the engagement of the aviators of the French Liberation Army, were marking episodes of the History of the French Air Force. The sacrifices of Commandant René Mouchotte and Lieutenant Marcel Beau illustrated their devotion; the Vichy French Air Force had a significant presence in the French Levant. After 1945, France rebuilt its aircraft industry; the French Air Force participated in several colonial wars during the Empire such as French Indochina after the Second World War. Since 1945, the French Air Force was notably engaged in Indochina; the French Air Force was active in Algeria from 1952 until 1962 and Suez later Mauritania and Chad, the Persian Gulf, ex-Yugoslavia and more in Afghanistan and Iraq. From 1964 until 1971 the French Air Force had the unique responsibility for the French nuclear arm via Dassault Mirage IV or ballistic missiles of Air Base 200 Apt-Saint-Christol on the Plateau d'Albion. Accordingly, from 1962, the French political leadership reprioritized its military emphasis on nuclear deterrence, implementing a complete reorganisation of the Air Force, with the creation of four air regions and seven major specialised commands, among which were the Strategic Air Forces Command, COTAM, the Air Command of Aerial Defense Forces, the Force aérienne tactique.
In 1964 the Second Tactical Air Command was created at Nancy to take command of air units stationed in France but not assigned to NATO. The Military Air Transport Command had been formed in February 1962 from the Groupement d'Unités Aériennes Spécialisées. Created in 1964 was the Escadron des Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air grouping all FCA units; the Dassault Mirage IV, the principal French strategic bomber, was designed to strike Soviet positions as part of the French nuclear triad. In 1985, the Air Force had four major flying commands, the Strategic Air Forces Command, the Tactical Air Forces Command, the Military Air Transport Command, CAFDA. CFAS had two squadrons of S2 and S-3 IRBMs at the Plateau d'Albion, six squadrons of Mirage IVAs, three squadrons of C-135F, as well as a training/reconnaissance unit, CIFAS 328, at Bordeaux; the tactical air command included wings EC 3, EC 4, EC 7, EC 11, EC 13, ER 33, with a total of 19 squadrons of Mirage III, two squadrons flying the Mirage 5F, a squadron flying the Mirage F.1CR.
CoTAM counted 28 squadrons, of which ten were fixed-wing transport squadrons, the remainder helicopter and liaison squadrons, at least five of which were overseas. CAFDA numbered 14 squadrons flying the Mirage F.1C. Two other commands had flying units, the Air Force Training Command, the Air Force Transmissions Command, with four squadrons and three trials units. Dassault Aviation led the way with delta-wing designs, which formed the basis for the Dassault Mirage III series of fighter jets; the Mirage demonstrated its abilities in the Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War, the Falklands War, the Gulf War, becoming one of the most popular jet fighters of its day, selling widely. In 1994 the Commandment of the Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air was reestablished under a different form; the French Air Force is replacing its aircraft inventory. The Air Force is awaiting th
Compagnie Française d'Aviation
Compagnie Française d'Aviation was a French aircraft manufacturer of the 1930s and 1940s. It was established in 1936 as a division of the Salmson engine company to handle the mass production of the Cricri light aircraft. Manufacturing was revived on a small scale thereafter. By 1951, their CFA D.7 Cricri Major design and its derivatives were outdated, the company was dissolved at this time. Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. P. 77. Simpson, R. W.. Airlife's General Aviation. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing. P. 410
Salmson is a French engineering company. A pump manufacturer, it turned to automobile and aeroplane manufacturing in the 20th century, returning to pump manufacturing in the 1960s, re-expanded to a number of products and services in the late 20th and into the 21st century, it has production facilities in Laval. It has subsidiaries in Argentina, Lebanon, South Africa and Vietnam, it was established by Émile Salmson as Emile Salmson, Ing. as a workshop in Paris, making steam-powered compressors and centrifugal pumps for railway and military purposes. Subsequently, joined by engineers George Canton and Georg Unné, it was renamed Emile Salmson & Cie, building petrol-powered lifts and motors; the company became one of the first to make purpose-built aircraft engines, starting before World War I and continuing into World War II. After World War I the company looked around for other work and started making car bodies and complete cars. Car production finished in 1957. Focus moved back to pump production and the facilities moved to Mayenne in 1961.
The firm was bought by ITT-LMT in 1962 and by Thomson in 1976. Its headquarters today are in Chatou, it moved to Billancourt and manufactured the Salmson 9 series of air- and water-cooled radial engines. During World War I Salmson made its first complete aeroplanes the two-seat fighter/reconnaissance plane, the Salmson 2A2; these were used in combat by both the American Expeditionary force. The company designed a prototype of a single seat scout/fighter, the Salmson 3, but this was not produced in large quantities. Salmson aircraft were used for air mail to India in. Aeroplane manufacturing moved to Villeurbanne near Lyon. Two world records were set by Maryse Bastié. Hanriot HD.3 Hanriot H.26 Hanriot H.31 Hanriot H.33 Salmson-Moineau A92H Salmson-Moineau S. M.1 Salmson-Moineau S. M.2 Salmson 1 A.3 Salmson 2 A.2 Salmson 2 Berline Salmson 2 de l'Aéropostale Salmson 3 C.1 Salmson 4 Ab.2 Salmson 5 A.2 Salmson 6 A.2 Salmson 7 A.2 Salmson 16 A.2 Salmson D-1 Phrygane Salmson D-2 Phrygane Salmson D-3 Phryganet Salmson D-4 Phrygane Major Salmson D-6 CriCri Salmson D-7 CriCri Major Salmson D-21 Phrygane Salmson D-211 Phrygane Salmson D-57 Phryganet Aero-engines produced up to 1917 are shown in the following table: In common with several other French aero-engine manufacturers Salmson named their engines with the number of cylinders a series letter in capitals followed by variant letters in lower-case.
Engines not included in the 1932 table are listed here: Salmson air-cooled engines available in 1932 are tabled here: The Billancourt factory became the car manufacturing plant directed by Emile Petit. As the firm had no direct car design expertise they started by building the British GN cyclecar under licence, displaying six cars at the 1919 Paris Salon. In 1922 the car part of the business became a separate company, named Société des Moteurs Salmson; the first Salmson car proper used a four-cylinder engine designed by Petit with unusual valve gear: a single pushrod actuated both inlet and exhaust valves pushing to open the exhaust and pulling to open the inlet. This was used in the AL models from 1921; the same year the company built its first twin-overhead-cam engine, fitted to the 1922 D-type, although most production at first used the pushrod engine. Models included AL, D-type VAL3, AL3, GSC San Sebastian, Gran Sport, 2ACT. Salmson won 550 automobile races and set ten world records before closing the racing department in 1929.
The S-series cars took over from the D-type, becoming a long lived series. S4 S4C S4D S4DA S4-61 S4E. 2300 Sport Coupe After World War II Salmson Type S4-61 were re-introduced. As before the war, they were in most respects mutually indistinguishable from the outside apart from the longer nose on the Type S4-E; the Type S4-61 retained its four-cylinder in-line 1,730 cc engine. The standard body was a four-door sedan/saloon, 4510 mm in length for the four-cylinder car and 4610 mm with the larger engine; as well as the sedan/saloon there was a four-seater two-door coupe version of the S4-61 although this variant represented 10% of the post-war S4-61‘s total sales. A few two-door cabriolets were produced. In October 1947 a updated body appeared for the Type S4-E, featuring more flamboyant wheel arches and lowered headlights, now set into the body work rather than perching above the front wings; the revised frontal treatment quickly found its way onto the coupé and cabriolet variants, making the 13CV S4-E easier to distinguish from the 10 CV S4-61 than hitherto.
Like France's other luxury car makers, Salmson sales suffered from a government taxation policy that penalised cars with large engines and a French economy which during the five-year period from 1945 to 1950 resolutely failed to show significant signs of growth. Overall volumes were depressed; the 336 cars produced in 1948 – split between the 10CV and 13CV cars in a ratio of 2:1 – did provide grounds for cautious optimism when compared to the 1947 volume of just 143 cars built. In 1950 a new car arrived in the shape of the Randonnée E-72. Car sales continued to be slow in the postwar market; the company's passenger car production reached
Salmson air-cooled aero-engines
Between 1920 and 1951 the Société des Moteurs Salmson in France developed and built a series of used air-cooled aircraft engines. After their successful water-cooled radial engines, developed from 1908 to 1918, Salmson changed their focus to air-cooling to reduce weight and increase specific power; the majority of the engines produced by Salmson were of radial type with a few other arrangements such as the Salmson T6. E. In common with other engines produced by this manufacturer, the air-cooled radial engines featured the unorthodox Canton-Unné internal arrangement that dispensed with a master rod in favour of a cage of epicyclic gears driving the crankpin. Production ended in 1951 with the liquidation of the manufacturing company; the 3,7 and 9 cylinder Salmsons were license-built in Great Britain, during the 1920s and 1930s, by the British Salmson engine company as the British Salmson AD.3, British Salmson AC.7, British Salmson AC.9, British Salmson AD.9. In common with several other French aero-engine manufacturers Salmson named their engines with the number of cylinders a series letter in capitals followed by variant letters in lower-case.
Engines not included in the 1932 table which follows are listed here: Salmson air-cooled engines available in 1932 are tabled here Albert A-61 Caudron C.191&2 Caudron C.220 Caudron C.270 Dewoitine D.480 Farman F.234 Farman F.280 Farman F.352 Hanriot H.411 Kellner-Béchereau 23 Morane-Saulnier MS.132 Morane-Saulnier MS.148 Potez 36/5 Jodel D.123 Caudron C.109.2 CFA D.7 Cricri Major Caudron C.110 Caudron C.161 Jodel D.124 Potez 36/3 Data from Tsygulev Type: Nine-cylinder single-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine Bore: 125 mm Stroke: 170 mm Displacement: 18.765 l Length: 1,000 mm Diameter: 1,180 mm Dry weight: 265 kg Valvetrain: Two overhead valves per cylinder Supercharger: Single-speed centrifugal type supercharger Fuel system: Zenith 42D carburetor Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 191 kW at 1,780 rpm for takeoff Specific power: 10.18 kW/l Compression ratio: 5:1 Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/ Oil consumption: 19 g/ Power-to-weight ratio: 0.72 kW/kg Salmson water-cooled aero-engines List of aircraft engines Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopaedia of Aero Engines. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens. P. 152. Lumsden, Alec. British Piston Engines and their Aircraft. Marlborough, Wiltshire: Airlife Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-85310-294-6. Cuny, Jean. "Latécoère - Les Avions et Hydravions". Paris. Docavia/Editions Lariviere. 1992. ISBN 2-907051-01-6
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews. The use of a dedicated trainer aircraft with additional safety features—such as tandem flight controls, forgiving flight characteristics and a simplified cockpit arrangement—allows pilots-in-training to safely advance their real-time piloting and warfighting skills without the danger of overextending their abilities alone in a featured aircraft. Civilian pilots are trained in a light aircraft, with two or more seats to allow for a student and instructor; the aircraft may be modified to withstand the flight conditions imposed by training flights. The two seating configurations for trainer aircraft are: pilot and instructor side by side, or in tandem with the pilot in front and the instructor behind; the side-by-side seating configuration has the advantage that pilot and instructor can see each other's actions, allowing the pilot to learn from the instructor and the instructor to correct the student pilot.
The tandem configuration has the advantage of being closer to the normal working environment that a fast jet pilot is to encounter. It is now the norm for pilots to begin their flight training in an aircraft with side by side seating and to progress to aircraft with tandem seating. This, has not always been the case. For example, it was usual to find tandem seating in biplane basic trainers such as the Tiger Moth and the Jungmann, the British used side by side seating in the operational conversion of some of its fast jets such as the English Electric Lightning. Given the expense of military pilot training, air forces conduct training in phases to eliminate unsuitable candidates; the cost to those air forces that do not follow a graduated training regimen is not just monetary but in lives. For example, for many years the Indian Air Force operated without a suitable advanced training aircraft, leading to a high casualty rate as pilots moved to high performance MiG 21 aircraft without suitable assessment of their aptitude for supersonic flight.
There are two main areas for flight training and operational training. In flight training a candidate seeks to develop their flying skills. In operational training the candidate learns to use his or her flying skills through simulated combat and fighter techniques. Contemporary military pilots learn initial flying skills in a light aircraft not too dissimilar from civilian training aircraft. In this phase pilot candidates are screened for physical attributes. Aircraft used for this purpose include the Slingsby Firefly, as at one time used by the United States Air Force Academy, the Scottish Aviation Bulldogs of the RAF; the U. S. replaced the Firefly and the Enhanced Flight Screen Program with the Diamond DA20 and the Initial Flight Training program. At the end of this stage, pilot trainees are assessed and those who pass advance to the full pilot training program; those who are judged unsuitable for a pilot commission, but show other attributes, may be offered the chance to qualify as navigators and weapons officers.
Smaller and more financially restricted air forces may use ultra-light aircraft and motor gliders for this role. After the ab-initio phase a candidate may progress to primary, trainers; these are turboprop trainers, like the Pilatus PC-9 and Embraer Tucano. Modern turbo-prop trainers can replicate the handling characteristics of jet aircraft as well as having sufficient performance to assess a candidate's technical ability at an aircraft's controls, reaction speed and the ability to anticipate events. Prior to the availability of high performance turboprops, basic training was conducted with jet aircraft such as the BAC Jet Provost, T-37 Tweet, Fouga Magister; those candidates who are not suitable to continue training as fast jet pilots may be offered flying commissions and be trained to fly multi-engined aircraft. Today, the USAF Academy uses light piston-powered aircraft such as the Cirrus SR20 for basic cadet flight training; those that progress to training for fast jet flying will progress to an advanced trainer capable of high subsonic speeds, high-energy manoeuvers, equipped with systems that simulate modern weapons and surveillance.
Examples of such jet trainer aircraft include the supersonic Northrop T-38 Talon, the BAE Hawk, the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet, the Aero L-39 and the Yakovlev Yak-130. Effective combat aircraft are a function now of electronics as much as, if not more so than, the aerobatic ability or speed of an aircraft, it is at this stage that a pilot begins to learn to operate radar electronics. Modern advanced trainers feature programmable multi-function displays which can be programmed to simulate different electronic systems and scenarios. Most advanced trainers do not have radar systems of their own, but onboard systems can be programmed to simulate radar contacts. With datalinks and GPS, virtual radar systems can be created with equipped aircraft relaying to each other their positions in real time and onboard computers creating a radar display based on this information; the aim of programmable displays is to speed pilot training by replicating as far as possible the systems a pilot will find in an operational aircraft.
Lead-in fighter training utilises advanced jet trainer aircraft with avionics and stores-management capability that emulate operational fighter planes, to provide efficient training in combat scenarios with reduced training costs compared to moving straight to operational conversion. The on-board avionics system may be linked to ground-based systems, together they can simulate situations such as infrared or radar guided missile, air-to-air an