The Voisin Triplanes were large experimental bombers built by Voisin in 1915 and 1916. After unsuccessful trials of the 1915 prototype a modified version with more powerful engines was built in 1916, as the Voisin E.28, but the type did not enter production. The Voisin 1915 Triplane had an unorthodox configuration, the tail surfaces being supported between the fuselage and an upper boom attached to the centre section of the upper wing; the four engines were installed in tandem in two nacelles on the centre wing. Two gun positions were provided, one the nose and second behind the trailing edge of the wings, firing downwards through an aperture in the fuselage; the first aircraft built was powered by four 150 hp engines but performance was unsatisfactory, a second aircraft was built, designated E.28, powered by four 200 hp Hispano-Suiza engines, a redesigned circular section fuselage. Data from French aircraft of the First World War, FlightGeneral characteristics Crew: 4Length: 21.8 m Wingspan: 35.4 m Height: 5.8 m Wing area: 200 m2 Empty weight: 4,500 kg approximatelyGross weight: 6,985 kg Powerplant: 4 × Hispano-Suiza 8Bc V-8 water-cooled piston engines, 160 kW each Propellers: 2-bladed pusher and tractor fixed-pitch propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 125 km/h at 2,000 m at 2,000 m )Endurance: Service ceiling: 3,000 m approximatelyTime to altitude: 2,000 m in 25 minutes 30 secondsWing loading: 34.925 kg/m2 Armament Guns: 2x 37 mm Hotchkiss cannon Voisin Triplan
Short Admiralty Type 166
The Short Type 166 was a 1910s British two-seat reconnaissance and torpedo-carrying folder seaplane, designed by Short Brothers. The Short Type 166 was designed as a'folder' aircraft to operate from the Ark Royal as a torpedo-bomber. Six aircraft, known within Shorts as the Type A, were ordered before the outbreak of World War I, were assigned the Admiralty serial numbers 161 to 166; as was normal at the time, the type was designated the Admiralty Type 166, after the naval serial number of the last aircraft in the batch. Sometimes, the aircraft are referred to as the Short S.90. The Type 166 was similar to the earlier Short Type 136, but larger, was designed from the start as a torpedo carrier, although it was never used in that rôle; the Type 166 was a two-bay biplane with twin wooden pontoon floats, with a water rudder fitted to the tail float, plus a stabilizing float mounted near the wingtip under each lower wing. It was powered by a nose-mounted 200 hp Salmson engine. A follow-on order for 20 aircraft was assembled by Westland Aircraft at its Yeovil factory.
The Westland-built aircraft did not have provision for a torpedo, but could carry three 112 lb bombs, were fitted to carry radio equipment. There was a Lewis gun in the rear cockpit, operated by the observer. GreeceHellenic Navy United KingdomRoyal Naval Air Service Data from Westland History, Barnes & JamesGeneral characteristics Crew: two Length: 40 ft 7 in Wingspan: 57 ft 3 in Height: 14 ft 1 in Wing area: 575 sq ft Empty weight: 3,500 lb Gross weight: 4,580 lb Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 2M7 14-cyl. 2-row water-cooled radial piston engine, 199.9 hp Performance Maximum speed: 65 mph Endurance: 4 hours Related lists List of aircraft of the Royal Naval Air Service List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft Barnes, C. H.. N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam. P. 560. ISBN 0-85177-819-4. Bruce, J. M.. British Aeroplanes 1914–18. London: Putnam. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. Flight International 1956 Short Admiralty Type 166 at flyingmachines.ru
Short Type 827
The Short Type 827 was a 1910s British two-seat reconnaissance floatplane. It was known as the Short Admiralty Type 827; the Short Type 827 was a two-bay biplane with unswept equal-span wings, a smaller development of the Short Type 166. It had a box-section fuselage mounted on the lower wing, it had small floats fitted at the wingtips and tail. It was powered with a two-bladed tractor propeller; the crew of two sat in open cockpits in tandem. The aircraft was built by Short Brothers and produced by different contractors around the United Kingdom, i.e. Brush Electrical, Parnall and Sunbeam; the Short Type 830 was a variant, powered by a 135 hp Salmson water-cooled radial engine. Type 827 Production aircraft with a Sunbeam Nubian engine, 108 built. Type 830 Variant powered by a 135 hp Salmson 18 built. S.301 A batch of ten tractor seaplanes listed as Type 830s, with a 140 hp Salmson-Canton-Unné engine, are sometimes described as Short S.301s after the sequence/construction number of the first aircraft.
It was a hybrid design, with the wings and fuselage of the Short Type 166, the straight-edged ailerons and forward observer's position of the Type 830. BelgiumBelgian Air Force United KingdomRoyal Naval Air Service Data from Orbis 1985General characteristics Crew: two Length: 35 ft 3 in Wingspan: 53 ft 11 in Height: 13 ft 6 in Wing area: 506 sq ft Empty weight: 2,700 lb Gross weight: 3,400 lb Powerplant: 1 × Sunbeam Nubian water-cooled V-8 engine, 150 hp Performance Maximum speed: 62 mph Endurance: 3 hr 30 minArmament Guns: 1 x.303 Lewis Gun on flexible mount in rear cockpit Bombs: Provision for light bombs on underwing racks Short FolderRelated development Short Type 166 Related lists List of aircraft of the Royal Naval Air Service List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft Notes Bibliography Short 827 – British Aircraft Directory
The Hanriot H.25 was a French, single-engined, six passenger airliner built in 1926. Only one was flown; the Hanriot H.25 was a braced, high wing monoplane. It had an all-metal structure, covered everywhere with fabric, its wing was built in three parts, a central section fixed to the upper fuselage longerons and a pair of outer panels which were braced on each side by two sets of parallel paired, interconnected struts which ran from two well-separated positions on the wing spars to meet on the undercarriage structure. The wing was rectangular in plan apart from angled tops and had constant thickness. Narrow-chord ailerons filled well over half the trailing edge, it was powered by eighteen cylinder Salmson 18 Cm. This was one of the last, the most powerful, of Salmson's water-cooled radial engines, with two in-line rows of nine cylinders, it was enclosed in a rounded cowling with caps over the cylinder-heads. Fuel was held in the wing centre-section and two Lamblin radiators were mounted on the undercarriage legs.
Behind the engine the fuselage was rectangular in section, defined by light-metal, U-section longerons and cross-frames. The open cockpit was with small side-windows for a better view downwards. Behind the cockpit the cabin seated each with their own window. Entry was via a port-side door and there was a disposable emergency ceiling hatch to allow passengers to escape by parachute; the horizontal tail was mounted on top of the fuselage, braced from the lower fuselage longerons on each side with a pair of parallel struts. Its plan was similar to the wing and the elevators were split, with a cut-out for the deep, broad rudder; the tailplane angle of incidence could be trimmed in flight. The low area fin was broad but unusually low; the H.28 had conventional, tailskid landing gear. Its mainwheels, half enclosed by individual semi-circular fairings, were on a single axle and rubber cord shock absorbers enclosed within a streamlined fairing mounted on the lower fuselage longerons by N-form struts and reinforced by the wing bracing struts.
The undercarriage track was 3 m. The date of the H.28's first flight is not known but by mid-May 1926 its development programme was underway at Villacoublay. No more independent reports on the type appear in the French journals and there is no evidence of a second example. Data from Les Ailes, May 1926General characteristics Crew: one Capacity: six passengers Length: 12.50 m Wingspan: 17.0 m Height: 3.80 m Wing area: 51 m2 Empty weight: 1,700 kg Gross weight: 2,600 kg Fuel capacity: Fuel and oil 300 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 18 Cm water-cooled, two row inline radial, 370 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 195 km/h at ground level Service ceiling: 4,000 m
Farman F.60 Goliath
The Farman F.60 Goliath was a French airliner and bomber produced by the Farman Aviation Works from 1919. It was instrumental in the creation of early airlines and commercial routes in Europe after World War I; the Goliath was designed in 1918 as a heavy bomber capable of carrying 1,000 kg of bombs with a range of 1,500 km. It was a fixed-undercarriage three-bay biplane of fabric-covered wood construction, powered by two Salmson Z.9 engines. It had a yet light structure; the wings were rectangular with a constant profile with aerodynamically balanced ailerons fitted to both upper and lower wings. It was undergoing initial testing when World War I came to an end and Farman realized there would be no orders for his design. Nonetheless he was quick to understand that the big, box-like fuselage of the Goliath could be modified to convert the aircraft into an airliner. Commercial aviation was in need of purpose-built aircraft. With the new passenger cabin arrangement, the Goliath could carry up to 14 passengers.
It had large windows to give the passengers a view of the surroundings. The Salmson engines could be replaced by other types. 60 F.60 Goliaths were built. Between 1927 and 1929, eight Goliaths with various engines were built under licence in Czechoslovakia, four by Avia and four by Letov. Farman made several publicity flights. On 8 February 1919, the Goliath flew 12 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble to RAF Kenley, near Croydon. Since non-military flying was not permitted at that date, Lucien Bossoutrot and his passengers were all ex-military pilots who wore uniforms and carried mission orders for the circumstances; the flight went well, taking 30 minutes. The pilot and passengers were well received in England; the return flight took 2 hours and 10 minutes. Other flights were made to publicize the Goliath. On 3 April 1919, 14 passengers were flown to an altitude of 6,200 m. On 11 August 1919, an F.60 flew eight passengers and a ton of supplies from Paris via Casablanca and Mogador to Koufa, 180 km north of Saint-Louis, flying more than 4,500 km.
Airlines, which were appearing quickly all over Europe, were quick to acquire the F.60. In 1920, the Compagnie des Grands Express Aériens began scheduling regular flights between Le Bourget and Croydon; the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes soon followed suit. The Société Générale de Transports Aérien opened a Paris-Brussels route in July 1920, flown by the Goliath. In May 1921, this route was extended to Amsterdam; the Belgian airline Société Nationale pour l'Etude des Transports Aériens opened a Brussels-London route in April 1921. FF.60 Designation of the first three prototypes. F.60 Civil passenger transport version, powered by two 190 kW Salmson CM.9 radial piston engines, sixty built. F.60bis This designation was given to the transport version, powered by two 220 kW Salmson 9Az engines. F.60 Bn.2 Three-seat night bomber evolved from the F.60 Goliath. It was equipped with two 190 kW Salmson 9Zm engines, 210 were delivered to French naval and army aviation. F.60 Torp Torpedo-bomber floatplane, powered by two Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter radial piston engines.
F.60M Blunt-nose version in 1924, powered by two 230 kW Renault 12Fy engines. F.61 Two aircraft equipped with two 220 kW Renault 12Fe engines. F.62 A record-breaking aircraft, derived from the F.60, powered by a single 370 kW Farman 12We. First flown on 7 August 1925, the F.62, piloted by Landry and Drouhin, broke the world record 4,400 km closed-circuit in 45 hours 11 minutes and 59 seconds. F.62 BN.4 Export version for the Soviet Union, powered by two 340 kW Lorraine-Dietrich V-12 engines. F.62 BN.5 A 5-seat night bomber version, powered by 2x 300 kW Lorraine 12Db engines. F.63 BN.4 Similar to the F.62 BN.4 export version, powered by two 340 kW Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter radial piston engines, 42 built for the Aéronautique militaire francaise. F.63bis A single airliner, powered by 2x 272 kW Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IIIA engines. Ten more were built powered by 2x 280 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Aa Jupiter engines. F.63ter Three airliners, powered by 2x 280 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Aa Jupiter engines. F.65 Sixty floatplane torpedo-bombers built for the Aéronautique navale, fitted with interchangeable float or landing gear and powered by 2x 280 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Aa Jupiter engines.
F.66 Two torpedo-bombers built for the Aéronautique navale, powered by 2x 190 kW Salmson CM.9 engines. F.66 BN.3 One Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter-powered aircraft was built, intended to be exported to Romania. F.68 BN.4 Thirty-two bomber aircraft, powered by 2x 310 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Ab Jupiter, exported to Poland. F.140 Super Goliath Super-heavy bomber prototype, powered by four 370 kW Farman 12We W-12 engines in tandem pairs. BelgiumSociéte Anonyme Belge pour l'Exploitation de la Navigation Aérienne. Société Colombophile de Transport Aériens. Syndicat National pour l'Etude des Transports Aérienne. ColombiaCompañía Colombiana de Navegación Aérea CzechoslovakiaČeskoslovenské státní aerolinie. FranceAir Union. Compagnie Aérienne Française. Compagnie des Grands Express Aériens. Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes. Enterprise de la Photo-Aérienne. Farman Airlines. RomaniaLiniile Aeriene Române Exploatate de Stat. BelgiumBelgian Air Force CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak Air Force FranceFrench Air Force French Navy Commission d'Etudes Pratiques d'Aéronautique
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The Caudron C.23 was a French long range twin engine night bomber, flown in the last year of World War I. Post-war some machines were modified to carry passengers; the C.23 BN.2 was designed to be a night bomber able to reach Berlin with a 600 kg bomb load. The French BN.2 military category indicated a two-seat night bomber but the C.23 had a crew of three. It had much in common with the Caudron C.22 but was 50% larger in span, requiring an extra bay and more powerful engines. It was a large five bay biplane, with fabric covered, constant chord, unswept wings with angled tips; the upper wing, which carried the ailerons, had a greater span and a smaller chord. There was no stagger, so the sets of parallel interplane struts were vertical. Pairs of V-form engine bearing struts, which supported the two neatly cowled 194 kW Salmson 9Z nine cylinder water-cooled radial engines just above the lower wing, defined the inner two bays; the C.23 had a flat sided fuselage. There was a gunner's position in the nose, equipped with twin Lewis guns.
A roomy open cockpit was positioned under the wing leading edge, with a separate gunner's cockpit behind it under a large, rounded trailing edge cut-out. This was fitted with another pair of Lewis guns and a further gun firing downwards through a trapdoor in the floor. A low, broad fin carried a broad balanced rudder; the tailplane, angular in plan and of low aspect ratio, was mounted on top of the fuselage and its elevators had cut-outs for rudder movement. The bomber had a fixed tailskid undercarriage, with mainwheels in pairs, their axles mounted on longitudinal bars attached to the wing, under the engines, by N-form struts; the Caudron C.23 first flew in February 1918, piloted by Jules Védrines. Higher power engines, the 447 kW Salmson 18Z or the 224 kW Hispano-Suiza 8Fb, were considered in April 1918 but the Salmson was not yet developed and trials with the Hispano led nowhere. By the time of the Armistice in November 1918 fifty-four C.23s had been delivered to the French Air Force. Some served with the 22nd squadron until their replacement by the more powerful Farman Goliath in February 1920.
Soon after the war some C.23s were modified to carry twelve passengers in an open cockpit formed by an opening between the cockpit and mid-upper gunner's position. On 10 February 1919 one made the first passenger flight between Paris and Brussels, carrying five passengers packed together. One C.23, designated C.23 bis, was modified to carry fifteen passengers internally. Védrines and his engineer Guillian were killed in a C.23 when an engine failed whilst trying to establish a route from Paris to Rome. C.23 BN.2 bomber C.23 12 seat transport C.23 bis 15 seat cabin transport FranceFrench Air Force - 22nd squadron. Data from Hauet pp.139-141General characteristics Crew: Three Length: 13.00 m Upper wingspan: 24.50 m Lower wingspan: 23.57 m Height: 3.40 m Wing area: 107 m2 Empty weight: 2,341 kg Gross weight: 4,170 kg Fuel capacity: 980 l and 132 l Powerplant: 2 × Salmson 9Z 9-cylinder water-cooled radials, 190 kW each Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 143 km/h at sea level Stall speed: 82.2 km/h Endurance: 6.75 hr Service ceiling: 3,500 m Time to altitude: 41 min to 4,000 m Armament Defence: a pair of Lewis guns in nose and mid-upper positions, the latter a downward firing single machine gun.
Bombload: 600 kg