Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
Bad Dürkheim is a spa town in the Rhine-Neckar urban agglomeration, is the seat of the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Bad Dürkheim lies at the edge of Palatinate Forest on the German Wine Route some 30 km east of Kaiserslautern and just under 20 km west of Ludwigshafen and Mannheim. 15 km to the south lies Neustadt an der Weinstraße. In Bad Dürkheim, Bundesstraßen 37 and 271 cross each other. From west to east through the town flows the river Isenach. Bad Dürkheim's Ortsteile are Grethen, Hausen, Leistadt and Ungstein mit Pfeffingen. Yearly precipitation in Bad Dürkheim is 574 mm, low, falling into the lowest quarter of the precipitation chart for all Germany. Lower figures recorded at only 16% of the German Weather Service's weather stations; the driest month is February. The most rainfall comes in May. In that month, precipitation is. Precipitation varies little. Only 1% of the weather stations record lower seasonal swings. Between 1200 and 500 BC, the area around the eastern end of the Isenach valley was settled by Celts, who built the Heidenmauer, a Celtic ring wall.
The earliest documented appearance of the name of the town is in the Lorsch codex of 1 June 778, as Turnesheim. A letter of enfeoffment from the Bishop of Speyer in 946 mentions Thuringeheim. About 1025, building work on Limburg Abbey, today preserved only as ruins, was begun. Town rights were granted on 1 January 1360, but were withdrawn again in 1471 after Elector Friedrich the Victorious of the Palatinate conquered the town and wrought considerable destruction. After the slow reconstruction, Dürkheim passed to the Counts of Leiningen in 1554. In 1689, the town was completely destroyed when French troops in the Nine Years' War carried out a scorched earth campaign in the Electorate of the Palatinate; this time, reconstruction was swifter, Count Johann Friedrich of Leiningen granted Dürkheim town rights again as early as 1700. In the late 18th century, as the French Revolution was beginning to spread into southwest Germany, Dürkheim, as the Canton of Durkheim, became part of the Department of Mont-Tonnerre.
After the Napoleonic Wars, it ended up along with the rest of the Electorate of the Palatinate's territory on the Rhine's left bank in the Kingdom of Bavaria. For its seven mineral springs, Dürkheim was given the epithet Solbad, in 1904 it was given leave to change its name to Bad Dürkheim. In 1913, the Rhein-Haardtbahn was opened, linking Bad Dürkheim with Mannheim. In 1935, Grethen and Seebach were amalgamated. After 1933 the number of Jews in Bad Dürkheim reduced drastically, due to the economic boycott increasing repression and dehumanization. During the Night of Broken Glass in 1938, the synagogue was plundered; the 19 Jews still surviving here in 1940 were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in October of that year. On 18 March 1945, Bad Dürkheim was badly hit by an Allied air raid in which more than 300 people lost their lives. In Rhineland-Palatinate's administrative reform and Leistadt were amalgamated with Bad Dürkheim on 7 June 1969, as was Ungstein along with its outlying hamlet of Pfeffingen on 22 April 1972.
Moreover, the town, having belonged to the old district of Neustadt an der Weinstraße, became the district seat of the newly formed district of Bad Dürkheim and lay in the newly-formed Regierungsbezirk of Rheinhessen-Pfalz, abolished in 2000. In 2007, 42.8% of the inhabitants were Evangelical, 25.3% Catholic, 12% stated no religion. The rest belonged to other faiths; the council is made up of 32 honorary members, who were most elected at the municipal election held on 25 May 2014, the full-time mayor as chairman. The municipal election held on 25 May 2014 yielded the following results: On the town council, the CDU, the FDP and the Greens form a coalition, making Bad Dürkheim the only town in Germany governed by a so-called Jamaica coalition; this special arrangement was concluded in 1999. It has been twice extended by five years after municipal elections in 2004 and 2009. Wolfgang Lutz was the Mayor of Bad Dürkheim from 2000 to 2015, his successor is Christoph Glogger, elected in July 2015 with 52.83% of the votes.
The German blazon reads: In Silber ein schwarzer Maueranker. This might be rendered in English as: a wall brace sable; the arms go back to a court seal from 1405, which itself was a reference to the arms borne by the Lords of Dürkheim. Between 1540 and 1776, the arms featured a cross and a crozier above the escutcheon, indicating Limburg Abbey's ownership of the town. Paray-le-Monial, Saône-et-Loire, France Wells, England, United Kingdom Kluczbork, Opole Voivodeship, Poland Kempten im Allgäu, Bavaria Bad Berka, Thuringia Michelstadt, Hesse Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA At the edge of the Palatinate Forest lie the once thriving Limburg Abbey’s ruins. In the 9th century, the Salian Dukes from Worms built a fortress on the Linthberg as their family seat. In the early 11th century, the fortress was converted into a monastery with a basilica, it existed until the mid-16th century. Above the like-named constituent community are spread the castle ruins of Hardenburg. Beginning in the 1
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Die Altstadt in the Swiss city of Zürich encompasses the area of the entire historical city before 1893, before the incorporation of what are now districts 2 to 12 into the municipality, over the period 1893 to 1934. Die Altstadt corresponds to the area enclosed by the former city ramparts, is today within the administrative area of the city called Kreis 1. With a population of 5,617, it houses about 1.4% of the city's total population. Administratively, District 1 is divided into four parts or quarters by the Zürich statistical office, Hochschulen and City. Lindenhof and Rathaus correspond to the parts of the medieval city left and right of the Limmat while City and Hochschulen include the area of the Early Modern city west and east of the medieval walls, respectively. Der Lindenhof quarter corresponds to the mindere Stadt, the smaller but more prestigious half of the medieval town left of the river; this is the oldest core of the city, with settlement traces dating to pre-Roman times, fortified as the Roman Vicus Turicum, a Roman customs station with a surrounding civilian settlement, in the final decades of the 1st century BC.
The Lindenhof hill itself is the site of the Roman castle at the location of the Celtic Oppidum Zürich-Lindenhof, rebuilt in Carolingian times but derelict by the 13th century, when it was used as a source for building stone for the first stone houses of rich burghers of the reichsfrei city. The Schipfe quarter at the Limmat below the Lindenhof is the site of the Roman vicus, with traces of a hypocaustum nearby the Münsterhof excavated. St. Peter church was the parish church of the medieval city, built on the site of an earlier temple to Jupiter; the Rennweg street below the Lindenhof hill was the main street of the medieval city, entering by the Rennweg gate through the western city wall, now marked by the course of Bahnhofstrasse. Augustinergasse is a small street leading from St. Peterhofstatt situated at the St. Peter church, passing the former Augustinians monastery below the Lindenhof hill, towards the Kecinstürlin gate at the southern Fröschengraben moat, Bahnhofstrasse as of today.
Zunfthaus zur Meisen at Münsterhof plaza near Fraumünster church houses the porcelain and faience collection of the Swiss National Museum. Lindenhof contains the former Augustinian abbey, the Oetenbach nunnery north of the Lindenhof hill, demolished in 1903 to make way for the Uraniastrasse as part the built «Urania-axis» Sihlporte–Uraniastrasse–Zähringerplatz by Gustav Gull, the Urania Sternwarte; the Fraumünster abbey ruled the town until the 1336 "guild revolution" of Rudolf Brun and which remained influential until Zwingli's Reformation. The Rathaus quarter is named for the town hall, built in the 1690s, it is the part of the medieval town on the right side of the Limmat, separated by the Hirschengraben from the Hochschulen quarter to the east, delimited by the Bellevue and Central squares to the south and north, respectively. As such, it includes the Limmatquai as well as the Oberdorf; the historical name of this eastern half of the medieval town was "greater town", contrasting with the "lesser town", the western half along the left river bank.
The Limmatquai was built along the right side of the Limmat. It was built in the 19th century; the current right bank is some 28 m west of the medieval river's. The quai was constructed from 1823–1859 from Bellevue to the Rathaus, in 1835–1836 from the Rathaus to the Wasserkirche and 1835–1839 the portion from the Wasserkirche to Bellevue called Sonnenquai. At the Limmatquai are located some guild houses, as Zunfthaus zur Zimmerleuten, Zunfthaus zur Haue, Zunfthaus zum Rüden and Zunfthaus zur Saffran. Zürich tram routes 4 and 15 run along the Limmatquai, serving the stops Helmhaus and Rudolf-Brun-Brücke; the quai was one of the main routes through the old town before it was freed from traffic in 2004. The bridges passed by the Limmatquai, south to north, are: Quaibrücke, connecting Bellevue and Bürkliplatz, Münsterbrücke between Grossmünster and Fraumünster, Rathausbrücke just north of the town hall, Rudolf-Brun-Brücke, between Mühlegasse and Uraniastrasse, the Mühlesteg footbridge Bahnhofbrücke, between Central and Zürich Hauptbahnhof.north of Limmatquai: Walche-Brücke the Drahtschmidlisteg, a footbridge to Platzspitz The Niederdorf was the least developed part of the medieval city.
It properly includes just the north-eastern corner, between Mühlegasse and Central, but the term was extended to the whole part of the mehrere Stadt north of the town hall, i.e. for the entire length of the Niederdorfstrasse, or including the parts north of the Kirchgasse. So defined, the Niederdorf includes Rindermarkt and Neumarkt and the area of the medieval Jewish quarter, the Predigerkirche at Zähringerplatz and the Zähringerstrasse; the mehrere Stadt between the Niederdorf and the Oberdorf includes the Münstergasse, Obere Zäune, Untere Zäune and the Barfüsserkloster as well as a number of alleys leaving Münstergasse: Marktgasse, Krebsgasse, Ankengasse, Römergasse and Kirchgasse. The church of the Predigerkloster, it became after the Reformation in Switzerland the parish church of Niederdorf re
Friedrich von Hagedorn
Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet, was born at Hamburg, where his father, a man of scientific and literary taste, was Danish ambassador. He was educated at the gymnasium of Hamburg, became a student of law at Jena. Returning to Hamburg in 1729, he obtained the appointment of unpaid private secretary to the Danish ambassador in London, where he lived till 1731. Hagedorn's return to Hamburg was followed by a period of great poverty and hardship, but in 1733 he was appointed secretary to the so-called "English Court" in Hamburg, a trading company founded in the 13th century, he shortly afterwards married, from this time had sufficient leisure to pursue his literary occupations till his death. The first collection of Hagedorn's poems was published at Hamburg shortly after his return from Jena in 1729, under the title Versuch einiger Gedichte. In 1738 appeared Versuch in poetischen Fabeln und Erzählungen. A collection of his entire works was published at Hamburg in 1757 after his death; the best is J.
J. Eschenburg's edition. Selections of his poetry with an excellent introduction in F. Muncker's Anakreontiker und preussisch-patriotische Lyriker. See H. Schuster, F. von Hagedorn und seine Bedeutung für die deutsche Literatur. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hagedorn, Friedrich von". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 813. Poems of Friedrich von Hagedorn
The Sihlwald is a forest and nature reserve in the Sihl Valley of the Swiss canton of Zürich. It is a rare example of a large-scale and original forest, situated on the eastern slopes of the Albis hills to the west side of the Sihl river. Although the forest is owned by the city of Zürich, it is situated outside the city boundary, within the municipality of Horgen and several adjoining municipalities; the Sihlwald now forms part of the Zürich Wilderness Park. The city of Zürich received the Sihl forest, or Sihlwald, as a gift in 1309 from the Hapsburgers and again in 1524 through the dissolution of the Fraumünster convent. Over the following centuries, the forest firewood. From 1876 on, there was a forest railway which facilitated the work in the forest. However, the trees have not been felled since the 1990s. On August 28, 2009, the Federal Office for the Environment declared the Sihl forest a "regional nature park of national importance"; the protection of Sihl forest was established through a forest reserve agreement in 2007 and a cantonal Protection Ordinance in 2008.
In 2009, the management of the Sihlwald was combined with that of the nearby Langenberg Wildlife Park, to form the Zürich Wilderness Park. The forest can be reached via the Sihlwald railway station, served by service S4 of the Zurich S-Bahn. Media related to Sihlwald at Wikimedia Commons Pages on the Sihlwald from the Wildnispark Zürich web site