The Flood Building is a 12-story highrise located at 870 Market Street on the corner of Powell Street in the downtown shopping district of San Francisco, California completed in 1904 and designed by Albert Pissis. Situated on Powell and Market streets, next to the Powell Street cable car turntable, Hallidie Plaza and the Powell Street BART Station entrance, it is one of the few structures that survived the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; the site housed Baldwin's Hotel and Theatre, destroyed by fire in 1898. It was purchased by James L. Flood, who constructed the building as a tribute to his father, James Clair Flood. In 2003, it was still owned by the Flood family. John King, the architecture critic of the San Francisco Chronicle, praised the Flood Building as "twelve stories of orderly pomp with a rounded prow that commands the corner of Powell and Market Streets... Every detail is rooted and right, from the tall storefronts that beckon cable car daytrippers to the baroque cliff of the sandstone façade with its deep-chiseled windows and just enough ornamentation to enliven the mass rather than clutter the scene."
The Southern Pacific Railroad company maintained its headquarters in the building after its earthquake renovations from 1907 until 1917 when it moved to its own building now at One Market Plaza. The F. W. Woolworth Company store located on basement level and first and second floors was the largest in the chain until 1992, when it was downsized, closed in 1996. More recent major tenants include the flagship stores for retailers Gap, Urban Outfitters, Anthropologie; the Pinkerton Detective Agency had an office in Room 314 of the building, employed Dashiell Hammett, an author of hard-boiled detective novels, as an operative. List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Media related to James Flood Building at Wikimedia Commons Official Flood Building website
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Joan Maureen Walsh is an American journalist, the national affairs correspondent for The Nation and a political analyst at CNN. She is the former editor-in-chief of Salon and author of the book What's the Matter with White People? Walsh was born in September 1958 in Brooklyn to an Irish Catholic family, she has one sister. At the age of 13, her family moved to a northern suburb of Milwaukee, her mother died when she was 17. She is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin. On December 23, 2017, Walsh revealed that MSNBC had chosen not to renew her contract, which the network said was a decision made because of an annual review. In their statement, MSNBC said that "Unfortunately we couldn’t renew Joan, but she and her distinct perspective will still be invited on our shows." She had worked there for six of them under contract. The decision prompted critical reactions from other MSNBC personalities, including Joy Reid and Chris Hayes; some of Walsh's supporters protested MSNBC's decision using the Twitter hashtag #KeepJoanWalsh.
That day, Walsh tweeted that she would move to CNN in 2018, soon confirmed by a CNN spokeswoman. On April 1, 2018, Kyle Kashuv, a survivor of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, tweeted that Walsh "liked" a tweet criticizing him. Walsh respond to Kyle, writing, "are you policing who'likes' tweets from a grieving Parkland father who lost his daughter? Good luck handling your stress, Kyle." She has one daughter, Nora Walsh DeVries. Splash Hit! Pacific Bell Park and the San Francisco Giants What's the Matter with White People? Why We Long for a Golden Age That Never Was Profile at The Nation
Initial public offering
Initial public offering or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and also retail investors. Through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public, a held company is transformed into a public company. Initial public offerings can be used: to raise new equity capital for the company concerned. After the IPO, shares traded in the open market are known as the free float. Stock exchanges stipulate a minimum free float both in absolute terms and as a proportion of the total share capital. Although IPO offers many benefits, there are significant costs involved, chiefly those associated with the process such as banking and legal fees, the ongoing requirement to disclose important and sometimes sensitive information. Details of the proposed offering are disclosed to potential purchasers in the form of a lengthy document known as a prospectus. Most companies undertake an IPO with the assistance of an investment banking firm acting in the capacity of an underwriter.
Underwriters provide several services, including help with assessing the value of shares and establishing a public market for shares. Alternative methods such as the Dutch auction have been explored and applied for several IPOs; the earliest form of a company which issued public shares was the case of the publicani during the Roman Republic. Like modern joint-stock companies, the publicani were legal bodies independent of their members whose ownership was divided into shares, or partes. There is evidence that these shares were sold to public investors and traded in a type of over-the-counter market in the Forum, near the Temple of Castor and Pollux; the shares quaestors. Mere evidence remains of the prices for which partes were sold, the nature of initial public offerings, or a description of stock market behavior. Publicani lost favor with the rise of the Empire. In the early modern period, the Dutch were financial innovators who helped lay the foundations of modern financial systems; the first modern IPO occurred in March 1602 when the Dutch East India Company offered shares of the company to the public in order to raise capital.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed."In the United States, the first IPO was the public offering of Bank of North America around 1783. When a company lists its securities on a public exchange, the money paid by the investing public for the newly-issued shares goes directly to the company as well as to any early private investors who opt to sell all or a portion of their holdings as part of the larger IPO.
An IPO, allows a company to tap into a wide pool of potential investors to provide itself with capital for future growth, repayment of debt, or working capital. A company selling common shares is never required to repay the capital to its public investors; those investors must endure the unpredictable nature of the open market to price and trade their shares. After the IPO, when shares are traded in the open market, money passes between public investors. For early private investors who choose to sell shares as part of the IPO process, the IPO represents an opportunity to monetize their investment. After the IPO, once shares are traded in the open market, investors holding large blocks of shares can either sell those shares piecemeal in the open market or sell a large block of shares directly to the public, at a fixed price, through a secondary market offering; this type of offering is not dilutive. Once a company is listed, it is able to issue additional common shares in a number of different ways, one of, the follow-on offering.
This method provides capital for various corporate purposes through the issuance of equity without incurring any debt. This ability to raise large amounts of capital from the marketplace is a key reason many companies seek to go public. An IPO accords several benefits to the private company: Enlarging and diversifying equity base Enabling cheaper access to capital Increasing exposure and public image Attracting and retaining better management and employees through liquid equity participation Facilitating acquisitions Creating multiple financing opportunities: equity, convertible debt, cheaper bank loans, etc. There are several disadvantages to completing an initial public offering: Significant legal, account
Elister L. "Larry" Wilmore is an American comedian, writer and actor. Wilmore served as the "Senior Black Correspondent" on The Daily Show from 2006 to 2014, hosted The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore in 2015 and 2016, he is the creator of the sitcom The Bernie Mac Show. He served as an executive producer for the ABC television series Black-ish, he is the co-creator, alongside Issa Rae, of the HBO television series Insecure. Since May 2017, he has hosted a podcast, entitled "Black on the Air" in which he discusses current events and interviews a variety of guests. Wilmore was born on October 30, 1961, in Los Angeles County, California, to parents Betty and Larry, grew up in suburban Pomona, his family is from Illinois. Wilmore was raised Catholic, he is the third of six children. His brother Marc, is a television writer and producer; as a child, Wilmore found interest in topics such as science, science-fiction and fantasy, all of which have shaped the evolution of his comedy. In an interview with NPR, he described himself as a nerd, saying that "it used to be that the black comic figure had to have this bravado and always showed strength...now there's a comic figure where it's OK to just be a nerd and be black."Wilmore graduated from Damien High School in La Verne, California in 1979.
He studied theatre at Pomona. Beginning in the 1980s, Wilmore appeared in several small film and television roles, including a recurring role as a police officer on The Facts of Life. In the early to mid-1990s, he was on the writing staff of the talk show Into the Night With Rick Dees, the sketch comedy show In Living Color, the sitcom Sister, where he portrayed a bus driver in one episode. Wilmore went on to be a writer and producer on a series of sitcoms, including The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and The Jamie Foxx Show. In 1999, Wilmore co-created the animated comedy The PJs with Eddie Murphy and was executive producer until its conclusion in 2001, he subsequently created and produced The Bernie Mac Show, he won an Emmy for writing the pilot episode. He produced Whoopi, with Whoopi Goldberg. From 2005 to 2007, he was a consulting producer for The Office and made an appearance on the show as Mr. Brown, during the episode, "Diversity Day" as a diversity consultant. In 2006, Wilmore began appearing on Comedy Central's The Daily Show, where he was billed as the "Senior Black Correspondent" or a derivative form of the title, such as the "Senior Executive Commander-in-Chief Who Happens To Be Black Correspondent" following the election of Barack Obama.
His work on the show centered on humorous observations of the Black experience in American society. In January 2009, Hyperion published Wilmore's I'd Rather We Got Casinos: And Other Black Thoughts, a political humor book described by Booklist as "a faux collection of articles, radio transcripts, letters exploring the more ludicrous angles on race." Wilmore originated the titular phrase I'd Rather We Got Casinos in a January 2007 Daily Show appearance. Wilmore has continued to make occasional acting appearances, including a role as a minister in I Love You, Man and a supporting role in Dinner for Schmucks. In 2011, Wilmore began a recurring role on the ABC comedy Happy Endings, where he played Mr. Forristal, Brad's uptight boss. Since 2012, Wilmore has starred in the Showtime special titled Race and Sex, shot in Salt Lake City. On April 30, 2016, Wilmore was the headliner at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner, he came under fire for using the word "nigga" to refer to President Obama, saying "Barry, you did it my nigga."
Wilmore defended his actions by telling Al Sharpton "I wanted to make a statement more than a joke... I wanted to explain the historical implications of the Obama presidency from my point of view."In May 2017, Wilmore started hosting a podcast as part of The Ringer podcast network, headed by Bill Simmons. On January 19, 2015 Wilmore began hosting The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore, a late-night panel talk show that aired on Comedy Central, it was a spin-off of The Daily Show, served as a replacement for The Colbert Report. It was produced by Jon Stewart's production company Busboy Productions; the show was criticized for a controversial segment featuring Bill Nye in September 2015, with Adweek characterizing it as the moment that Wilmore had "turned away from Colbert's legacy of intellectualism." The Nye segment may have negatively affected viewership, with ratings down more than half from the year before. On August 15, 2016, Comedy Central announced; the show ended on August 2016, with a total of 259 episodes.
In June 2017, Wilmore came under fire for comments. When reporting on the case of Otto Warmbier, an American student arrested in North Korea and sentenced to 15 years of hard labor for attempting to steal a propaganda sign, Wilmore ridiculed Warmbier. Wilmore referred to Warmbier as "Otto Von Crybaby" and suggested that Warmbier thought he had "Frat Bro Privilege". Otto Warmbier died on June 19, 2017, after being transferred from North Korea to the U. S. in a comatose state, after 15 months in prison. In his Black on the Air podcast on June 22, 2017, Wilmore offered an apology for his earlier remarks about Warmbier. Wilmore has cited Johnny Carson, Richard Pryor, Eddie Murphy, Jon Stewart as comedy influences. Wilmore has said. I ride the subway. Ther
Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software. That is, anyone is licensed to use, copy and change the software in any way, the source code is shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software; this is in contrast to proprietary software, where the software is under restrictive copyright licensing and the source code is hidden from the users. FOSS maintains the software user's civil liberty rights. Other benefits of using FOSS can include decreased software costs, increased security and stability, protecting privacy and giving users more control over their own hardware. Free and open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendants of BSD are utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops and other devices. Free-software licenses and open-source licenses are used by many software packages; the free-software movement and the open-source software movement are online social movements behind widespread production and adoption of FOSS.
"Free and open-source software" is an umbrella term for software, considered both Free software and open-source software. FOSS allows the user to inspect the source code and provides a high level of control of the software's functions compared to proprietary software; the term "free software" does not refer to the monetary cost of the software at all, but rather whether the license maintains the software user's civil liberties. There are a number of related terms and abbreviations for free and open-source software, or free/libre and open-source software. Although there is a complete overlap between free-software licenses and open-source-software licenses, there is a strong philosophical disagreement between the advocates of these two positions; the terminology of FOSS or "Free and Open-source software" was created to be a neutral on these philosophical disagreements between the FSF and OSI and have a single unified term that could refer to both concepts. As the Free Software Foundation explains the philosophical difference between free software and open-source software: "The two terms describe the same category of software, but they stand for views based on fundamentally different values.
Open-source is a development methodology. For the free-software movement, free software is an ethical imperative, essential respect for the users' freedom. By contrast, the philosophy of open-source considers issues in terms of how to make software “better”—in a practical sense only." In parallel to this the Open Source Initiative considers many free-software licenses to be open source. These include the latest versions of the FSF's three main licenses: the GPL, the Lesser General Public License, the GNU Affero General Public License. Richard Stallman's Free Software Definition, adopted by the Free Software Foundation, defines free software as a matter of liberty not price, it upholds the Four Essential Freedoms; the earliest-known publication of the definition of his free-software idea was in the February 1986 edition of the FSF's now-discontinued GNU's Bulletin publication. The canonical source for the document is in the philosophy section of the GNU Project website; as of August 2017, it is published there in 40 languages.
To meet the definition of "free software", the FSF requires the software's licensing rights what the FSF respect the civil liberties / human rights of what the FSF calls the software user's "Four Essential Freedoms". The freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose; the freedom to study how the program works, change it so it does your computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this; the freedom to redistribute copies. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others. By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this; the open-source-software definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether a software license qualifies for the organization's insignia for Open-source software. The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines and adapted by Bruce Perens. Perens did not base his writing on the Four Essential Freedoms of free software from the Free Software Foundation, which were only available on the web.
Perens subsequently stated that he felt Eric Raymond's promotion of Open-source unfairly overshadowed the Free Software Foundation's efforts and reaffirmed his support for Free software. In the following 2000s, he spoke about open source again. In the 1950s through the 1980s, it was common for computer users to have the source code for all programs they used, the permission and ability to modify it for their own use. Software, including source code, was shared by individuals who used computers as public domain software. Most companies had a business model based on hardware sales, provided or bundled software with hardware, free of charge. By the late 1960s, the prevailing business model around software was changing. A growing and evolving software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products. Leased machines required software support while providing n
Propaganda in North Korea
The standard view of propaganda in North Korea sees it as based on the Juche ideology and on the promotion of the Workers' Party of Korea. The first syllable, "ju", means "the fundamental" principle. Article 3 of the Socialist Constitution proclaims, "The DPRK is guided in its activities by the Juche idea, a world out-look centered on people, a revolutionary ideology for achieving the independence of the masses of people."Many pictures of the national leaders are posted throughout the country. In previous decades, North Korean propaganda was crucial to the formation and promotion of the cult of personality centered around the founder of the totalitarian state, Kim Il-sung; the Soviet Union began to develop him as a resistance fighter, as soon as they put him in power. This surpassed its Eastern European models. Instead of depicting his actual residence in a Soviet village during the war with the Japanese, he was claimed to have fought a guerrilla war from a secret base. Once relations with the Soviet Union were broken off, their role was expurgated, as were all other nationalists, until the claim was made that he founded the Communist Party in North Korea.
He is shown in action during the Korean War, which, if it was presented as a glorious victory devastated the country. Subsequently, many stories are recounted of his "on-the-spot guidance" in various locations, many of them being presented as fictional; this was supplemented with propaganda on behalf of Kim Jong-il. The "food shortage" produced anecdotes of Kim insisting on eating the same meager food as other North Koreans. Propaganda efforts began for the "Young General", Kim Jong-un, who succeeded him as paramount leader of North Korea on Kim Jong-il's death in December 2011. Early propaganda, in the 1940s, presented a positive Soviet–Korean relationship depicting Russians as maternal figures to childlike Koreans; as soon as relations were less cordial, they were expurgated from historical accounts. The collapse of the USSR, without a shot, is depicted with intense contempt in sources not accessible to Russians. Americans are depicted negatively, they are presented as an inherently evil race, with whom hostility is the only possible relationship.
The Korean War is used as a source for atrocities, less for the bombing raids than on charges of massacre. June 25 is considered the start of "Struggle Against US Imperialism Month", commemorated by anti-U. S. Mass rallies at Pyongyang. In 2018, these rallies were cancelled in what the Associated Press called "another sign of detente following the summit between leader Kim Jong Un and U. S. President Donald Trump". Japan is depicted as rapacious and dangerous, both in the colonial era and afterwards. North Korean propaganda highlighted the danger of Japanese remilitarization. At the same time, the intensity of anti-Japanese propaganda underwent repeated fluctuations, depending on the improvement or deterioration of Japanese-DPRK relations. In those periods when North Korea was on better terms with Japan than with South Korea, North Korean propaganda ignored the Liancourt Rocks dispute. However, if Pyongyang felt threatened by Japanese-South Korean rapprochement or sought to cooperate with Seoul against Tokyo, the North Korean media promptly raised the issue, with the aim of causing friction in Japanese-ROK relations.
Friendly nations are depicted exclusively as tributary nations. The English journalist Christopher Hitchens pointed out in the essay A Nation of Racist Dwarfs that propaganda has a blatantly racist and nationalistic angle: North Korean women who return pregnant from China—the regime's main ally and protector—are forced to submit to abortions. Wall posters and banners depicting all Japanese as barbarians are only equaled by the ways in which Americans are caricatured as hook-nosed monsters. South Korea was depicted as a poverty-stricken land, run by harsh and cruel dictators backed by the US and where American soldiers based there shot and slaughtered Korean women and children, but by the 1990s, too much information reached North Korea to prevent their learning that South Korea had a much stronger economy and higher living-standards and quality of life, including political and social freedom, as a result North Korean propaganda admitted to it. However, their line taken was that this had not managed to prevent their South Korean brethren from yearning for the unification of their land and of "racial-purification" of their peoples.
North Korean propaganda invokes Koreans as the purest of races, with a mystical bond with the natural beauty of the landscape. The color white is invoked as a symbol of this purity, as in a painting of the "Homeland Liberation War" which depicts female partisans washing and hanging out white blouses, despite the way it would have made them visible to attack. In contrast to Stalinist depictions of people steeling themselves, preparing themselves intellectually, so growing up and becoming fit to create Communism, the usual image in North Korean literature is of a spontaneous virtue that revolts against intellectualism but does what is right. Stories have only mildly flawed Korean characters, who are reformed because of their inherently pure nature; this device has resulted in problems such as lack of hence dullness. South Korea is depicted as a place of dangerous racial contamination. Under Ki