A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an object. This is opposed to a macrograph or photomacrograph, an image, taken on a microscope but is only magnified less than 10 times. Micrography is the art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details of microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. Micrographs are used in all fields of microscopy. A light micrograph or photomicrograph is a micrograph prepared using an optical microscope, a process referred to as photomicroscopy. At a basic level, photomicroscopy may be performed by connecting a camera to a microscope, thereby enabling the user to take photographs at reasonably high magnification. Scientific use began in England in 1850 by Prof Richard Hill Norris FRSE for his studies of blood cells.
Roman Vishniac was a pioneer in the field of photomicroscopy, specializing in the photography of living creatures in full motion. He made major developments in light-interruption photography and color photomicroscopy. Photomicrographs may be obtained using a USB microscope attached directly to a home computer or laptop. An electron micrograph is a micrograph prepared using an electron microscope. Micrographs have micron bars, or magnification ratios, or both. Magnification is a ratio between the size of an object on its real size. Magnification can be a misleading parameter as it depends on the final size of a printed picture and therefore varies with picture size. A scale bar, or micron bar, is a line of known length displayed on a picture; the bar can be used for measurements on a picture. When the picture is resized the bar is resized making it possible to recalculate the magnification. Ideally, all pictures destined for publication/presentation should be supplied with a scale bar. All but one of the micrographs presented on this page do not have a micron bar.
The microscope has been used for scientific discovery. It has been linked to the arts since its invention in the 17th century. Early adopters of the microscope, such as Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, were excellent illustrators. After the invention of photography in the 1820s the microscope was combined with the camera to take pictures instead of relying on an artistic rendering. Since the early 1970s individuals have been using the microscope as an artistic instrument. Websites and traveling art exhibits such as the Nikon Small World and Olympus Bioscapes have featured a range of images for the sole purpose of artistic enjoyment; some collaborative groups, such as the Paper Project have incorporated microscopic imagery into tactile art pieces as well as 3D immersive rooms and dance performances. Close-up Digital microscope Macro photography Microphotograph Microscopy USB microscope Make a Micrograph – This presentation by the research department of Children's Hospital Boston shows how researchers create a three-color micrograph.
Shots with a Microscope – a basic, comprehensive guide to photomicrography Scientific photomicrographs – free scientific quality photomicrographs by Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig, CSc. Micrographs of 18 natural fibres by the International Year of Natural Fibres 2009 Seeing Beyond the Human Eye Video produced by Off Book - Solomon C. Fuller bio Charles Krebs Microscopic Images Dennis Kunkel Microscopy Andrew Paul Leonard, APL Microscopic Cell Centered Database - Montage Nikon Small World Olympus Bioscapes Other examples
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. In contrast, an anaerobic organism is any organism; some anaerobes react negatively or die if oxygen is present. Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow. In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates and generate energy. Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but have anaerobic methods of energy production. Microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen. Aerotolerant anaerobes are not harmed by it; when an organism is able to survive in both oxygen and anaerobic environments, the use of the Pasteur effect can distinguish between facultative anaerobes and aerotolerant organisms. If the organism is using fermentation in an anaerobic environment, the addition of oxygen will cause facultative anaerobes to suspend fermentation and begin using oxygen for respiration. Aerotolerant organisms must continue fermentation in the presence of oxygen.
A good example is the oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 38 ADP + 38 phosphate → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATPOxygen is used during the oxidation of glucose and water is produced; this equation is a summary of what happens in three series of biochemical reactions: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation. Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Fermentation Aerobic vaginitis Oxygenation
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, initiate tissue repair; the five classical signs of inflammation are heat, redness and loss of function. Inflammation is a generic response, therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer. Inflammation is therefore closely regulated by the body. Inflammation can be classified as either chronic.
Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the body's immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be.
But because of how the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis means only "urethral inflammation", but clinical health care providers discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis, it is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection because there are typical situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, trauma and autoimmune diseases including type III hypersensitivity. Conversely, there is pathology where microbial invasion does not cause the classic inflammatory response – for example, parasitosis or eosinophilia. Acute inflammation is a short-term process appearing within a few minutes or hours and begins to cease upon the removal of the injurious stimulus, it involves a coordinated and systemic mobilization response locally of various immune and neurological mediators of acute inflammation.
In a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and ceases. It is characterized by five cardinal signs:An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is "PRISH", for pain, immobility and heat; the traditional names for signs of inflammation come from Latin: Dolor Calor Rubor Tumor Functio laesa The first four were described by Celsus, while loss of function was added by Galen. However, the addition of this fifth sign has been ascribed to Thomas Sydenham and Virchow. Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site. Loss of function has multiple causes. Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings; the process of acute inflammation is initiated by resident immune cells present in the involved tissue resident macrophages, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition receptors, which recognize two subclasses of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns.
PAMPs are compounds that are associated with various pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related cell damage. At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes increased heat. Increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling; some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain. The mediator molecules alter the blood vessels to
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain is one of the principal stains in histology. It is the most used stain in medical diagnosis and is the gold standard. A combination of hematoxylin and eosin, it produces blues and reds; the staining method involves application of hemalum, a complex formed from aluminium ions and hematein. Hemalum colors nuclei of cells blue, along with a few other objects, such as keratohyalin granules and calcified material, which turns blue when exposed to alkaline water; the nuclear staining is followed by counterstaining with an aqueous or alcoholic solution of eosin Y, which colors eosinophilic structures in various shades of red and orange. The staining of nuclei by hemalum is ordinarily due to binding of the dye-metal complex to DNA, but nuclear staining can be obtained after extraction of DNA from tissue sections; the mechanism is different from that of nuclear staining by basic dyes such as thionine or toluidine blue. Staining by basic dyes occurs only from solutions that are less acidic than hemalum, it is prevented by prior chemical or enzymatic extraction of nucleic acids.
There is evidence to indicate that co-ordinate bonds, similar to those that hold aluminium and hematein together, bind the hemalum complex to DNA and to carboxy groups of proteins in the nuclear chromatin. The eosinophilic structures are composed of intracellular or extracellular protein; the Lewy bodies and Mallory bodies are examples of eosinophilic structures. Most of the cytoplasm is eosinophilic. Red blood cells are stained intensely red; the structures do not have to be basic to be called basophilic and eosinophilic. Other colors, e.g. yellow and brown, can be present in the sample. Some structures do not stain well. Basal laminae need to be stained by PAS stain or some silver stains, if they have to be well visible. Reticular fibers require silver stain. Hydrophobic structures tend to remain clear. Hematoxylin is a dark blue or violet stain, basic/positive, it binds to basophilic substances. DNA/RNA in the nucleus, RNA in ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are both acidic because the phosphate backbones of nucleic acids are negatively charged.
These backbones form salts with basic dyes containing positive charges. Therefore, dyes stain them violet. Eosin is a red or pink stain, acidic and negative, it binds to acidophilic substances such as positively charged amino-acid side chains. Most proteins in the cytoplasm of some cells are basic because they are positively charged due to the arginine and lysine amino-acid residues; these form salts with acid dyes containing negative charges, like eosin. Therefore, eosin stains them pink; this includes cytoplasmic filaments in muscle cells, intracellular membranes, extracellular fibers. So, in optical microscopy, one can observe: Nuclei in blue/purple Basophils in purplish red Cytoplasm in red Muscles in dark red Erythrocytes in cherry red Collagen in pale pink Mitochondria in pale pink Papanicolaou stain, another popular staining technique Cytopathology Acid-fast Baker JR Experiments on the action of mordants. 2. Aluminium-haematein. Quart. J. Microsc. Sci. 103: 493–517. Kiernan JA Histological and Histochemical Methods: Theory and Practice.
4th ed. Bloxham, UK: Scion. Lillie RD, Pizzolato P, Donaldson PT Nuclear stains with soluble metachrome mordant lake dyes; the effect of chemical endgroup blocking reactions and the artificial introduction of acid groups into tissues. Histochemistry 49: 23–35. Llewellyn BD Nuclear staining with alum-hematoxylin. Biotech. Histochem. 84: 159–177. Marshall PN, Horobin RW The mechanism of action of "mordant" des – a study using preformed metal complexes. Histochemie 35: 361–371. Puchtler H, Meloan SN, Waldrop FS Application of current chemical concepts to metal-haematein and -brazilein stains. Histochemistry 85: 353–364. SIGMA-ALDRICH H&E Informational Primer Routine Mayer's Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain Hematoxylin & Eosin Staining Protocol Rosen Lab, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine) Step by step protocol
Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales. Under the microscope, they appear spherical, form in grape-like clusters. Staphylococcus species are facultative anaerobic organisms; the name was coined in 1882 by Scottish surgeon and bacteriologist Alexander Ogston, following the pattern established five years earlier with the naming of Streptococcus. It combines the prefix "staphylo-", suffixed by the Modern Latin: coccus, lit.'spherical bacterium'. Staphylococcus includes at least 40 species. Of these, nine have two subspecies, one has three subspecies, one has four subspecies. Most are harmless and reside on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Staphylococcus has been found to be a nectar-inhabiting microbe. Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora; the taxonomy is based on 16s rRNA sequences, most of the staphylococcal species fall into 11 clusters: S. aureus group – S. argenteus, S. aureus, S. schweitzeri, S. simiae S. auricularis group – S. auricularis S. carnosus group – S. carnosus, S. condimenti, S. massiliensis, S. piscifermentans, S. simulans S. epidermidis group – S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. saccharolyticus S. haemolyticus group – S. devriesei, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis S. hyicus-intermedius group – S. agnetis, S. chromogenes, S. cornubiensis, S. felis, S. delphini, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, S. lutrae, S. microti, S. muscae, S. pseudintermedius, S. rostri, S. schleiferi S. lugdunensis group – S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus group – S. arlettae, S. caeli, S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. gallinarum, S. kloosii, S. leei, S. nepalensis, S. saprophyticus, S. succinus, S. xylosus S. sciuri group – S. fleurettii, S. lentus, S. sciuri, S. stepanovicii, S. vitulinus S. simulans group – S. simulans S. warneri group – S. pasteuri, S. warneriA 12th group – that of S. caseolyticus – has now been removed to a new genus, the species of which are the closest known relatives of Staphylococcus.
Two species were described in 2015 - Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus schweitzeri - both of which were considered variants of S. aureus. A new coagulase negative species - Staphylococcus edaphicus - has been isolated from Antarctica; this species is a member of the S. saprophyticus group. S. aureus subsp. AureusS. Aureus subsp. Anaerobius S. capitis subsp. CapitisS. Capitis subsp. Urealyticus S. carnosus subsp. CarnosusS. Carnosus subsp. Utilis S. cohnii subsp. CohniiS. Cohnii subsp. Urealyticus S. equorum subsp. EquorumS. Equorum subsp. Linens S. hominis subsp. HominisS. Hominis subsp. Novobiosepticus S petrasii subsp. CroceilyticusS petrasii subsp. JettensisS petrasii subsp. PetrasiiS petrasii subsp. Pragensis S. saprophyticus subsp. BovisS. Saprophyticus subsp. Saprophyticus S. schleiferi subsp. CoagulansS. Schleiferi subsp. Schleiferi S. sciuri subsp. CarnaticusS. Sciuri subsp. RodentiumS. Sciuri subsp. Sciuri S. succinus subsp. CaseiS. Succinus subsp. Succinus Based on an analysis of orthologous gene content three groups have been proposed.
Group A includes S. aureus, S. capitis, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. pettenkoferi, S. simiae and S. warneri. Group B includes S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus. Group C includes S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius. The S. saprophyticus and S. sciuri groups are novobiocin-resistant, as is S. hominis subsp. Novobiosepticus. Members of the S. sciuri group are oxidase-positive due to their possession of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. This group is the only clade within the staphylococci to possess this gene; the S. sciuri group appears to be the closest relations to the genus Macrococcus. S. pulvereri has been shown to be a junior synonym of S. vitulinus. Within these clades, the S. haemolyticus and S. simulans groups appear to be related, as do the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. S. Lugdunensis appears to be related to the S. haemolyticus group. S. petrasii may be related to S. haemolyticus. The taxonomic position of S. lyticans, S. pettenkoferi, S. petrasii, S. pseudolugdunensis has yet to be clarified.
The published descriptions of these species do not appear to have been validly published. Assignment of a strain to the genus Staphylococcus requires it to be a Gram-positive coccus that forms clusters, has an appropriate cell wall structure and G + C content of DNA in a range of 30–40 mol%. Staphylococcus species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci by several simple tests. Staphylococcus species are facultative anaerobes. All species grow in the presence of bile salts. All species of Staphylococcus aureus were once thought to be coagulase-positive, but this has since been disproven. Growth can occur in a 6.5% NaCl solution. On Baird Parker medium, Staphylococcus species grow fermentatively, except for S. saprophyticus, which grows oxidatively. Staphylococcus species are susceptible to furazolidone. Further biochemical testing is needed to identify to the species level; when these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes. This is as opposed to streptococci.
One of the most important phenot
A pelvic examination is the physical examination of the external and internal female pelvic organs. It is called "bimanual exam" when two hands are used and "manual uterine palpation", it is used in gynecology. It can be done under general anesthesia; the examination can be uncomfortable. During the pelvic exam the vaginal wall is assessed for rugae and weak spots. In addition to a thorough pelvic exam, other tests may ordered to further determine the cause of symptoms that are concerning. During the pelvic exam, samples of vaginal fluids may be taken to screen for sexually transmitted infections or other infections; some clinicians combine a routine pelvic exam along with other preventative procedures like a breast examination and pap smear. The American College of Physicians published guidelines against routine pelvic examination in adult women who are not pregnant and lack symptoms in 2014. One exception being pelvic exams done as part of cervical cancer screening. A pelvic examination can be part of the assessment of sexual assault.
Previous to July 2014 the benefits of routine pelvic examinations were not clear and there was no consensus. Since American College of Physicians issued a guideline recommending against performing this examination to screen for conditions in asymptomatic, adult women; the ACP said that there was no evidence of benefit in support of the examination, but there was evidence of harm, including distress and unnecessary surgery. This was a strong recommendation, based on moderate-quality evidence. In 2018, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a committee opinion that pelvic exams should be performed for 1) symptoms of gynecologic disease, 2) screening for cervical dysplasia, or 3) management of gynecologic disorders or malignancy, using shared decision-making with the patient. ACOG concluded there is inadequate data to support recommendations for or against routine screening pelvic examination for asymptomatic, non-pregnant women with average risk for gynecologic disease.
Annual well-woman exams are an occasion for gynecologists to recognize issues like incontinence and sexual dysfunction, discuss patient concerns. The pelvic exam begins with an explanation of the procedure; the woman is asked to put on an examination gown, get on the examination table, lay on her back with her feet in stirrups. Sliding down toward the end of the table is the best position for the clinician to do a visual examination. A pelvic exam begins with an assessment of the reproductive organs that can be seen without the use of a speculum. Many women may want to'prepare' for the procedure. Douching before the exam is discouraged because cells needed from the cervix to assess for cervical cell abnormalities may be washed out. One possible reason for delaying an exam is if it is to be done during menstruation, but this is a preference of some women and not a requirement of the clinician; the woman will will be asked to put on an examination gown and lay down on the examination table. A girl or woman may ask to have another woman in the examination room during the exam.
The clinician may want to perform pelvic examination and assessment of the vagina because there are unexplained symptoms of vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, unexpected bleeding, or urinary problems. The typical external examination begins with making sure that a woman is in a comfortable position and her privacy respected. If a woman is obese, different positioning and assistance may be required to keep tissue from blocking the view of the perineal area; the pubic hair is inspected for pubic hair growth patterns. Sparse hair patterns can exist in older and in some Asian women; the labia majora are evaluated. Their position and symmetry are assessed; the expected finding in older women is that the labia majora can be smaller. The examiner is looking for ulcers, inflammation and rashes. If drainage is present from these structures, its color and other characteristics are noted. Infection control is accomplished by frequent glove changes; the labia minora are evaluated. They should appear smooth in texture and pink.
The presence of tearing and swelling is noted. Thinner and smaller labia minora are an expected finding in older women; the clitoris is assessed for size, position and inflammation. The urethral opening is inspected. No urine should leak. Urine leakage may indicate the weakening of pelvic structures; the opening should be midline and smooth. The presence of inflammation, or discharge which may indicate an infection. Excoriation can be present in obese women due to urinary incontinence; the vaginal opening is inspected for position, presence of the hymen, shape. The presence of bruising, tearing and discharge. Pelvic examinations are procedures that are designed to obtain objective, measurable descriptions of what is observed. If sexual abuse is suspected, questions regarding this is discussed after the examination and not during it; when the woman is requested to'bear down', the presence of prolapsed structures such as the bladder, rectum or uterus are documented. Prolapsed structures can appear when abdominal pressure increases or they can protrude without bearing down.
The perineum, the space between the vagina and the anus is inspected. It should be smooth and free of disease. Scars from episiotomies are visible on women; the anus is assessed for lesions, trauma. It should appear dark and moist. In an obese women, excoriation may be present due to fecal incontinence. B
Cotton swabs or cotton buds consist of one or two small wad of cotton wrapped around one or both end of a short rod made of wood, rolled paper or plastic. They are used in a variety of applications including first aid, cosmetics application and arts and crafts; the tool was invented in 1923 by Polish-American Leo Gerstenzang after he watched his wife attach wads of cotton to toothpicks. His product named "Baby Gays", "Q-tips Baby Gays", just “Q-tips” went on to become the most sold brand name of cotton swabs/buds; the term “Q-tips” is used as a genericized trademark for cotton swabs in the US and Canada. The Q-tips brand is owned by Unilever and had over $200 million in US sales in 2014. Although doctors have said for years that it is not safe to use cotton swabs for ear cleaning, it remains the most common use; the traditional cotton swab has a single tip on a wooden handle, these are still used in medical settings. They are relatively long, about six inches; these are packaged sterile, one or two to a paper or plastic sleeve.
The advantage of the paper sleeve and the wooden handle is that the package can be autoclaved to be sterilized. Cotton swabs manufactured for home use are shorter, about three inches long, double-tipped; the handles were first made of wood made of rolled paper, still most common. They are sold in large quantities, 100 or more to a container. Plastic swab stems exist in a wide variety of colors, such as blue, green. However, the cotton itself is traditionally white; the most common use for cotton swabs is to clean or caress the ear canal and/or to remove earwax, despite this not being a medically recommended method for removing earwax. Cotton swabs are commonly used for applying and removing makeup, as well as for household uses such as cleaning and arts and crafts, they are handy for touching up nail polish that gets on the surrounding skin. Medical-type swabs are used to take microbiological cultures, they are rubbed onto or into the infected area wiped across the culture medium, such as an agar plate, where bacteria from the swab may grow.
They are used to take DNA samples, most by scraping cells from the inner cheek in the case of humans. They can be used to apply medicines to a targeted area, to selectively remove substances from a targeted area, or to apply cleaning substances like Betadine, they are used as an applicator for various cosmetics and other substances. A related area is the use of swabs for microbiological environmental monitoring. Once taken, the swab can be streaked onto an agar plate, or the contents of the tip removed by agitation or dilution into the broth; the broth can either be filtered or incubated and examined for microbial growth. Cotton swabs are often used outside of the field of personal hygiene: Often used in plastic model kits construction, for various applications during the application of decals or painting. Special brands of cotton swabs exist for this purpose, characterised by sturdier cotton heads and varied shapes of those heads. Can be used in the dyne test for measuring surface energy; this use is problematic, as manufacturers differ in the binders they use to fix the cotton to the stem, affecting the outcome of the test.
They are used for cleaning the laser of an optical drive in conjunction with rubbing alcohol. They're used for cleaning larger computer parts such as video cards, fans, they were used in the past to clean video game cartridges. The use of cotton swabs in the ear canal has no associated medical benefits and poses definite medical risks. Cerumen is a occurring extruded product of the external auditory canal that protects the skin inside the ear, serves beneficial lubrication and cleaning functions, provides some protection from bacteria, fungi and water. Attempts to remove cerumen with cotton swabs may result in cerumen impaction, a buildup or blockage of cerumen in the ear canal, which can cause pain, hearing problems, ringing in the ear, or dizziness, may require medical treatment to resolve; the use of cotton swabs in the ear canal is one of the most common causes of perforated eardrum, a condition which sometimes requires surgery to correct. For these reasons, the American Academy of Family Physicians and many other professional medical associations recommend never placing cotton swabs in the ear canal.
A 2004 study found that the "se of a cotton-tip applicator to clean the ear seems to be the leading cause of otitis externa in children and should be avoided." Instead, wiping wax away from the ear after a shower completely cleans the one third of the outer ear canal where earwax is made. In the US between 1990 and 2010, an estimated 263,338 children went to hospital emergency rooms for cotton swab injuries, for an estimated annual hospitalization of 13,167 children. Plastic cotton swabs are incorrectly flushed down the toilet, increasing the risk of marine pollution; some manufacturers and retailers have stopped the production and sale of plastic swabs and are only selling biodegradable paper versions. Scotland's government announced in February 2018 that it will ban the sale and manufacture of plastic cotton swabs; the same year, the UK government announced it was considering a ban. Italy introduced legislation that banned plastic cotton swabs from 1 January 2019; the EU will ban cotton swab sticks made from plastic by 2021.
Ear pick Cotton pad