A salpinx was a trumpet-like instrument of the ancient Greeks. The salpinx consisted of a straight, narrow bronze tube with a mouthpiece of bone and a bell of variable shape and size; each type of bell may have had a unique effect on the sound made by the instrument. The instrument has been depicted in some classical era vases as employing the use of a phorbeia, similar to those used by aulos players of the era. Though similar to the Roman tuba, the salpinx was shorter than the 1.5 meter long Roman tuba. A rare example of a salpinx, held at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is unique in that it is constructed from thirteen sections of bone connected using tenons and sockets rather than the long, bronze tube described elsewhere; this salpinx is over 1.57 m long dwarfing the common salpinx, estimated to have been around 0.8 – 1.20 m long. The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated.
References to the salpinx are found in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s Iliad, this Archaic reference is exceptional and frequent references are not found until the Classical period. Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia and Egypt, though the salpinx is most related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as tyrrhene a derivative of Tyrrhenoi, an exonym employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions; the salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus and Sophocles. It is that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia, suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.
When encountered in Greek art and literature, the salpinx is depicted as being played by a soldier. Fifth century authors associated its "piercing sound" with war; this is supported in the writing of Aristotle who, in De Audibilibus, explained that salpinges were used as "...instruments of summons in war, at the games, so on, not to make music." Aristides Quintilianus described the necessity of the salpinx and salpingtis in battle in his treatise, On Music. He explains that each command to troops was given using specific tones or "melodies" played on the salpinx; this action allowed for an entire army to receive a command at once as well as provide a level of secrecy as these salpinx calls were specific to a group and would be unknown to an opponent. Yet despite its distinctive sound, the shrill blasts of the salpinx would have had a difficult time overcoming the clashing of metal, the cries of the wounded, the roars of aggression from rows of soldiers; this is why the salpinx was used before battle to summon men to prepare for battle and to sound the charge.
Andrew Barker, describes a possible exception to the utilitarian usage of the salpinx referencing Aristotle, who wrote, "...that is why everyone, when engaging in revelry, relaxes the tension of the breath in playing the salpinx, so as to make the sound as gentle as possible." It is suggested here. This notion is corroborated by Nikos Xanthoulis in his article "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity". Here, he draws particular attention to Aristotle's statement that "...participants of a komos unbend the tension of the exhaling air in the salpinx, in order to make the sound smoother." The komos, a street festival with music and dance, would require an "unbending of tension" in order to create a more pleasing tone thus indicating a usage for the instrument outside of the military. Another more universal function of the salpinx was to use it as a means of bringing silence to a rambunctious crowd or at a large gathering; this was both useful in a societal setting in places such as large assemblies and as a tool to quiet soldiers while a general addressed his men.
The sound of the salpinx was being digitally recreated by the Ancient Instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application project which uses physical modeling synthesis to simulate the sound of the salpinx. Due to the complexity of this process, the ASTRA project uses grid computing on hundreds of computers throughout Europe to model the sounds; the Salpinx is part of the Lost Sounds Orchestra, alongside other ancient instruments whose sounds have been recreated by ASTRA, including the epigonion, the aulos, the barbiton and the syrinx. History of primitive and non-Western trumpets http://www.tapsbugler.com/HistoryoftheBugle/HistoryoftheBugle2.html
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso. It contains blood nerves that supply structures in the head to the body; these in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, the top part of the spinal cord. In anatomy, the neck is called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more refers to the uterine cervix, the neck of the uterus, thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the uterine cervix. The neck contains vessels. In humans these structures include part of the esophagus, trachea and parathyroid glands, lymph nodes, the first part of the spinal cord. Major blood vessels include the jugular veins. Cervical lymph nodes surround the blood vessels; the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands are endocrine glands involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism and growth, blood calcium levels. The shape of the neck in humans is formed from the upper part of the vertebral column at the back, a series of cartilage that surrounds the upper part of the respiratory tract.
Around these sit soft tissues, including muscles, between and around these sit the other structures mentioned above. Muscles of the neck attach to the base of the skull, the hyoid bone, the clavicles, the sternum; the large platysma, sternocleidomastoid muscles contribute to the shape at the front, the trapezius and lattissimus dorsi at the back. A number of other muscles attach to and stem from the hyoid bone, facilitating speech and playing a role in swallowing. Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of nerves C2-4, at the back of the neck from the roots of C4-5; the cervical region of the human spine is made up of seven cervical vertebrae referred to as C-1 to C-7, with cartilaginous discs between each vertebral body. The spinal cord sits within the cervical part of the vertebral column; the spinal column carries nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body. From top to bottom the cervical spine is curved in convex-forward fashion.
In addition to nerves coming from and within the human spine, the accessory nerve and vagus nerve both cranial nerves, travel down the neck. In the middle line below the chin can be felt the body of the hyoid bone, just below, the prominence of the thyroid cartilage called "Adam's apple", better marked in men than in women. Neck lines appear at a age as a development of skin wrinkles. Still, lower the cricoid cartilage is felt, while between this and the suprasternal notch, the trachea and the isthmus of the thyroid gland may be made out. At the side, the outline of the sternomastoid muscle is the most striking mark; the upper part of the former contains the submaxillary gland known as the submandibular glands, which lies just below the posterior half of the body of the jaw. The line of the common and the external carotid arteries may be marked by joining the sterno-clavicular articulation to the angle of the jaw; the eleventh or spinal accessory nerve corresponds to a line drawn from a point midway between the angle of the jaw and the mastoid process to the middle of the posterior border of the sterno-mastoid muscle and thence across the posterior triangle to the deep surface of the trapezius.
The external jugular vein can be seen through the skin. The anterior jugular vein is smaller, runs down about half an inch from the middle line of the neck; the clavicle or collar-bone forms the lower limit of the neck, laterally the outward slope of the neck to the shoulder is caused by the trapezius muscle. The neck supports the weight of the head and protects the nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body. In addition, the neck is flexible and allows the head to turn and flex in all directions. Disorders of the neck are a common source of pain; the neck has a great deal of functionality but is subject to a lot of stress. Common sources of neck pain include: Whiplash, strained a muscle or another soft tissue injury Cervical herniated disc Cervical spinal stenosis Osteoarthritis Vascular sources of pain, like arterial dissections or internal jugular vein thrombosis Cervical adenitis The neck appears in some of the earliest of tetrapod fossils, the functionality provided has led to its being retained in all land vertebrates as well as marine-adapted tetrapods such as turtles and penguins.
Some degree of flexibility is retained where the outside physical manifestation has been secondarily lost, as in whales and porpoises. A morphologically functioning neck appears among insects, its absence in fish and aquatic arthropods is notable, as many have life stations similar to a terrestrial or tetrapod counterpart, or could otherwise make use of the added flexibility. The word "neck" is sometimes used as a convenience to refer to the region behind the head in some snails, gastropod mollusks though there is no clear distinction between this area, the head area, the rest of the body. Throat Adam's apple Hickey Nape American Head and Neck Society The Anatomy Wiz. An Interactive Cross-Sectional Anatomy Atlas
A muscle fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue. Specialized muscle fibers in the heart that transmit electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to the Purkinje fibers are fascicles referred to as bundle branches; these start as a single fascicle of fibers at the AV node called the bundle of His that splits into three bundle branches: the right fascicular branch, left anterior fascicular branch, left posterior fascicular branch. Epimysium Endomysium Connective tissue in skeletal muscle Histology image: 77_04 at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center - "Slide 77 skeletal muscle" Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 05.83 - "Smooth Muscle" Diagram at kctcs.edu
The infrahyoid muscles are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior part of the neck. The four infrahyoid muscles are: the sternohyoid, sternothyroid and omohyoid muscles; the infrahyoid muscles either insert on to the hyoid bone. The term infrahyoid refers to the region below the hyoid bone, while the term strap muscles refers to the long and flat muscle shapes which resembles a strap; the stylopharyngeus muscle is considered by many to be one of the strap muscles, but is not an infrahyoid muscle. The origin and innervation of the individual muscles: All of the infrahyoid muscles are innervated by the ansa cervicalis from the cervical plexus except the thyrohyoid muscle, innervated by fibers only from the first cervical spinal nerve travelling with the hypoglossal nerve; the infrahyoid muscles function to depress the hyoid larynx during swallowing and speech. Muscular triangle Suprahyoid muscles
The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis; the muscle arises from the posterior border of the medial end of the clavicle, the posterior sternoclavicular ligament, the upper and posterior part of the manubrium sterni. Passing upward and medially, it is inserted by short tendinous fibers into the lower border of the body of the hyoid bone. Doubling, it sometimes presents above its origin, a transverse tendinous inscription. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 393 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:25:10-0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Nerves and Vessels of the Carotid triangle" PTCentral
The platysma is a superficial muscle that overlaps the sternocleidomastoid. It is a broad sheet arising from the fascia covering the upper parts of the pectoralis major and deltoid. Fibres at the front of the muscle from the left and right sides intermingle together below and behind the symphysis menti, it is not a true symphysis. Fibres at the back of the muscle cross the mandible, some being inserted into the bone below the oblique line, others into the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the lower part of the face. Many of these fibers blend with lower part of the mouth. Sometimes fibers can be traced to the margin of the orbicularis oris. Beneath the platysma, the external jugular vein descends from the angle of the mandible to the clavicle. Variations occur over the clavicle and shoulder. A more or less independent fasciculus, the occipitalis minor, may extend from the fascia over the trapezius to fascia over the insertion of the sternocleidomastoideus; the platysma is supplied by cervical branch of the facial nerve.
When the entire platysma is in action it produces a slight wrinkling of the surface of the skin of the neck in an oblique direction. Its anterior portion, the thickest part of the muscle, depresses the lower jaw. However, the platysma plays only a minor role in depressing the lip, performed by the depressor anguli oris and the depressor labii inferioris. In a similar fashion to other muscles, the platysma is vulnerable to tears and muscle atrophy among many other possible conditions; the platysma is vulnerable to neck injuries. A type of medical imagining called CTA, used to visualise arterial and venous vessels, is useful to minimise the number of neck explorations, thus improving the handling of the condition. Another area of importance of the platysma lies in plastic surgery. Neck bands in the area become most noticeable with age, aggravated by facelift. If it doesn't heal with time, there are many options to correct this: Botox/Dysport/Xeomin and platysmaplasty. Platysmaplasty is a surgery in this area, that can be open or closed, in the latter a specialised instrument called plastymotome that allow the surgery to be done without incisions.
It takes 2 weeks for the symptoms to be reduced. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 387 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy BooksSusan Standring. Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. London: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2371-8
The stylohyoid muscle is a slender muscle, lying anterior and superior of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. It shares this muscle's innervation by the facial nerve, functions to draw the hyoid bone backwards and elevate the tongue, its origin is the styloid process of the temporal bone. It inserts on the body of the hyoid, it arises from the posterior and lateral surface of the styloid process of the temporal bone, near the base. It thus belongs to the group of suprahyoid muscles; when contracted, it elevates the hyoid, this action is brought about during swallowing. It is perforated, by the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle. A branch from the extracranial path of the facial nerve innervates the Stylohyoid muscle, it may be absent or doubled, lie beneath the carotid artery, or be inserted into the omohyoid, or mylohyoid muscles. The stylohyoid muscle retracts hyoid bone. Initiates a swallowing action by pulling the hyoid bone in a posterior and superior direction. Stylohyoid ligament This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 392 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 34:02-04 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center