The Cleveland Indians are an American professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Indians compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League Central division. Since 1994, they have played at Progressive Field; the team's spring training facility is at Goodyear Ballpark in Arizona. Since their establishment as a major league franchise in 1901, the Indians have won two World Series championships: in 1920 and 1948, along with 10 Central Division titles and six American League pennants; the Indians' current World Series championship drought is the longest active drought. The name "Indians" originated from a request by club owner Charles Somers to baseball writers to choose a new name to replace "Cleveland Naps" following the departure of Nap Lajoie after the 1914 season; the name referenced the nickname "Indians", applied to the Cleveland Spiders baseball club during the time when Louis Sockalexis, a Native American, played in Cleveland. Common nicknames for the Indians include the "Tribe" and the "Wahoos", the latter being a reference to their former logo, Chief Wahoo.
The team's mascot is named "Slider." The franchise originated in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1894 as the Grand Rapids Rustlers, a minor league team that competed in the Western League. The team relocated to Cleveland in 1900 and changed its name to the Cleveland Lake Shores; the Western League itself changed its name to the American League while continuing its minor league status. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the major league incarnation of the club was founded in Cleveland in 1901. Called the Cleveland Bluebirds, the team played in League Park until moving permanently to Cleveland Stadium in 1946. At the end of the 2018 season, they had a regular season franchise record of 9,384–8,968. From August 24 to September 14, 2017, the Indians won 22 consecutive games, the longest winning streak in American League history. "In 1857 baseball games were a daily spectacle in Cleveland's Public Squares. City authorities tried to find an ordinance forbidding it, to the joy of the crowd, they were unsuccessful.
– Harold Seymour" 1865–1868 Forest Citys of Cleveland 1869–1872 Forest Citys of Cleveland From 1865 to 1868 Forest Citys was an amateur ball club. During the 1869 season, Cleveland was among several cities which established professional baseball teams following the success of the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional team. In the newspapers before and after 1870, the team was called the Forest Citys, in the same generic way that the team from Chicago was sometimes called The Chicagos. In 1871 the Forest Citys joined the new National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, the first professional league. Two of the league's western clubs went out of business during the first season and the Chicago Fire left that city's White Stockings impoverished, unable to field a team again until 1874. Cleveland was thus the year the club folded. Cleveland played their full schedule to July 19 followed by two games versus Boston in mid-August and disbanded at the end of the season. 1879–1881 Cleveland Forest Citys 1882–1884 Cleveland BluesIn 1876, the National League supplanted the NA as the major professional league.
Cleveland were not among its charter members, but by 1879 the league was looking for new entries and the city gained an NL team. The Cleveland Forest Citys baseball team was re-created; the National League required distinct colors for the 1882 season, so the Cleveland Forest Citys became the Cleveland Blues. They had a mediocre record for six seasons and were ruined by a trade war with the Union Association in 1884, when its three best players jumped to the UA after being offered higher salaries. Cleveland Blues merged with the St. Louis Maroons UA team in 1885. 1887–1899 Cleveland Spiders — nickname "Blues"Cleveland went without major league baseball for two seasons until gaining a team in the American Association in 1887. After the AA's Allegheny club jumped to the NL Cleveland followed suit in 1889, as the AA began to crumble; the Cleveland ball club, named the Spiders became a power in the league. The next year the Spiders moved into League Park, which would serve as the home of Cleveland professional baseball for the next 55 years.
Led by native Ohioan Cy Young, the Spiders became a contender in the mid-1890s, when they played in the Temple Cup Series twice, winning it in 1895. The team began to fade after this success, was dealt a severe blow under the ownership of the Robison brothers Prior to the 1899 season, Frank Robison, the Spiders owner, bought the St. Louis Browns, thus owning two clubs at the same time; the Browns were renamed the "Perfectos", restocked with Cleveland talent. Just weeks before the season opener, most of the better Spiders players were transferred to St. Louis, including three future Hall of Famers: Cy Young, Jesse Burkett and Bobby Wallace; the roster maneuvers failed to create a powerhouse Perfectos team, as St. Louis finished fifth in both 1899 and 1900; the Spiders were left with a minor league lineup, began to lose games at a record pace. Drawing no fans at home, they ended up playing most of their season on the road, became known as "The Wanderers." The team ended the season in 12th place, 84 games out of first place, with an all-time worst record of 20-134.
Following the 1899 season, the National League disbanded four teams, including the Cleveland franchise. The disastrous 1899 season would be a step toward a new future for Cleveland fans
Robert Daniel Kennedy was a right fielder/third baseman and executive in Major League Baseball. From 1939 to 1957, Kennedy played for the Chicago White Sox, Cleveland Indians, Baltimore Orioles, Detroit Tigers and Brooklyn Dodgers, he threw right-handed. After his playing career, Kennedy managed the Chicago Oakland Athletics, his son, former major league catcher Terry Kennedy, was a four-time All-Star and minor league manager. Kennedy was born in Chicago. A line-drive hitter, he was blessed with a accurate throwing arm. On June 22, 1937, the night before the White Sox signed him, Kennedy was working as a 16-year-old popcorn vendor at Comiskey Park during the World Heavyweight Boxing Title between Joe Louis and James J. Braddock. Kennedy debuted a year and became the starting third baseman in 1940. In 1940, he became the first teenaged major leaguer since 1900 to play 150 games in a season. After a break of three years to serve in the military during World War II, he returned, to play in right field.
In the 1948 midseason Kennedy was sent to Cleveland in the same trade that brought Pat Seerey to Chicago. Kennedy hit.301 the rest of the year and became a member of the last World Championship Indians team. His most productive season came in 1950, when he posted career-highs in batting average, runs and doubles; the same season, he started two triple plays from the right field, matching Indians left fielder Charlie Jamieson's two triple plays of 1928. Kennedy was traded to the newly relocated Baltimore Orioles in 1954. On July 30, he belted the first grand slam for Baltimore against Yankees pitcher Allie Reynolds. In 1955, Kennedy was purchased by the White Sox and sent to Detroit in 1956. Released in April 1957, he signed as a free agent with the White Sox, for his third stint with the club. A month he was selected off waivers by the Brooklyn Dodgers, being released at the end of the season. Kennedy is the answer to the trivia question, the last man to bat for the Brooklyn Dodgers. At 3:36pm, Kennedy flew out to centerfield on a 2-2 pitch with two out and no one on in the 9th inning of the last Brooklyn Dodger game played on Sunday, September 29, 1957 at Connie Mack Stadium in Philadelphia.
Phillies defeated the Brooklyn Dodgers 3-2. Seth Morehead, a rookie lefthander was the pitcher for the Phillies; this game marked his major league debut as a starter and was the only time all season Brooklyn lost to a lefthander. They had been 6-0 against lefties throughout 1957. Following his retirement, he was a scout and farm system director for the Indians, manager of the Triple-A Salt Lake City Bees. In 1963, Kennedy was named to the Cubs' College of Coaches and designated as "head coach" for an indefinite period; the Cubs had experimented with having a committee of coaches run the team on the field since 1961, as opposed to having a single manager. After the 1963 Cubs posted their first winning record in 17 years, Kennedy began to assert a more traditional managerial authority over the team, he served as head coach from 1963 until June 1965, posting a 162 -- 198 record. He served as special assistant to Cub general manager John Holland, manager of the Los Angeles Dodgers' Double-A Albuquerque affiliate, a coach with the Atlanta Braves until 1968.
In 1968, when the Athletics moved from Kansas City to Oakland, Kennedy was their first manager. Oakland finished sixth in a 10-team league with an 82–80 record, a notable improvement from the 62–99 last-place 1967 Athletics, it was the franchise's first winning season since 1952, when the team was still in Philadelphia. According to the 1972 book Mustache Gang, authored by Ron Bergman, on the last day of the season Kennedy walked into Charlie Finley's office, expecting an extension. Five minutes Kennedy had been fired. After that, he spent six years as director of player development and director of player personnel of the St. Louis Cardinals, 1976 as a member of the Seattle Mariners' start-up baseball operations team preparing for the club's 1977 debut in Major League Baseball. Kennedy returned to Chicago for 4½ seasons, beginning in 1977, as the Cubs' general manager, he was released from the position in May 1981. Rounding out his baseball career, Kennedy served as a senior baseball operations executive for the Houston Astros and San Francisco Giants, assisting his former Cleveland teammate Al Rosen the president or general manager of those teams.
In a 16-season playing career, Kennedy was a.254 hitter with 63 home runs and 514 RBI in 1,483 games. As a manager, he posted a 264–278 record in two-plus seasons. Bob Kennedy died in Mesa, Arizona, at age of 84. Baseball Library Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Bob Kennedy at Find a Grave San Francisco Chronicle
Walter Henry McCredie, was a professional baseball player who played outfield for the Brooklyn Superbas during the 1903 baseball season. He managed for 18 years in the minor leagues, from 1905-1921 and 1934, 17 years of, for the Portland Beavers, one year of, with the Salt Lake City Bees, both of the Pacific Coast League. While serving as manager, McCredie tested baseball's unwritten rule of barring African Americans and certain minorities from organized professional baseball. McCredie paid Negro league baseball teams to play against his teams in spring training. In 1914 McCredie signed Lang Akana, born in Hawaii and of Chinese descent. According to The Oregonian several Pacific Coast League players said they would boycott games if Akana played for the Beavers. McCreidie released him after a few weeks, but told The Oregonian that "I don't think the color of skin ought to be a barrier in baseball... Here in the Pacific Coast League we have a Mexican and a Hawaiian and yet the laws of baseball bar Negroes from organized diamonds...
The crack Negro ballplayer should not be thus discriminated against. He is welcome in nearly every other branch of athletics." Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Warning: Template:Baseballstats cube= parameter should be updated to a numeric value. BR Bullpen biography
Oscar Joseph "Ossie" Vitt was a Major League Baseball third baseman and manager in the American League for the Detroit Tigers and Boston Red Sox. Vitt became manager of the Cleveland Indians, where he sometimes clashed with his players. Ossie Vitt was a product of the sandlots of San Francisco, he broke into the Pacific Coast League as third baseman for the San Francisco Seals in 1911. He advanced to the majors as a utility infielder for the Detroit Tigers. Through his major league career, Vitt played 833 games at 161 games at 2nd base; as the Tigers' regular third baseman from 1915 through 1917, he never batted higher than.254. But he was described as a scrappy baseball man. Vitt had a career batting average of.238, was a talented third baseman with range and a good throwing arm. His.960 fielding average in 10 years at 3rd base was 20 points higher than the Major League average for 3rd basemen of his era. He led all American League third basemen in consecutive years in putouts and fielding percentage.
He had career highs at third base of 208 putouts, 385 assists, 32 double plays in 1916. His range factor of 3.93 in 1916 was 70 points higher than the league average for third basemen. While not a good hitter for average, Vitt was a good contact hitter and one of the best bunters of the era—a valuable talent on a Detroit squad that included Ty Cobb, Sam Crawford, Bobby Veach, his career total of 259 sacrifice hits ranks 32nd best in major league history. Vitt was one of the toughest players to strike out in MLB history. For his career, he struck out an average of once every 26.6 at bats, 35th best in MLB history. In 1918, his at bat per strikeout ratio was 44.5, 2nd best in the AL. On August 10, 1915, Vitt was hit in the head by a Walter Johnson fastball. After being knocked unconscious for five minutes‚ Vitt left the game with a concussion. Ty Cobb‚ observing Johnson's fear of hitting a batter‚ crowded the plate on Johnson from that point forward. Cobb hit.435 against Johnson after the Vitt incident.
On July 30, 1917, Cobb‚ Veach‚ and Vitt followed each other in the lineup‚ with each going 5-for-5. On January 17, 1919, Vitt was traded by the Tigers to the Boston Red Sox for Eddie Ainsmith, Chick Shorten, Slim Love. After playing in the majors for 10 years, Vitt was recommended to Oakland Oaks' owner Victor Devincinzi by the Yankees' management to manage the Oaks in 1935, his style was described as both abrasive and motivational. Vitt moved on in the Yankees' organization the next year, he was hired by the Cleveland Indians in 1938 to replace Steve O'Neil as manager and instill new life into their team. Vitt's role in the 1940 Cleveland Indians team known as the "Cleveland Crybabies" has become a baseball legend. "I don't want any lazy players on my club," said Vitt when he was hired. "If the boys won't hustle, out they go." Vitt's players felt. In Vitt's first two seasons in Cleveland, the Indians finished third. Yet, there were frequent clashes between Vitt and his players, the discontent festered.
On June 11, 1940, matters came to a head. "When are you going to start earning your salary?" asked Vitt of Harder, who had won at least 15 games for eight consecutive seasons, including two 20-win seasons. The team revolted, many players signed a petition to have Vitt removed. After the incident with Harder, a dozen Indians met with owner Alva Bradley to state their grievances against Vitt, whom they described as a "wild man." They made. In the closed-door meeting between Indians players and owner, Harder told Bradley: "We think we have a good chance to win the pennant, but we'll never win it with Vitt as manager. If we can get rid of him, we can win. We feel sure about that." Bradley sought to keep the controversy quiet, but the story got out, newspaper headlines all over the nation referred gleefully to the Indians as the "Cleveland Crybabies." Despite the hullabaloo and ridicule, the Indians, with Vitt hanging on to his job, battled the Detroit Tigers for the pennant to the last day of the 1940 season.
Through June, the Indians were 42–25. After June, with the "Crybabies" harangue clanging in the papers and from the stands, they went 47–40, not a collapse, but not good enough to stay ahead of the Tigers who won the pennant by a single game over the Tribe. Bob Feller, a 27-game winner that year, lost the decisive game 2–0. Vitt was among those in the first class of inductees in 1943 in the Pacific Coast League Hall of Fame. 1915 Detroit Tigers season Baseball-Reference.com BaseballLibrary.com Article on 1940 Pennant Race Oakland Oaks biography on Vitt
San Francisco Giants
The San Francisco Giants are an American professional baseball team based in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1883 as the New York Gothams, renamed three years the New York Giants, the team moved to San Francisco in 1958; the Giants compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. As one of the longest-established and most successful professional baseball teams, the franchise has won the most games of any team in the history of American baseball; the team was the first major league team based in New York City, most memorably playing at the legendary Polo Grounds. They have won 23 NL pennants and have played in 20 World Series competitions – both NL records; the Giants' eight World Series championships rank fifth overall. The Giants have played in the World Series 20 times – 14 times in New York, six in San Francisco – but boycotted the event in 1904. Playing as the New York Giants, they won 14 pennants and five World Series championships behind managers such as John McGraw and Bill Terry and players such as Christy Mathewson, Carl Hubbell, Mel Ott, Bobby Thomson, Willie Mays.
The Giants' franchise has the most Hall of Fame players in all of professional baseball. The Giants' rivalry with the Dodgers is one of the longest-standing and biggest rivalries in American sports; the teams began their rivalry as the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers before both franchises moved west for the 1958 season. The Giants have won six pennants and three World Series championships since arriving in San Francisco; those three championships have come in 2010, 2012, most in 2014, having defeated the Kansas City Royals four games to three during the 2014 World Series. The Giants are the only major professional sports team based in the City and County of San Francisco, following the San Francisco 49ers' relocation to Santa Clara in 2014, they will be joined by the Golden State Warriors once they move to the Chase Center in 2019. The Giants began as the second baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran amateur baseball player Jim Mutrie; the Gothams, as the Giants were known, entered the National League in 1883, while their other club, the Metropolitans played in the American Association.
Nearly half of the original Gotham players were members of the disbanded Troy Trojans, whose place in the National League the Gothams inherited. While the Metropolitans were the more successful club and Mutrie began moving star players to the Gothams, in 1888 the team won its first National League pennant, as well as a victory over the St. Louis Browns in a pre-modern-era World Series, they repeated as champions the next year with a pennant and Championship victory over the Brooklyn "Bridegrooms". A contemporaneous account claims that after one satisfying victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, the team's manager, strode into the dressing room and exclaimed, "My big fellows! My giants!" From on, the club was known as the Giants. The Giants' original home stadium, the Polo Grounds, dates from this early era, it was located north of Central Park adjacent to 5th and 6th Avenues and 110th and 112th Streets, in Harlem in upper Manhattan. After their eviction from that first incarnation of the Polo Grounds after the 1888 season, they moved further uptown to various fields they named the Polo Grounds located between 155th and 159th Streets in Harlem and Washington Heights, playing in the Washington Heights Polo Grounds until the end of the 1957 season, when they moved to San Francisco.
The Giants were a powerhouse in the late 1880s, winning their first two National League Pennants and World Championships in 1888 and 1889. But nearly all of the Giants' stars jumped to the upstart Players' League, whose New York franchise was named the Giants, in 1890; the new team built a stadium next door to the Polo Grounds. With a decimated roster, the National League Giants finished a distant sixth. Attendance took a nosedive, the financial strain affected Day's tobacco business as well; the Players' League dissolved after the season, Day sold a minority interest in his NL Giants to the defunct PL Giants' principal backer, Edward Talcott. As a condition of the sale, Day had to fire Mutrie as manager. Although the Giants rebounded to third in 1891, Day was forced to sell a controlling interest to Talcott at the end of the season. Four years Talcott sold the Giants to Andrew Freedman, a real estate developer with ties to the Tammany Hall political machine running New York City. Freedman was one of the most detested owners in baseball history, getting into heated disputes with other owners and his own players, most famously with star pitcher Amos Rusie, author of the first Giants no-hitter.
When Freedman offered Rusie only $2,500 to play in 1896, the disgruntled hurler sat out the entire season. Attendance fell off throughout the league without Rusie, prompting the other owners to chip in $50,000 to get him to return for 1897. Freedman hired former owner Day as manager for part of 1899. In 1902, after a series of disastrous moves that left the Giants 53½ games behind, Freedman signed John McGraw as player-manager, convincing him to jump in mid-season from the Baltimore Orioles of the fledgling American League and bring with him several of his teammates. McGraw went on to manage the Giants for three decades until 1932, one of the longest and most successful tenures in professional sports. Hiring "Mr. McGraw", as his players referred to him, was one of Freedman's last significant moves as
William Henry "Strawberry Bill" Bernhard was an American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball from 1899 to 1907 for the Philadelphia Phillies, Philadelphia Athletics, Cleveland Bronchos / Naps. After his playing career ended, he became a manager in the Southern Association, he most notably managed the 1908 Southern champion Nashville Vols. Ferdinand E. Kuhn hired him to the position as manager of the Nashville club. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Warning: Template:Baseballstats cube= parameter should be updated to a numeric value
Chester James Chadbourne was an outfielder in Major League Baseball, playing as a center fielder for three teams between 1906 and 1918. Chadbourne spent portions of five seasons in the major leagues, but his only two complete major league seasons were with the Kansas City Packers of the Federal League, he had more success in the minor leagues. Listed at 5 ft 9 in, 170 lb, Chadbourne threw right-handed. After his playing career, Chadbourne umpired in the minor leagues. Chadbourne was born in Maine. A fine defensive outfielder, he entered the major leagues in 1906 with the Boston Red Sox, playing for them two years before being sold to the Indianapolis Indians of the American Association in November 1908. After five minor league seasons, he played from 1914 to 1915 for the Kansas City Packers of the Federal League, where he led the league's outfielders in assists in 1914 and in outs and fielding percentage in 1915. In 1914, Chadbourne became the first major league player to bat at Wrigley Field, hitting leadoff for the Packers against the Chicago Chi-Feds on April 23.
Chadbourne returned to the minors for the 1916 and 1917 seasons, making his last major league appearance with the Boston Braves in 1918. In a five-season career, Chadbourne was a.255 hitter with two home runs and 82 RBI in 347 games, including 183 runs, 41 doubles, 18 triples, 78 stolen bases. Following his major league career, Chadbourne returned to the minors to play in the Pacific Coast League, he managed the Salt Lake City Bees of the 1926 Utah–Idaho League. By January 1927, the press reported, he was hired as a PCL umpire after the 1928 season. Chadbourne was umpiring in the PCL in 1930 when he had a confrontation with star outfielder Buzz Arlett after a game and struck Arlett in the face with his umpire mask. Arlett required twelve stitches to his face and the injury may have cost him an opportunity to sign with the Brooklyn Dodgers. After Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis investigated the incident, Chadbourne was fired, he umpired in the Western League in 1932. Chadbourne died in Los Angeles at age 58 by self-inflicted gunshot wound.
He was survived by Gladys. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference Baseball Library Retrosheet