Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933. Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek experienced financial difficulties, leading to the cessation of print publication and a transition to all-digital format at the end of 2012; the print edition was relaunched in March 2014. Revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities; that year, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC. In 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC. IBT Media rebranded itself as Newsweek Media Group in 2017, but returned to IBT Media in 2018 after making Newsweek independent. News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J. C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time, he obtained financial backing from a group of U.
S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale." The group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith. Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek; the first issue of the magazine was dated February 17, 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover. In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family; as a result of the deal and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959.
In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as editor-in-chief. He changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary; the magazine was purchased by The Washington Post Company in 1961. Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969. In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters; the women won, Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement. Edward Kosner became editor from 1975 to 1979 after directing the magazine's extensive coverage of the Watergate scandal that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974.
Richard M. Smith became chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites. Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007. During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue, it shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year.
Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability; the financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million. By May 2010, Newsweek was put up for sale; the sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company.
Haykal claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co. The magazine was sold to audio pioneer Sidney Harman on August 2, 2010, for $1 in exchange for assuming the magazine's financial liabilities. Harman's bid was accepted over three competitors. Meacham left the magazine upon completion of the sale. Sidney Harman was the
The leopard is one of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae. It occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa, in small parts of Western Asia, on the Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, are declining in large parts of the global range. In Hong Kong, Kuwait, Libya and most in Morocco, leopard populations have been extirpated. Contemporary records suggest. Leopards are hunted illegally, their body parts are smuggled in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration. Compared to other wild cats, the leopard has short legs and a long body with a large skull, its fur is marked with rosettes. It is similar in appearance to the jaguar, but has a smaller, lighter physique, its rosettes are smaller, more densely packed and without central spots. Both leopards and jaguars that are melanistic are known as black panthers; the leopard is distinguished by its well-camouflaged fur, opportunistic hunting behaviour, broad diet and its ability to adapt to a variety of habitats ranging from rainforest to steppe, including arid and montane areas.
It can run at speeds of up to 58 kilometres per hour. The earliest known leopard fossils excavated in Europe are estimated 600,000 years old, dating to the late Early Pleistocene. Leopard fossils were found in Japan; the common name'leopard' is derived from the Old English word'leuparz' used in the poem The Song of Roland written in the late 8th century. It is thought to be a Greek compound of λέων'leōn' meaning lion and πάρδος'pardos'; the word'panther' is derived from the Latin word'panther' and the ancient Greek πάνθηρ'pánthēr'. The phonetically similar sounding Sanskrit word पाण्डर'pând-ara' means'pale yellow, white'; the specific name pardus is derived from the Greek πάρδαλος'pardalos' meaning'spotted'. The leopard's skin colour varies between individuals from pale yellowish to dark golden with dark spots grouped in rosettes, its belly is whitish and its ringed tail shorter than its body. Its pupils are round. Leopards living in arid regions are pale cream, yellowish to ochraceous and rufous in colour.
Spots fade toward lower parts of the legs. Rosettes are circular in East African leopard populations, tend to be squarish in Southern African and larger in Asian leopard populations; the fur tends to be grayish in colder climates, dark golden in rain forest habitats. The pattern of the rosettes is unique in each individual, its fur is soft and thick, notably softer on the belly than on the back. It tends to grow longer in colder climates; the guard hairs protecting the basal hairs are short, 3–4 mm in face and head, increase in length toward the flanks and the belly to about 25–30 mm. Juveniles have woolly fur, appear dark due to the densely arranged spots, its white-tipped tail is about 60–100 cm long, white underneath and with spots that form incomplete bands toward the tail's end. The leopard's rosettes differ from those of the jaguar, which are darker and with smaller spots inside; the cheetah has small round spots without any rosettes. The leopard is sexually dimorphic, males are heavier than females.
It is muscular, with short limbs and a broad head. Males stand 60 -- 70 cm at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is between 90 and 190 cm. While males weigh 37–90 kg, females weigh 28–60 kg; these measurements vary geographically. Leopards are larger in areas where they are at the top of the food chain, without competitive restriction from larger predators such as the lion and tiger. Alfred Edward Pease accounted to have seen leopards in North Africa nearly as large as Barbary lions. In 1913, an Algerian newspaper reported of a leopard killed that measured about 275 cm. To compare, male lions measure 266–311 cm from head to end of tail; the maximum weight of a leopard is about 96 kg, recorded in Southern Africa. It was matched by an Indian leopard killed in Himachal Pradesh in 2016. Melanistic leopards are called black panthers. Melanism in leopards is inherited as a recessive trait to the spotted form. Interbreeding in melanistic leopards produces a smaller litter size than is produced by normal pairings.
The black panther is common in the equatorial rainforest of the Malay Peninsula and the tropical rainforest on the slopes of some African mountains such as Mount Kenya. Between January 1996 and March 2009, Indochinese leopards were photographed at 16 sites in the Malay Peninsula in a sampling effort of more than 1,000 camera trap nights. Of the 445 photographs of melanistic leopards, 410 were taken in study sites south of the Kra Isthmus, where the non-melanistic morph was never photographed; these data indicate the near fixation of the dark allele in the region. The expected time for the fixation of this recessive allele due to genetic drift alone ranged from about 1,100 years to about 100,000 years. Pseudomelanist leopards have been reported. In India, nine pale and white leopards were reported between 1905 and 1967. Leopards exhibiting erythrism were recorded between 1990 and 2015 in South Africa's Madikwe Game Reserve and in Mpumalanga; the cause of this morph known as'strawberry' leopard or'pink panther', is not well understood.
Felis pardus was the scientific na
Glendale, Salt Lake City
Glendale is a neighborhood on the West side of Salt Lake City, Utah. Glendale is South of the Rose Park, Fair Park, Poplar Grove neighborhoods; the neighborhood was developed as Glendale Gardens, where Glendale Middle School derives its name. Mountain View Elementary was named Glendale Elementary. Glendale, neighboring Poplar Grove, Fair Park, & Rose Park enjoy a vibrant multi ethnic environment. Residents of Glendale enjoy the community's diversity, pride in community, authenticity of fellow residents; those who live in Glendale cite it as affordable, conveniently close to local schools, the airport, downtown Salt Lake City. The Glendale neighborhood is the area west of Interstate 15 to the western Salt Lake City boundary. Glendale's southern edge borders the City of South Salt Lake at SR-201 and extends North to 950 S. North of Glendale is Poplar Grove. Both neighborhoods make up most of zip code 84104 and are within Salt Lake City Council District 2; some of the first homesteaders to settle in what is now the Glendale neighborhood were the George Q.
Cannon family. The George Q. and Caroline Cannon House is a Victorian-style brick house at 1354 South and 1000 West and was built in 1876. There are maps, property descriptions, paintings documenting the development of this area. On May 31, 1896, the Latter-day Saint Cannon Ward was established by members of the Cannon family, serving the area between 600 West to the west, Redwood Road to the east, Indiana Avenue to the north, 2700 South to the south; as of December 31, 1900, the Cannon Ward contained 61 families consisting of 331 people, 81 of which were children. In the 1890s several industries were established near the northeast corner of what is now Glendale, including a brickyard, biscuit factory, salt works, soup factory. In the early 20th century, railroad tracks bisected Salt Lake City. Industry and rail works isolated residential areas of the west side of Salt Lake City; the isolation and proximity to industry caused the residential areas to become working-class neighborhoods. Before the 1930s, Salt Lake City was polluted, having hazy air, the Jordan River was used a sewage disposal canal, making it a less desirable place to live near.
There are several houses on the east side of the Jordan River on present day California Avenue that were built prior to 1930. Based on aerial photography, a significant amount of residential development occurred in the Glendale neighborhood from 1937 to 1958, coincident with the post-World War II expansion; the first major subdivisions built in Glendale were built in early 1950s. The early subdivisions were part of the Glendale Gardens housing project, built to accommodate a large influx of families moving to Utah for the war effort, associated with the relocation of the Ninth Service Command to Fort Douglas, Utah; the area south of California Avenue, east of 1200 West, west of the Jordan River, was developed from 1947 to 1952. The area north of California Avenue and south of Glendale Drive was developed at this time; the main development in the western, industrial part of Glendale was the Utah Ordnance Plant. This area was operated by the Remington Corporation. In 1941, several buildings were constructed within the Utah Ordnance Plant area for the purpose of producing World War II ammunition.
The Utah Ordnance Plant was in operation from 1942 to 1943 and was in standby from 1944 to 1946. The area was decommissioned and sold after 1946; the Glendale area continued to develop to its present status. Most of the present apartment complexes were built during this time. ISalt Lake County worked with the Utah division of Parks to establish the Jordan River Parkway during this time. Of the 7601 acres of zoned land within Glendale's boundaries, 7.5% is commercial, 56.7% is manufacturing/industrial, 28.8% is special purpose, 7% is residential. As of 2010, Glendale has a population of 9962 people living in 2751 houses; the preliminary West Salt Lake City master plan outlines many improvements for the west side of Salt Lake City, including improvements to the area's entrances, upholding property maintenance standards, improving bicycle access, improving the appearance of roads in the neighborhoods. Bordering the north extent of the Glendale neighborhood, the 9 Line Trail is a new trail network connecting West Salt Lake City to the rest of the city.
Demand for real estate in the Glendale area, as of 2012 is above average for the U. S. and may signal increase in value of the area. Glendale is a neighborhood full of diversity. There are more than 25 different languages spoken in Glendale. Glendale Middle School Mountain View Elementary School Dual Immersion Academy Parkview Elementary School Riley Elementary School Glendale has 10 parks, totaling about 88 acres: 17th South River Park Bend-In-The-River Glendale Circle Glendale Park International Peace Gardens Jordan Park Jordan River Parkway Modesto Park Nelli Jack Park Weseman ParkMost of Glendale's parks, with the exceptions of Glendale Circle and Nelli Jack parks, are adjacent to the Jordan River; the International Peace Gardens park was conceived in 1939, dedicated in 1952, has areas dedicated to 27 different countries. Jordan Park is West Salt Lake's largest park and hosts the People's Market, a weekly market inspired by Kyle LaMalfa where locals can buy and sell a variety of items; the Jordan River Parkway connects several west Salt Lake City neighborhoods, the Jordan River is considered an important asset to many of West Salt Lake's citizens.
Glendale has an 18-hole municipal golf course. Glendale contains several
West High School (Utah)
West High School is the oldest public high school in the U. S. state of Utah. It was founded in 1890, it is part of the Salt Lake City School District, its original name was Salt Lake High. The school colors are red and black and the school mascot is a panther, it has a current enrollment of 2,840. West High is located in close to downtown, at 241 North 300 West; the historical structure still functions as the school's main building, has undergone major restorations. It is surrounded by newer buildings, the newly updated stadium. West High is accessible because it is three blocks away from the UTA TRAX line and close to the Gateway Mall. Several films have been filmed at West High and it has been noted in the History Channel's Gangland TV series. West High students participate at state tournaments in the following sports, according to the season: Fall sports: cross country, boys' golf, tennis, volleyball Winter sports: basketball, wrestling, swimming Spring sports: lacrosse, soccer, tennis, girls' golfWest High has won 21 state football championships 1898-1992 and hold many records in football.
Many players and coaches have gone on to major sports programs. West's boys' basketball team beat Provo high school in the 2009 state championship game, ending Provo's 40 game win streak and earning West High its first championship since 1975. Nathan Chen, figure skater Clayton Christensen, Harvard Business School professor and bestselling author Tony Finau, PGA golfer Shannon Hale, Class of 1992, young adult author Earl Holding owner of Sinclair Oil Larry H. Miller, prominent businessman, former owner of the Utah Jazz Thomas S. Monson, former president of the LDS Church Dick Nemelka, former ABA basketball player Gordon Rhodes, former Major League Baseball player Aldo Richins, football player Harold W. Ross, founder of The New Yorker magazine George Von Elm, prominent golfer in 1920s and 1930s Dan Wells and young adult author Robison Wells, young adult author D. Frank Wilkins, Utah Supreme Court Justice Mark Willes, CEO of the LA Times and General Mills List of high schools in Utah List of school districts in Utah West High School official website
Salt Lake Community College
Salt Lake Community College is Utah's largest two-year college with the most diverse student body. It serves more than 60,000 students on 10 campuses as well as through online classes; the college has a student to faculty ratio of 20:1. Since SLCC is a community college, it focuses on providing associate degrees that students can transfer to any other four-year university in the state to satisfy their first two years of requirements for a bachelor's degree. SLCC has open enrollment and serves the local community, with 95% of the student body considered Utah residents. Although the college does not offer four-year degrees directly, school officials work with the state's other institutions of higher learning to create partnerships between different schools and ensure that credits are transferable. Salt Lake Community College has partnered with selected four-year institutions to provide opportunities for students to complete a bachelor's degree while remaining on one of SLCC campuses. General education credits may be transferred to any four-year school in Utah including the University of Utah, Utah State University, Utah Valley University as well as private schools such as Brigham Young University and Westminster College.
Located at 4600 South Redwood Road in Taylorsville, the Taylorsville Redwood Campus is the primary campus and harbors the school's student center and main offices. Serving over 15,000 students a year, the campus is spread across two city blocks in twelve academic buildings, housing a library, athletic facilities, an amphitheater, a student union. Anime Banzai and Anime Salt Lake, which are two different anime conventions, were both held at the Taylorsville Redwood campus; the Rocky Mountain Revue, a pre-season basketball tournament sponsored by the NBA's Utah Jazz, was hosted in the Lifetime Activities Center until 2008. The arena has hosted professional basketball teams over the years, including the Utah Snowbears, the Salt Lake Dream, the Utah Eagles, the Salt Lake City Stars Located at 1575 South State Street in Salt Lake City, the South City Campus occupies the former home of South High School; the campus houses classrooms and the Grand Theatre, home of the Grand Theatre Foundation and Community Institute.
The Grand Theatre facility includes the Historic Fashion Collection, some 1,900 costumes ranging from 1890s to the present. South City Campus added the Center for Arts and Media Building in 2013, thanks to grants from the State of Utah and several community partners including the George S. & Delores Doré Eccles Foundation and Adobe. This addition provides classroom and work space for 17 programs in the School of Arts and Communication, serving 9,000 students. Located at 3491 West 9000 South in West Jordan, the Jordan Campus is SLCC's third full-service campus, it houses a library, food court, financial aid, a dental clinic for the dental hygienist program, academic advising offices, Cate Field. College plans call for the Jordan Campus to become the largest and main campus by 2020; the nursing program opened at the campus by 2007 in a five-story Health Science building. A UTA TRAX station is planned near the college. Other non-college buildings on the campus include the Jordan School District applied technology center, Itineris Charter School built by Bill Gates, an LDS Institute of Religion.
The Miller Campus, opened in 2001, was donated to SLCC by Larry H. Miller, owner of the Utah Jazz and the Salt Lake Bees, it is home to SLCC’s Culinary Institute, Continuing Education programs such as legal secretary, digital media technology, real estate appraisal and public safety/criminal justice. The Miller Business Resource Center offers four corporate training programs and The Miller Business Innovation Center helps startup companies with operational and educational services. Training facilities for the Utah Department of Public Safety on the campus include: Highway Patrol training, DPS development education center, the Utah POST academy, the Department of Corrections training academy; the Meadowbrook Campus is home to general education courses, several vocational and School of Applied Technology programs including: Diesel Systems Technology. In September 2014, The Utah Board of Regents named Deneece Huftalin as the SLCC President, she served as Vice-President of Student Services. She replaced Cynthia Bioteau.
The Thayne Center is a non-profit organization established in 1994 to coordinate a variety of service-related programs for SLCC. The college provides the bulk of the Center's budget. SLCC offers over 200 degree and certificate programs in academic and vocational fields, it is accredited by the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges, many credits are transferable to the state's four-year colleges. More SLCC graduates attend the University of Utah than graduates of any other institution of higher learning; the SLCC Bruins have competed in the National Junior College Athletic Association since 1985. The school fields men's teams in baseball and soccer, women's teams in basketball, softball and soccer; the Bruins have produced 54 NJCAA All-American athletes since 1985, has produced 513 Academic All-Region honorees and 192 Academic All-Americans. The men's basketball program advanced to the NJCAA championship game in 2008; the following season, the Bruins returned to the title game, this time defeating Midland College to claim the first national championship in school history.
The Bruins retur
Downtown Salt Lake City
Downtown is the oldest district in Salt Lake City, Utah. The grid from which the entire city is laid out originates at Temple Square, the location of the Salt Lake Temple. Downtown Salt Lake City is defined as the area between North Temple and 400 South Streets north to south and about 500 East and 600 West Streets east to west. Downtown encompasses the areas of Temple Square, The Gateway, Main Street, the central business district, South Temple, others. Along with local and state government and non profits, two primary business organizations - the Salt Lake Chamber and the Downtown Alliance promote Salt Lake CIty's downtown as the heart of the state, as its most lively and diverse locale. Downtown's layout was first planned in 1833. Joseph Smith designed the Plat of Zion, a plan for cities of 20,000 people each that followed city blocks with self-sufficient family farms surrounding several temples in the center. Smith meant for this plan to be applied to the City of Zion in the Midwestern United States, but following persecution and Smith's assassination, the plans were carried westward by the Mormon pioneers.
Downtown Salt Lake began to form in 1847 when Brigham Young chose the site of the Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, forming the core of the settlement. Temple Square became the center of the grid system, bounded by South Temple, West Temple, North Temple, East Temple Streets. Streets are named according to their distance and direction from the southeast corner of Temple Square. East Temple was popularly known as Main Street, was renamed sometime in the late 19th century, it has been the commercial center of the city. The early Mormon pioneers, who settled in Salt Lake City, adopted a form of consecration whereby crops grown and products produced were divided among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in local congregations; this enabled new settlers to have the food and products they needed after they made the rigorous journey to Salt Lake City. This exchange was organized into what would become Zions Cooperative Mercantile Institution.
The first businesses to locate on Main Street were those founded by James A. Livingston and Charles A. Kincade, in 1850, in the area south of the Council House, being built on the corner of Main and South Temple Streets; the Mormon pioneers lived a secluded existence in the remote Salt Lake Valley for the first 20 years of settlement. However, in 1865 U. S. troops stationed in Park City announced it to the world. With this announcement, an new element began streaming into Salt Lake City. Prospectors changed the downtown district. In accommodation of the new crowd, many of the Main Street businesses were saloons, earning the street the nickname "Whiskey Street". For many years, there existed a cultural divide in Salt Lake City. Mormons would shop and congregate around the Salt Lake Temple, the Gardens at Temple Square and ZCMI on the north-end of Main Street, those who were not members of the church, who were prospectors in the early days, would stay south of the predominantly Mormon area; the business district extended along the west side of Main between South Temple and 100 South.
By the 1880s, the area had expanded to both sides of the street and down to 200 South, increased about a block a decade, until 1900, when it reached 400 South. Today, the southern limit of downtown Salt Lake City is considered 900 South. From 1870 to the 1930s, Commercial Street was Salt Lake's notorious red light district. Prostitution was begrudgingly tolerated as long as it was confined to Commercial Street, thus kept out of the public eye. In the late 1880s, the trade was unofficially licensed. Police would ""fine" them $50 each. After a physical examination, they would be released and allowed to ply their trade without any further fear of molestation. Many notable Salt Lakers owned buildings on Commercial Street, including the Brigham Young Trust Company, whose board included many prominent members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Brigham Young, Jr. a church Apostle and vice president of the bank, temporarily resigned over the matter, until the building was sold. After World War II, many people could afford to move out of downtown into the suburbs.
By 1971, 60% of the homes in downtown Salt Lake City were in major disrepair. Starting in the 1960s, revitalization efforts began, spearheaded by the LDS Church, who had always considered downtown their home. During the'70s, they built the ZCMI Center Mall on a full city block of land that had housed the ZCMI department store, preserving the historic storefront; the Church leased land to a developer to build Crossroads Mall. The land for the mall housed the Amussen Jewelry building, at the time Salt Lake City's oldest building. A study commissioned by the city found it to be Salt Lake City's most architecturally significant building, efforts to preserve it were underway. However, before the building could be saved, it was torn down to make way for the mall. Built during this era was the LDS Church Office Building, completed in 1973, which at that time was Salt Lake's tallest building at 28 floors. However, this was surpassed in 1999 by the American Stores Tower. Although it has fewer floors, it is taller than the Church Office Building by two feet, although the Church Office Building appears taller because it is l