Salt Point State Park
Salt Point State Park is a state park in Sonoma County, United States. The park features the first underwater preserves in California, the constant impact of the waves forms the rocks into many different shapes. These rocks continue underwater providing a variety of habitats for marine organisms. The activities at Salt Point include hiking, fishing, scuba diving, the weather is cool with fog and cold winds even during the summer. The rocks of Salt Point are sedimentary sandstone, due to the large amounts of sandstone, small cave-like features called tafoni can be found along the shore of Salt Point. This park is named for the formation of crystals in the cracks. The native Kashaya Pomo collected salt from this area for many years and they used abalone chisels to scrape the salt off the rocks. In 1853, Samuel Duncan and Joshua Hendy built a sawmill on a ridge located above Salt Point, a couple of years they leased the land to a San Francisco company which quarried the sandstone. They used the sandstone to create the streets and buildings in San Francisco along with the facility at Mare Island.
It is possible to see drill holes in the sandstone at Gerstle Cove, in 1870, Duncan sold his property to Frederick Funcke and Lewis Gerstle. They shipped 5,000 cords of wood yearly and used most of the land to graze their cattle, the eyebolts used to anchor ships down are still visible at Gerstle cove. This is where sandstone and wood were loaded onto cargo ships, at first, they used wire cables anchored to the cliff side to load wood and stone onto the ships. Two chutes were eventually made, the Miller chute and the Funcke & Co. chute, there was a horse-drawn railroad that lead from the Miller sawmills to where the boats were loaded. The sawmill had a capacity of 18,000 board feet. Brush and grasslands cover the ground on the terraces, at higher elevations Douglas fir forest dominates. At slightly higher levels, a mixed fir forest of bishop pine and Douglas-fir is present intermixed with second growth coast redwood, madrones. At 1,000 feet there is an open prairie where animals such as elk previously grazed.
In addition, at an elevation of about 550 feet within Salt Point State Park is a pygmy forest including the Mendocino cypress, bishop pine and Arctostaphylos
Abalone is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae. Other common names are ear shells, sea ears, and muttonfish or muttonshells in Australia, ormer in Great Britain, perlemoen in South Africa and their taxonomy puts them in the family Haliotidae which contains only one genus, which once contained six subgenera. These subgenera have become alternate representations of Haliotis, the number of species recognized worldwide ranges between 30 and 130 with over 230 species-level taxa described. The most comprehensive treatment of the family considers 56 species valid, the shells of abalones have a low, open spiral structure, and are characterized by several open respiratory pores in a row near the shells outer edge. The flesh of abalones is widely considered to be a desirable food, Abalone vary in size from 20 millimetres to 200 millimetres while Haliotis rufescens is the largest of the genus at 12 inches. The shell of abalones is convex, rounded to oval in shape, the shell of the majority of species has a small, flat spire and two to three whorls.
The last whorl, known as the whorl, is auriform, meaning that the shell resembles an ear. Haliotis asinina has a different shape, as it is more elongated and distended. The shell of Haliotis cracherodii cracherodii is unusual as it has a form, is imperforate, shows an exserted spire. A mantle cleft in the shell impresses a groove in the shell and these holes are respiratory apertures for venting water from the gills and for releasing sperm and eggs into the water column. They make up what is known as the selenizone which forms as the shell grows and this series of 8 to 38 holes is near the anterior margin. Only a small number are generally open, the older holes are gradually sealed up as the shell grows and new holes form. Each species has a number of open holes, between four and ten, in the selenizone. The aperture of the shell is wide and nacreous. The exterior of the shell is striated and dull, the color of the shell is very variable from species to species which may reflect the animals diet.
The iridescent nacre that lines the inside of the shell varies in color from white, to pink and green-red to deep blue. The animal has fimbriated head-lobes and side-lobes which are fimbriated and cirrated, the radula has small median teeth, and the lateral teeth are single and beam-like. There are about 70 uncini, with denticulated hooks, the first four very large, the rounded foot is very large in comparison to most molluscs
Marine protected area
Marine protected areas are protected areas of seas, estuaries or large lakes. MPAs restrict human activity for a purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. Such marine resources are protected by local, territorial, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations, MPAs provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish.55 million km2 in the Ross Sea. MPA is a term for protected areas that includes some area of marine landscape and/or biodiversity. Several types of compliant MPA can be distinguished, A totally marine area with no significant terrestrial parts, an area containing both marine and terrestrial components, which can vary between two extremes, those that are predominantly maritime with little land, or that is mostly terrestrial.
Marine ecosystems that contain land and intertidal components only, for example, a mangrove forest would contain no open sea or ocean marine environment, but its river-like marine ecosystem nevertheless complies with the definition. IUCN offered seven categories of protected area, based on management objectives, related protected area categories include the following, World Heritage Site – an area exhibiting extensive natural or cultural history. Maritime areas are represented, with only 46 out of over 800 sites. Man and the Biosphere – UNESCO program that promotes a relationship between humans and the biosphere. Under article 4, biosphere reserves must encompass a mosaic of ecological systems, in structure they are similar to Multiple-use MPAs, with a core area ringed by different degrees of protection. Ramsar site – must meet criteria for the definition of Wetland to become part of a global system. These sites do not necessarily receive protection, but are indexed by importance for recommendation to an agency that could designate it a protected area.
While area refers to a single location, terms such as network, system. At the 2004 Convention on Biological Diversity, the agreed to use network on a global level. The network is a mechanism to establish regional and local systems, no take zones, are areas designated in a number of the worlds MPAs, where all forms of exploitation are prohibited and severely limits human activities. These no take zones can cover an entire MPA, or specific portions, for example, the 1,150,000 square kilometres Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, the worlds largest MPA, is a 100% no take zone
Channel Islands (California)
The Channel Islands of California are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, the islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were displaced by European settlers who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U. S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, the Channel Islands and the surrounding waters house a diverse ecosystem with many endemic species and subspecies. Eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties, Santa Barbara County, Ventura County, and Los Angeles County, the islands are divided into two groups, the northern Channel Islands and the southern Channel Islands. The four northern Islands used to be a single known as Santa Rosae. The archipelago extends for 160 miles between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south, the islands’ land area totals 221,331 acres, or about 346 square miles.
Five of the islands were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980, the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles off Anacapa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Barbara islands. Santa Catalina Island is the one of the eight islands with a significant permanent civilian settlement—the resort city of Avalon, California. Natural seepage of oil occurs at places in the Santa Barbara Channel. Tar balls or pieces of tar in small numbers are found in the kelp, Native Americans used naturally occurring tar, for a variety of purposes which include roofing, waterproofing and some ceremonial purposes. The Channel Islands at low elevations are virtually frost-free and constitute one of the few areas in the 48 contiguous US states. It snows only rarely, on mountain peaks. Separated from the California mainland throughout recent geological history, the Channel Islands provide the earliest evidence for seafaring in the Americas. It is the site of the discovery of the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America, the northern Channel Islands are now known to have been settled by maritime Paleo Indian peoples at least 13,000 years ago.
Archaeological sites on the island provide a unique and invaluable record of human interaction with Channel Island marine, the northern islands were occupied by the island Chumash, while the southern islands were occupied by the Tongva. Author Scott ODell wrote about the peoples living on the island in his novel Island of the Blue Dolphins. Aleut hunters visited the islands to hunt otters in the early 1800s, the Aleuts purportedly clashed with the native Chumash, killing many over trading disputes. Aleut interactions with the natives were detailed in ODells book, the Chumash and Tongva were removed from the islands in the early 19th century, taken to Spanish missions and pueblos on the adjacent mainland
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Sonoma County, California
Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878 and its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is located to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County and it is west of Napa County and Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is the northwestern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which includes Napa, Mendocino. It possesses thirteen approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries, in 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. More than 7.4 million tourists each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College, Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use, Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit largely divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007, grapes and pasturage.
The voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, and other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland. The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County and this settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento. The Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo.
The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846, Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat originally the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, the town of Sonoma had declined in importance in terms of commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, and it was relatively remote. As a result, elements in the newer, rapidly growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, the dispute ultimately was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa. Allegedly, several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, some of the countys land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860
Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikivoyage has been called the Wikipedia of travel guides, the resulting site went live as Wikivoyage on December 10,2006 and was owned and operated by a German association set up for that purpose, Wikivoyage e. V. Content was published under the copyleft license Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike, in 2012, following a lengthy history of dissatisfaction with their existing host, the English-language version community of Wikitravel decided as a community to fork their project. Using a wiki model, Wikivoyage is built through collaboration of Wikivoyagers from around the globe, articles can cover different levels of geographic specificity, from continents to districts of a city. These are logically connected in a hierarchy, by specifying that the location covered in one article is within the location described by another.
The project includes articles on travel-related topics, phrasebooks for travelers, Wikivoyage is a multilingual project available in nine languages, with each language-specific project developed independently. While now a Wikimedia project, it was begun independently, Wikivoyage content is broadly categorized as, itineraries and travel topics. Geographical units within the hierarchy may be described in articles, based on the criterion. Itineraries may cross geographical regions, but usually have a well-defined path, a phrasebook includes, An overview of the language, giving a brief history, alphabet or symbol set, and any other general info on the language. A pronunciation guide, with a description of each symbol in the language. Each entry in the phrase list includes the word or phrase being translated, the spelling in the local language symbol set as it would be written down. Wikivoyage uses the free MediaWiki software to allow internet-based editing without requiring registration, quality assurance occurs in the same way as on Wikipedia, through reciprocal control by editors.
The use of the software is intended to facilitate familiarization with Wikivoyage. Wikivoyage uses the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license, but not the GNU free documentation license and this is intended to facilitate the production of printed guides from a legal point of view. Media files are intended to be published either in the domain or under multiple licenses. The information is built up in a structured way than usual for encyclopaedias. In the German-language version, different name spaces are used to different topics
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods