A film poster is a poster used to promote and advertise a film. Studios often print several posters that vary in size and content for various domestic and they normally contain an image with text. Todays posters often feature photographs of the main actors, prior to the 1990s, illustrations instead of photos were far more common. The text on film posters usually contains the title in large lettering. It may also include a tagline, the name of the director, names of characters, film posters are displayed inside and on the outside of movie theaters, and elsewhere on the street or in shops. The same images appear in the film exhibitors pressbook and may also be used on websites, DVD packaging, flyers, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, film posters have been used since the earliest public exhibitions of film. They began as outside placards listing the programme of films to be shown inside the hall or movie theater, by the early 1900s, they began to feature illustrations of a film scene or an array of overlaid images from several scenes. Other posters have used artistic interpretations of a scene or even the theme of the film, as an economy measure, the NSS regularly recycled posters that were returned, sending them back out to be used again at another theater. During this time, a film could stay in circulation for several years and those posters which were not returned were often thrown away by the theater owner, but some found their way into the hands of collectors. Today there is a thriving market in film posters, some have become very valuable. The record price for a poster was set on November 15,2005 when $690,000 was paid for a poster of Fritz Langs 1927 film Metropolis from the Reel Poster Gallery in London. The 1931 Frankenstein six-sheet poster, of only one copy is known to exist, is considered to be the most valuable film poster in the world. Over the years, old Bollywood posters, especially with hand-painted art, have become collectors items, occasionally, rare film posters have been found being used as insulation in attics and walls. In 2011,33 film posters, including a Dracula Style F one-sheet, from 1930-1931 were discovered in an attic in Berwick, Pennsylvania, as a result of market demand, some of the more popular older film posters have been reproduced either under license or illegally. Although the artwork on reproductions is the same as originals, reproductions can often be distinguished by size, printing quality, several websites on the Internet offer authentication tests to distinguish originals from reproductions. Original film posters distributed to theaters and other venues by the movie studios are never sold directly to the public. However, most modern posters are produced in quantities and often become available for purchase by collectors indirectly through various secondary markets such as eBay. Accordingly, most modern posters are not as valuable, however some recent posters, such as the recalled Pulp Fiction Lucky Strike U. S. one sheet poster, are quite rare
Sammy Davis Jr.
Samuel George Sammy Davis Jr. was an American entertainer. Primarily a dancer and singer, he was also an actor of stage and screen, comedian, musician, at the age of 3, Davis began his career in vaudeville with his father and Will Mastin as the Will Mastin Trio, which toured nationally. After military service, Davis returned to the trio, Davis became an overnight sensation following a nightclub performance at Ciros after the 1951 Academy Awards. With the trio, he became a recording artist, in 1954, he lost his left eye in a car accident, and several years later, he converted to Judaism. Daviss film career began as a child in 1933, in 1960, he appeared in the Rat Pack film Oceans 11. After a starring role on Broadway in 1956s Mr Wonderful, he returned to the stage in 1964s Golden Boy, in 1966 he had his own TV variety show, titled The Sammy Davis Jr. Show. Daviss career slowed in the late 1960s, but he had a hit record with The Candy Man in 1972 and became a star in Las Vegas, earning him the nickname Mister Show Business. Davis was a victim of racism throughout his life, particularly during the pre-Civil Rights era, Davis had a complex relationship with the black community, and drew criticism after publicly supporting President Richard Nixon in 1972. One day on a course with Jack Benny, he was asked what his handicap was. This was to become a comment, recounted in his autobiography. After reuniting with Sinatra and Dean Martin in 1987, Davis toured with them and Liza Minnelli internationally and he died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, and his estate was the subject of legal battles. Davis was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award and he was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 1987, and in 2001, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. During his lifetime, Davis stated that his mother was Puerto Rican, as an infant, he was reared by his paternal grandmother. When he was 3 years old, his parents separated and his father, not wanting to lose custody of his son, took him on tour. Davis learned to dance from his father and his uncle Will Mastin, Davis joined the act as a child and they became the Will Mastin Trio. Throughout his career, Davis included the Will Mastin Trio in his billing, Mastin and his father shielded him from racism. Snubs were explained as jealousy, for instance, when Davis served in the United States Army during World War II, however, he was confronted by strong racial prejudice. He later said, Overnight the world looked different and it wasnt one color any more
Peter Sydney Ernest Lawford was a British actor who lived in the United States throughout his adult life. He was a member of the Rat Pack and brother-in-law to President John F. Kennedy, in later years he was noted more for his off-screen activities as a celebrity than for his acting. From the 1940s to the 1960s, he had a presence in popular culture. Born in London in 1923, he was the child of Lieutenant General Sir Sydney Turing Barlow Lawford, KBE. At the time of Peters birth, however, his mother was married to Dr. Capt. Ernest Vaughn Aylen, one of Sir Sydneys officers, at the time, May and Ernest Aylen were living apart. May confessed to Aylen that the child was not his, a revelation that resulted in a double divorce, Sir Sydney and May then wed in September 1924 after their divorces were finalised and when their son was one year old. Lawfords family was connected to the English aristocracy through his uncle Ernest Lawfords wife as well as his aunt Ethel Turner Lawford. His aunt Jessie Bruce Lawford, another of his fathers sisters, was the wife of the Hon Hartley Williams. A relative, through his mother, was Australian artist Rupert Bunny and he spent his early childhood in France and, owing to his familys travels, was never formally educated. Instead, he was schooled by governesses and tutors, and his education included tennis, in the beginning, his mother observed, he had no homework. When he was older he had Spanish, German and music added to his studies and he read only selected books—English fairy stories, English and French classics, no crime stories. Having studied Peter for so long, I decided he was unfitted for any career except art, so I cut Latin, Algebra, high mathematics. Around 1930, aged seven, he made his debut in the English film Poor Old Bill. At the age of 14, Lawford severely injured his arm in an accident when it went through a glass door. The injury greatly compromised the use of his arm and hand with irreversible nerve damage. The injury was judged to be enough to prevent his entrance into the armed forces. Instead, Lawford decided to pursue a career as an actor, prior to the Second World War, Lawford had gained a contract position with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. Once he signed with MGM, his mother insisted that studio head Louis B. Mayer pay her a salary as her sons personal assistant, Lady Lawford responded by claiming her son was a bummer and needed to be supervised
John Le Mesurier
John Le Mesurier was an English actor. He is perhaps best remembered for his role as Sergeant Wilson in the BBC television situation comedy Dads Army. A self-confessed jobbing actor, Le Mesurier appeared in more than 120 films across a range of genres, Le Mesurier became interested in the stage as a young adult and enrolled at the Fay Compton Studio of Dramatic Art in 1933. From there he took a position in repertory theatre and made his debut in September 1934 at the Palladium Theatre in Edinburgh in the J. B. He later accepted an offer to work with Alec Guinness in a John Gielgud production of Hamlet and he first appeared on television in 1938 as Seigneur de Miolans in the BBC broadcast of The Marvellous History of St Bernard. During the Second World War Le Mesurier was posted to British India and he returned to acting and made his film debut in 1948, starring in the second feature comedy short Death in the Hand, opposite Esme Percy and Ernest Jay. He undertook a number of roles on television in 1951 including Educating Archie alongside Tony Hancock, Le Mesurier had a prolific film career, appearing mostly in comedies, usually in roles portraying figures of authority such as army officers, policemen and judges. As well as Hancocks Half Hour, Le Mesurier appeared in Hancocks two principal films, The Rebel and The Punch and Judy Man. He took an approach to acting and felt that his parts were those of a decent chap all at sea in a chaotic world not of his own making. Le Mesurier was married three times, most notably to the actress Hattie Jacques, a heavy drinker of alcohol for most of his life, Le Mesurier died in 1983, aged 71, from a stomach haemorrhage, brought about by a complication of cirrhosis of the liver. After his death, critics reflected that, for an actor who took minor roles. Le Mesurier was born John Elton Le Mesurier Halliley, in Bedford on 5 April 1912, while John was an infant the family settled in Bury St Edmunds, in West Suffolk. He was sent to school, first to Grenham House in Kent, Le Mesurier disliked both schools intensely, citing insensitive teaching methods and an inability to accept individualism. These experiences fuelled an early desire to make a career on the stage, Le Mesurier received a Certificate of Fellowship, while Guinness won the Fay Compton prize. After the revue, rather remain at the studio for further tuition Le Mesurier took an opportunity to join the Edinburgh-based Millicent Ward Repertory Players at a salary of £3. 10s a week. Under his birth name John Halliley, Le Mesurier made his debut in September 1934 at the Palladium Theatre in Edinburgh in the J. B. Priestley play Dangerous Corner, along three other newcomers to the company. The reviewer for The Scotsman thought that Le Mesurier was well cast in the role, appearances in While Parents Sleep and Cavalcade were followed by a break, as problems arose with the lease of the theatre
Jerry Lewis AM is an American actor, comedian, singer, film producer, film director, screenwriter and humanitarian. He is known for his humor in film, television, stage. He and Dean Martin were partners as the hit popular comedy duo of Martin, following that success, he was a solo star in motion pictures, nightclubs, television shows, concerts, album recordings, and musicals. Lewis served as chairman of the Muscular Dystrophy Association and hosted the live Labor Day broadcast of the Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon for 44 years. Lewis was born on March 16,1926 in Newark, New Jersey to Russian Jewish parents and his father, Daniel Levitch, was a master of ceremonies and vaudeville entertainer who used the professional name Danny Lewis. His mother, Rachel Levitch, was a player for a radio station. Lewis started performing at age five and would perform alongside his parents in the Catskill Mountains in New York State. By 15, he had developed his Record Act in which he exaggeratedly mimed the lyrics to songs on a phonograph and he used the professional name Joey Lewis but soon changed it to Jerry Lewis to avoid confusion with comedian Joe E. Lewis and heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis. Lewis then dropped out of Irvington High School in the tenth grade and he was a character even in his teenage years pulling pranks in his neighborhood including sneaking into kitchens to steal fried chicken and pies. During World War II, he was rejected for service because of a heart murmur. Lewis initially gained attention as part of an act with singer Dean Martin. The performers were different from most other acts of the time because they relied on their interaction instead of planned skits. They quickly rose to prominence, first with their popular nightclub act. The two men made many appearances on live television, their first on the June 20,1948. This was followed on October 3,1948, by an appearance on the NBC series Welcome Aboard, the duo began their Paramount film careers as ensemble players in My Friend Irma, based on the popular radio series of the same name. This was followed by a sequel My Friend Irma Goes West, All sixteen movies were produced by Hal B. Attesting the comedy teams popularity, DC Comics published the best-selling The Adventures of Dean Martin, in 1954, the boys appeared on episode 191 of Whats My Line. as mystery guests. As Martins roles in their films became less important over time the partnership came under strain, Martins participation became an embarrassment in 1954 when Look magazine used a publicity photo of the team for the magazine cover but cropped Martin out of the photo
United Artists is an American film and television entertainment studio. The studio was bought, sold and restructured over the ensuing century. On December 14 of the year, however, MGM acquired the 48% stake of UAMG it did not own. UA was incorporated as a joint venture on February 5,1919, by Pickford, Chaplin, Fairbanks, each held a 20% stake, with the remaining 20% held by lawyer William Gibbs McAdoo. The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford, already Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work. They were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over salaries and creative decisions. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out before anything was formalized, when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, is said to have observed, The inmates are taking over the asylum. The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company and its headquarters was established at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City. The original terms called for each of the stars to produce five pictures each year, UAs first film was a success. Without selling stock to the public, following the other studios, as a result, production was slow and the company distributed an annual average of five films during its first five years. By 1924 Griffith had dropped out and the company was facing a crisis, veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president. He had been producing pictures for a decade, and he brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, contracts were signed with independent producers, most notably Samuel Goldwyn, and Howard Hughes. In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name. They began international operations, first in Canada and then in Mexico, by the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries. When he was denied a share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox, al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including, Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, as the years passed, and the dynamics of the business changed, these producing partners drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to RKO, and Wanger to Universal Pictures, in the late 1930s, UA turned a profit