The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Kala namak is a kiln-fired rock salt used in South Asia with a sulphurous, pungent-smell. It is known as "Himalayan black salt", Sulemani namak, bit lobon, kala noon, or pada loon or in Bhojpuri "padaniya noon" and manufactured from the salts mined in the regions surrounding the Himalayas; the condiment is composed of sodium chloride with several other components lending the salt its colour and smell. The smell is due to its sulfur content; because of the presence of Greigite in the mineral, it forms brownish pink to dark violet translucent crystals when whole. When ground into a powder, its color ranges from purple to pink. Kala namak has been used for its perceived medical qualities; the raw material for producing kala namak was obtained from natural halite from mines in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan in certain locations of the Himalayas salt ranges, or from salt harvested from the North Indian salt lakes of Sambhar Salt Lake or Didwana and the Mustang District of Nepal. Traditionally, the salt was transformed from its colourless raw natural forms into the dark coloured commercially sold kala namak through a reductive chemical process that transforms some of the occurring sodium sulfate of the raw salt into pungent hydrogen sulfide and sodium sulfide.
This involves firing the raw salts in a kiln or furnace for 24 hours while sealed in a ceramic jar with charcoal along with small quantities of harad seeds, bahera, babul bark, or natron. The fired salt melts, the chemical reaction occurs, the salt is cooled and aged prior to sale. Kala namak is prepared in this manner in northern India with production concentrated in Hisar district, Haryana; the salt crystals appear black and are ground to a fine powder, pink. Although the kala namak can be produced from natural salts with the required compounds, it is common to now manufacture it synthetically; this is done through combining ordinary sodium chloride admixed with smaller quantities of sodium sulfate, sodium bisulfate and ferric sulfate, chemically reduced with charcoal in a furnace. It is possible to create similar products through reductive heat treatment of sodium chloride, 5–10% of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, some sugar. Kala namak consists of sodium chloride and trace impurities of sodium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, sodium bisulfite, sodium sulfide, iron sulfide and hydrogen sulfide.
Sodium chloride provides kala namak with its salty taste, iron sulfide provides its dark violet hue, all the sulfur compounds give kala namak its slight savory taste as well as a distinctive smell, with hydrogen sulfide being the most prominent contributor to the smell. The acidic bisulfates/bisulfites contribute a mildly sour taste. Although hydrogen sulfide is toxic in high concentrations, the amount present in kala namak used in food is small and thus its effects on health are negligible. Hydrogen sulfide is one of the components of the odor of rotten eggs and boiled milk. Kala namak is used extensively in South Asian cuisines of Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan as a condiment or added to chaats, salads, all kinds of fruits and many other savory Indian snacks. Chaat masala, an Indian spice blend, is dependent upon black salt for its characteristic sulfurous hard-boiled-egg aroma; those who are not accustomed to black salt describe the smell as similar to rotten eggs. Kala namak is appreciated by some vegans in dishes.
It is used, to season tofu or avocado to mimic an egg salad or deviled eggs. Kala namak is used as a laxative and digestive aid, it is believed to relieve flatulence and heartburn. It is used in Jammu to cure goitres; this salt is used to treat hysteria and for making toothpastes by combining it with other mineral and plant ingredients. Black lava salt Himalayan salt
Seasoned salt is a blend of table salt, spices, other flavourings, sometimes monosodium glutamate. It is sold in supermarkets and is used in fish and chip shops and other take-away food shops. Seasoned salt is the standard seasoning on foods such as chicken, French fries, deep-fried seafood, potatoes; the seasoned salt industry in the United States sells $100 million USD in seasoned salt annually. According to the US Federal Trade Commission, two brands make up 80% of that market. Lawry's the oldest used "seasoned salt" in the US was developed for seasoning steaks in the 1930s. Season-All is the #2 Seasoned salt in the US by marketshare; the combined marketshare of Lawry's seasoned salt and Season-all was of sufficient concern that the FTC required McCormick, the former owner of the Season-all brand, to sell the Season-all brand to Morton as a condition of McCormick purchasing Lawry's seasonings in 2008. In Louisiana and the surrounding states, many companies make Cajun/Creole seasonings, it is a spicy blend of onion powder, garlic powder, oregano or thyme, salt and chili powder.
Among the brands include Tony Chachere's, Zatarain's, Slap Ya Mama, Paul Prudhomme, Emeril's. A celery salt based seasoned salt used on seafood. Invented in the 1970s in the English city of Hull and claimed to have been inspired by American seasonings, "chip spice" was introduced into the United Kingdom in the 1970s in Kingston upon Hull by the Spice Blender company. Chicken salt was developed in the 1970s to season chicken for rotisseries; the first recipe for chicken salt consisted of onion powder, garlic powder, celery salt, chicken bouillon and monosodium glutamate with some curry powder. Chicken salt is not related to the chicken flavouring or seasoning found on potato crisps, although it can be similar in appearance. There are versions of chicken salt. Ingredients vary by manufacturer. Common herbs and spices may include: Also, for an umami taste: Monosodium glutamate Soy sauce powder Bouillon cube List of edible salts Garlic salt Onion salt Celery salt
Himalayan salt is rock salt from Punjab, Pakistan. The salt has a pinkish tint due to mineral impurities, it is used as a food additive as table salt, but is used as a material for cooking and food presentation, decorative lamps, spa treatments. The salt has been claimed to provide numerous health benefits, but no scientific support exists for such claims. Himalayan salt is mined from the Salt Range mountains, the southern edge of a fold-and-thrust belt that underlies the Pothohar Plateau south of the Himalayas. Himalayan salt comes from a folded and stretched thick layer of Ediacaran to early Cambrian evaporites of the Salt Range Formation; this geological formation consists of crystalline halite intercalated with potash salts, overlayed by gypsiferous marl and interlayered beds of gypsum and dolomite with infrequent seams of oil shale. These strata and the overlying Cambrian to Eocene sedimentary rocks have been thrust southward over younger sedimentary rocks and eroded to create the Salt Range.
Although Himalayan salt is sometimes marketed as "Jurassic Sea Salt", this salt precipitated in subsiding rift basins along the edge of Gondwanaland much earlier, between 600 and 540 million years ago. The Jurassic period took place 145 to 199 million years ago; the first records of mining are from the Janjua people in the 1200s. Himalayan salt is mined at the Khewra Salt Mine in Khewra, Jhelum District, situated in the foothills of the Salt Range hill system in the Punjab province of the Pakistan to the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Himalayan salt is chemically similar to table salt; some salts mined in the Himalayas are not suitable for use as food or industrial use without purification due to impurities. Some salt crystals from this region have an off-white to transparent color, while impurities in some veins of salt give it a pink, reddish, or beet-red color. According to one estimate, Himalayan salt is 98% sodium chloride, with negligible levels of minerals such as magnesium and calcium. Himalayan salt is nutritionally similar to table salt, though it lacks the beneficial iodine added to commercial iodised table salt.
Himalayan salt is used to flavor food. It is recognized by its distinctive pink hue, which has led to a misconception that it is healthier than common table salt. There is no scientific evidence to support such assertions. Blocks of salt are used as serving dishes, baking stones, griddles. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration warned a manufacturer about marketing the salt as a dietary supplement with unproven claims of health benefits. Himalayan salt is used to make "salt lamps", wherein light bulbs are placed within hollowed blocks of Himalayan salt, that give off a pinkish hue. There is no evidence. Himalayan salt is used in spas, where it is used to line the walls of the chamber. There is no scientific evidence. List of edible salts Health effects of salt List of topics characterized as pseudoscience "Video: Himalayan Salt Cutting process". Folk Market via YouTube. 25 February 2015
Garlic salt is a seasoned salt made of a mixture of dried, ground garlic and table salt with an anti-caking agent. In its most basic form it is made by combining 3 parts salt and 1 part dried garlic powder by volume, or 6 parts salt and 1 part garlic powder by weight
The Salt March known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi, as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, repeatedly used force to stop it. The 24-day march lasted from 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930 as a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly, it gained worldwide attention which gave impetus to the Indian independence movement and started the nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement. Mahatma Gandhi started this march with 78 of his trusted volunteers. Walking ten miles a day for 24 days, the march spanned over 240 miles; the march was the most significant organised challenge to British authority since the Non-cooperation movement of 1920–22, directly followed the Purna Swaraj declaration of sovereignty and self-rule by the Indian National Congress on 26 January 1930.
Gandhi led the Dandi March from his base, Sabarmati Ashram, 240 miles to the coastal village of Dandi, at a small town called Navsari to produce salt without paying the tax, growing numbers of Indians joined them along the way. When Gandhi broke the salt laws at 6:30 am on 6 April 1930, it sparked large scale acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians; the campaign had a significant effect on changing world and British attitudes towards Indian sovereignty and self-rule and caused large numbers of Indians to join the fight for the first time. After making salt at Dandi, Gandhi continued southward along the coast, making salt and addressing meetings on the way; the Congress Party planned to stage a satyagraha at the Dharasana Salt Works, 25 miles south of Dandi. However, Gandhi was arrested on the midnight of 4–5 May 1930, just days before the planned action at Dharasana; the Dandi March and the ensuing Dharasana Satyagraha drew worldwide attention to the Indian independence movement through extensive newspaper and newsreel coverage.
The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for a year, ending with Gandhi's release from jail and negotiations with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the Second Round Table Conference. Over 60,000 Indians were jailed as a result of the Salt Satyagraha. However, it failed to result in major concessions from the British; the Salt Satyagraha campaign was based upon Gandhi's principles of non-violent protest called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as "truth-force". It is formed from the Sanskrit words satya, "truth", agraha, "insistence". In early 1930 the Indian National Congress chose satyagraha as their main tactic for winning Indian sovereignty and self-rule from British rule and appointed Gandhi to organise the campaign. Gandhi chose the 1882 British Salt Act as the first target of satyagraha; the Salt March to Dandi, the beating by British police of hundreds of nonviolent protesters in Dharasana, which received worldwide news coverage, demonstrated the effective use of civil disobedience as a technique for fighting social and political injustice.
The satyagraha teachings of Gandhi and the March to Dandi had a significant influence on American activists Martin Luther King Jr. James Bevel, others during the Civil Rights Movement for civil rights for African Americans and other minority groups in the 1960s. At midnight on 31 December 1929, the Indian National Congress raised the tricolour flag of India on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore; the Indian National Congress, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, publicly issued the Declaration of sovereignty and self-rule, or Purna Swaraj, on 26 January 1930. The declaration included the readiness to withhold taxes, the statement: We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it.
The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, has ruined India economically, politically and spiritually. We believe therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraji or complete sovereignty and self-rule; the Congress Working Committee gave Gandhi the responsibility for organising the first act of civil disobedience, with Congress itself ready to take charge after Gandhi's expected arrest. Gandhi's plan was to begin civil disobedience with a satyagraha aimed at the British salt tax; the 1882 Salt Act gave the British a monopoly on the collection and manufacture of salt, limiting its handling to government salt depots and levying a salt tax. Violation of the Salt Act was a criminal offence. Though salt was available to those living on the coast, Indians were forced to buy it from the colonial government. Gandhi's choice of the salt tax was met with incredulity by the Working Committee of the Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru and Dibyalochan Sahoo were ambivalent.
The Statesman, a prominent newspaper, wrote about the choice: "It is difficult not to laugh, we imagine that will be the mood of most thinking Indians."The British establishment too was not disturbed by these plans of resistance against the salt tax. The Vicero
Alaea salt, sometimes referred to as Hawaiian red salt, is an unrefined sea salt, mixed with an iron oxide rich volcanic clay called'alaea', which gives the seasoning its characteristic brick red color. It is part of Native Hawaiian cuisine and is used in traditional dishes such as kalua pig and pipikaula, it was traditionally used to cleanse and bless tools, canoes and temples. Once exported to the Pacific Northwest to cure salmon, it saw a resurgence in popularity late in the 20th century in fusion style cuisine of Hawaii both on Islands and beyond, it is claimed by one author that most alaea salt sold in the United States is produced in California, not in Hawaii. True Hawaiian-made alaea salt is expensive and before the rise of convenient Internet shopping was difficult to find elsewhere. Alaea salt was traditionally used by Hawaiians to cleanse and bless tools, canoes and temples. Alaea salt is used in several native Hawaiian dishes kalua pig and pipikaula. In the 19th century Hawaiians began producing large amounts of alaea salt using European salt making techniques and became a leading supplier to fishermen in the Pacific Northwest for curing salmon.
Alaea salt gets its characteristic brick red color from a volcanic Hawaiian clay called alae, which contains some 80 minerals is rich in iron oxide. Food portal