The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Saltaire is a Victorian model village located in Shipley, part of the City of Bradford Metropolitan District, in West Yorkshire, England. The Victorian era Salt's Mill and associated residential district located by the River Aire and Leeds and Liverpool Canal is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site and an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. Saltaire was built in 1851 by Sir Titus Salt, a leading industrialist in the Yorkshire woollen industry; the name of the village is the name of the river. Salt moved his business from Bradford to this site near Shipley to arrange his workers and to site his large textile mill by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and the railway. Salt employed the local architects Richard Mawson. Similar, but smaller, projects had been started around the same time by Edward Akroyd at Copley and by Henry Ripley at Ripley Ville; the cotton mill village of New Lanark, a World Heritage site, was founded by David Dale in 1786. Salt built neat stone houses for his workers, wash-houses with tap water, bath-houses, a hospital and an institute for recreation and education, with a library, a reading room, a concert hall, billiard room, science laboratory and a gymnasium.
The village had a school for the children of the workers, allotments, a park and a boathouse. Recreational initiatives were encouraged such as the establishment of a drum and fife band for school age boys and a brass band, precursor of today's Hammonds Saltaire Band, for men of the village. With the combination of quality housing, recreation, educational facilities and social services the model town represented a landmark example of enlightened 19th century urban planning. In October 1872, along with Dean Clough Mill in Halifax, were featured highlights of the Japanese Government's Iwakura Mission tour of modern industrial Britain. Sir Titus was interred in the mausoleum adjacent to the Congregational church; when Sir Titus Salt's son, Titus Salt Junior, Saltaire was taken over by a partnership which included Sir James Roberts from Haworth. Sir James Roberts had worked in wool mills since the age of eleven, he had significant business interests in Russia, spoke Russian fluently. Roberts came to own Saltaire, but chose to invest his money in Russia, losing some of his fortune in the Russian Revolution.
He endowed a chair of Russian at Leeds University and bought the Brontë's Haworth Parsonage for the nation. He is mentioned in T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land. Roberts is buried at East Sussex, his legacy can still be seen in Saltaire in the park to the north of the river, which he named Roberts Park after his son when he gave it to Bradford Council in 1920. In December 2001, Saltaire was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; this means. The buildings belonging to the model village are individually listed, with the highest level of protection given to the Congregational church, listed grade I; the village has survived remarkably complete, but further protection is needed as the village is blighted by traffic through the Aire Valley, an important east-west route. A bypass is proposed to relieve traffic pressure. Roberts Park, on the north side of the river, suffered from neglect and vandalism but has been restored by Bradford Council. Saltaire is a conservation area. Victoria Hall is used for meetings and concerts, houses a Wurlitzer theatre pipe organ.
The village is served by Saltaire railway station. The Saltaire Festival, which first took place in 2003 to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the foundation of Saltaire, is held every year over eleven days in September. Saltaire Arts Trail is a visual arts festival that takes place each May, where residents open the doors of their homes to become temporary art galleries. Politically, Saltaire is part of the Shipley electoral ward of the City of Bradford, part of the parliamentary constituency of Shipley represented by Philip Davies of the Conservatives. From 1999 to 2005, parliamentarians from three chambers, Chris Leslie MP in the House of Commons, Lord Wallace of Saltaire in the House of Lords and Richard Corbett MEP in the European Parliament, all lived in Saltaire. In July 2014 it was announced that planning officers had compiled a list of front doors that were deemed to be "not in keeping with the buildings' historic status." Saltaire is surrounded by a buffer zone established to protect the context of the World Heritage Site.
Concerns have been raised over plans announced by Bradford Council and Action Airedale to site a bypass through the buffer zone to either side of the World Heritage Site and to tunnel beneath the village. Within sight of the mill, the tunnel would follow the line of the railway and exit behind the United Reformed Church; as it would pass alongside the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, it could impact on this Conservation Area. The route would impact on an ancient semi-natural woodland and the Woodland Garden of Remembrance at Nab Wood Cemetery. Salts Mill closed as a textile mill in February 1986, Jonathan Silver bought it the following year and began renovating it. Today it houses a mixture of business, commerce and residential use. In the main mill building are: The 1853 art gallery: several large rooms given over to the works of the Bradford-born artist David Hockney: including paintings, drawings and stage sets. Industrial companies including the electronics manufacturer ARRIS International plc.
Various shops. In 2006 there are shops selling books, art supplies, jewellery, ou
Shipley railway station
Shipley railway station serves the historic market town of Shipley in West Yorkshire, England. It is 10 3⁄4 miles northwest of Leeds. Train services are commuter services between Leeds and Bradford, the Airedale line, the Wharfedale Line. There are a few main-line London North Eastern Railway services between Bradford or Skipton and London, it lies on the line from Leeds to Glasgow via the Settle-Carlisle Railway; when the Leeds and Bradford Railway built the first railway link into Bradford in 1846, they did not take the shortest route, but a flatter and longer one up Airedale to Shipley south along Bradford Dale to Bradford. They built stations at several places along the route, including Shipley, which opened in July 1846. In 1847, the Leeds and Bradford Extension Railway was built from Shipley to Keighley and Skipton, creating the triangle of lines which surrounds today's station; the north curve was on a much tighter alignment than the present 1883 curve. The original curve would pass through the car park.
The Leeds and Bradford was absorbed by the Midland Railway in 1851, the Midland successively became part of the LMS and British Railways. The Ordnance Survey map of Shipley in 1852 shows the station some 500 m south of the present one, where Valley Road crosses the line to Bradford. However, an article in the Bradford and Wakefield Observer in February 1849 describes the station in its present position, it is not clear if it was moved in its first few years or there is an error on the map. The present station was built at some time between 1883 and 1892, nestling between the western and eastern arms of the triangle, it was designed by the Midland's architect Charles Trubshaw. Platform 3 was lengthened in 1990; the northern arm of the triangle is distant from the main station and had no platforms until May 1979. Before trains on the Leeds-Shipley-Skipton run had to come through the station to the Bradford branch and reverse. From 1979, there was a single platform there, on the inside of the triangle, so Skipton-Leeds trains had to cross over to reach it.
The current platform 1 on the north side was built in 1992. It is now one of two remaining triangular stations in the UK: the other being Earlestown station in Merseyside. Ambergate station was triangular but only retains one platform and Queensbury station was closed to passengers in 1955; until the Beeching Axe closures of 1965, the next stations from Shipley were Saltaire on the Airedale line to the west, Baildon on the Wharfedale line to the North, Apperley Bridge in the east towards Leeds, Frizinghall in the south towards Bradford. Baildon station closed in 1953, but on 20 March 1965, the other three of these stations closed, along with another dozen stations and the local service between Bradford and Leeds. Most of the services through Shipley were under threat and hung in the balance until the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive adopted them in the 1970s. All four of these adjacent stations have since been reopened: Baildon on 5 January 1973, Saltaire in April 1984, Frizinghall in 1987, Apperley Bridge on 13 December 2015.
Between 1875 and 1931, there was a second station and Windhill railway station on Leeds Road close to Shipley Station which served the Shipley and Windhill Line. The station lies to the east of the town centre, across Otley Road, There is no access directly from Otley Road: pedestrian access from town is either via a tunnel at the bottom of Station Road, or from Stead Street onto platform 1. Vehicular access is from the side away from town, under the bridge and up a long cobbled drive from Briggate and there is a large car-park between the main station and platforms 1/2. There are no bus stops on the station forecourt: bus connections are either on Briggate/Leeds Road, or in the Market Square. There is no taxi rank within the station: again, passengers need to go into the town centre; the station is staffed - the ticket office is open seven days per week and only closed in the evening. Ticket machines are available, along with digital information screens and a long-line Public Address System for training running information.
Step-free access is available to platforms 2, 3 and 5. Platforms 1 and 4 can be reached by disabled passengers via lifts. Most of the services are commuter services operated as part of the MetroTrain network. During Monday to Saturday daytimes, these operate every 30 minutes on each of the following routes: Leeds-Bradford Forster Square. In the evening a half-hourly service is maintained between Skipton. Ilkley and Skipton to Bradford are hourly. There is no direct service between Leeds and Bradford but a shuttle from Shipley to Bradford connects with Leeds departures. On Sundays, Ilkley/Skipton - Bradford and Skipton and Bradford to Leeds each operate once per hour; these services are operated by Northern Class 333 electric multiple units, although Class 321 and Class 322 sets are used on some weekday workings. There are a number of trains each day from Leeds to Carlisle and Lancaster, from both Skipton and Bradford Forster Square to London King's Cross, which are operated by London North Eastern Railway.
The East Coast service from Kings Cross must access platform 3 in
Leeds and Bradford Extension Railway
The Leeds and Bradford Extension Railway was an early British railway company in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It built a line from Shipley near Bradford through Skipton to Colne; the Skipton–Colne Line closed in 1970, but the remainder of the line is still in use today, once formed part of the Midland Railway's main line route from London to Glasgow. The Leeds and Bradford Railway Act of 30 June 1845 empowered the company to build its line as an extension of the Leeds and Bradford Railway, still under construction between Leeds and Bradford. In July 1846, the company was leased to the Midland Railway, which absorbed it on 24 July 1851; the first section of the line was from Shipley, at a triangular junction with the Leeds and Bradford Railway, to Keighley. A tender for construction was let on 15 October 1845 and the section opened on 16 March 1847; the line included a 151-yard tunnel at Bingley. A second section from Keighley to Skipton opened on 7 September 1847 as a single track, but doubled by the end of the year.
Trains ran between Skipton. The final section between Skipton and Colne was contracted on 9 September 1846 and opened on 2 October 1848. At Colne it was to make an end-on junction with the East Lancashire Railway's Blackburn, Burnley and Colne Extension Railway, which did not open until 1 February 1849. By 2 April in the same year the line was part of a through route between Leeds and Liverpool, but the majority of passenger trains were local between Skipton and Colne; the "Little" North Western Railway built a line, from a junction just west of Skipton, which would become the main line through Skipton. The Skipton to Ingleton section opened on 30 July 1849, by 1 June 1850 there was a through line to Morecambe; the line was leased to the Midland Railway from 1 January 1859. After the opening of the Midland Railway's Settle-Carlisle Line on 1 May 1876, the Leeds–Skipton Line was used by the Midland's London St Pancras to Glasgow express trains. Other trains ran to Morecambe and Hellifield; the Beeching cuts of 1963 reduced the services along the Skipton–Colne Line, on 2 February 1970 this section of line closed.
The Skipton - East Lancashire Rail Action Partnership campaigns to reinstate it. The Shipley to Skipton Line is still in use as part of the Airedale Line, used by trains of the Leeds-Morecambe Line and Settle-Carlisle Line. Awdry, C. Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies, Patrick Stephens Ltd. Wellingborough, ISBN 1-85260-049-7 Bairstow, M; the "Little" North Western Railway, Martin Bairstow, Leeds, ISBN 1-871944-21-X Binns, D. Steam in Airedale, Wyvern Publications, Skipton, ISBN 0-907941-11-7 Dewick, T. Complete Atlas of Railway Station Names, Ian Allan Publishing, Hersham, ISBN 0-7110-2798-6, Maps 21 and 42 Suggitt, G. Lost Railways of Lancashire, Countryside Books, Newbury, ISBN 1-85306-801-2
Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community. It sometimes refers to any regular or repeated traveling between locations when not work-related. A distinction is often made between commuters who commute daily or weekly between their residence to work place being suburbs to cities, are therefore considered local or long-distance commuters; the word commuter derives from early days of rail travel in US cities such as New York, Philadelphia and Chicago, where, in the 1840s, the railways engendered suburbs from which travellers paying a reduced or'commuted' fare into the city. The back formations "commute" and "commuter" were coined therefrom. Commuted tickets would allow the traveller to repeat the same journey as as they liked during the period of validity: the longer the period the cheaper the cost per day. Before the 19th century, most workers lived less than an hour's walk from their work.
Today, many people travel daily to work a long way from their own towns and villages in industrialised societies. Depending on factors such as the high cost of housing in city centres, lack of public transit, traffic congestion, modes of travel may include automobiles, trains, aircraft and bicycles. Where Los Angeles is infamous for its automobile gridlock, commuting in New York is associated with the subway. In the near future there may be another move away from the traditional "commute" with the introduction of flexible working; some have suggested that many employees would be far more productive and live healthier, stress-free lives if the daily commute is removed completely. Commuting has had a large impact on modern life, it has allowed cities to grow to sizes that were not practical, it has led to the proliferation of suburbs. Many large cities or conurbations are surrounded by commuter belts known as metropolitan areas, commuter towns, dormitory towns, or bedroom communities; the prototypical commuter lives in one of these areas and travels daily to work or to school in the core city.
As urban sprawl pushes farther and farther away from central business districts, new businesses can appear in outlying cities, leading to the existence of the reverse commuter who lives in a core city but works in the suburbs, to a type of secondary commuter who lives in a more distant exurb and works in the outlying city or industrial suburb. A UK study, published in 2009, found that on average women suffer four times as much psychological stress from their work commute than men do. Institutions that have few dormitories or low student housing populations are called commuter schools in the United States. Most commuters travel at the same time of day, resulting in the morning and evening rush hours, with congestion on roads and public transport systems not designed or maintained well enough to cope with the peak demands; as an example, Interstate 405 located in Southern California is one of the busiest freeways in the United States. Commuters may sit up to two hours in traffic during rush hour.
Construction work or collisions on the freeway distract and slow down commuters, contributing to longer delays. Cars carrying only one occupant use fuel and roads less efficiently than shared cars or public transport, increase traffic congestion. Commuting by car is a major factor contributing to air pollution. Carpool lanes can help commuters reach their destinations more encourage people to socialize, spend time together, while reducing air pollution; some governments and employers have introduced employee travel reduction programs that encourage such alternatives as car-pooling and telecommuting. Some are carpooling using Internet sites to save money. Alternatives like personal rapid transit have been proposed to reap the energy-efficiency benefits of a mass transit system while maintaining the speed and convenience of individual transport. Traffic emissions, such as from trucks and automobiles contribute. Airborne by-products from vehicle exhaust systems cause air pollution and are a major ingredient in the creation of smog in some large cities.
The major culprits from transportation sources are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons. These molecules react with sunlight, ammonia and other compounds to form the noxious vapours, ground level ozone, particles that comprise smog. In the United States, the Census Bureau's American Community Survey collects data on commuting times, allowing an analysis of average commute time by industry and vehicle. According to the 2014 ACS, the average commute time for adults in the United States was 26.8 minutes. The occupations with the longest commutes were Construction and Mining, Computer Science and Math, Business Operations Specialists, while those in the military had the shortest commute. In general and suburban workers in the US have similar commute times, while rural workers have shorter commutes. In the US, over 90 % of workers commute by car. Statistical models indicate that in addition to demographics and work duration, commute time is one of the most important determinants of discretionary time allocation by individuals.
"Commuters," a poetic rendition of the New Jersey-to-New York commuting life by Stev