Scandinavian Airlines, often shortened to SAS is the flag carrier of Sweden and Denmark, and the largest airline in Scandinavia. Part of the SAS Group and headquartered at the SAS Frösundavik Office Building in Solna, the airlines main hub is at Copenhagen-Kastrup Airport, with connections to over 50 cities in Europe. Stockholm-Arlanda Airport and Oslo Airport, Gardermoen are the major hubs. Minor hubs exist at Bergen Airport, Flesland, Göteborg Landvetter Airport, Stavanger Airport and Trondheim Airport, SAS Cargo is an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Scandinavian Airlines and its main office is at Copenhagen Airport. In 2012, SAS carried 25.9 million passengers, achieving revenues of SEK36 billion and this makes it the eighth-largest airline in Europe. The SAS fleet consists of Airbus A319, A320, A321, A330 and A340, Boeing 737 Next Generation, in addition, SAS wetleases ATR72, Saab 2000 and Bombardier CRJ900 aircraft. The airline was founded in 1946 as a consortium to pool the operations of Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik, Det Norske Luftfartselskap.
The consortium was extended to cover European and domestic cooperation two years later, in 1951, all the airlines were merged to create SAS. SAS is one of the members of the worlds largest alliance. Operations started on 17 September 1946, in 1948 the Swedish flag carrier AB Aerotransport joined SAS and the companies coordinated European operations and finally merged to form the SAS Consortium in 1951. When established, the airline was divided between SAS Danmark, SAS Norge and SAS Sverige, all owned 50% by private investors, in 1954 SAS was the first airline to start scheduled flights on a polar route. The DC-6B flew from Copenhagen to Los Angeles, United States with stops in Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland, by summer 1956 frequency had increased to three flights per week. It was popular with Hollywood celebrities and film people. Thanks to a structure that allowed free transit to other European destinations via Copenhagen. In 1957 SAS started a second polar route when a DC-7C flew from Copenhagen to Tokyo, Japan, SAS publicized this service as round-the-world service over the North Pole.
SAS entered the jet age in 1959 when the Caravelle entered service, in 1971, SAS put its first Boeing 747 jumbo jet into service. In 1989, SAS acquired 18. 4% of Texas Air Corporation, parent company of Continental Airlines, during the 1990s, SAS bought a 20% stake in British Midland. SAS bought 95% of Spanair, the second largest airline in Spain, in May 1997 SAS formed the global Star Alliance network with Air Canada, Thai Airways International and United Airlines
HMS E13 was a British E class submarine built by HM Dockyard, Chatham. E13 was laid down on 16 December 1912 and was commissioned on 9 December 1914, like all post-E8 British E-class submarines, E13 had a displacement of 662 tonnes at the surface and 807 tonnes while submerged. She had a length of 180 feet and a beam length of 22 feet 8.5 inches. She was powered by two 800 horsepower Vickers eight-cylinder two-stroke diesel engines and two 420 horsepower electric motors, the submarine had a maximum surface speed of 16 knots and a submerged speed of 10 knots. British E-class submarines had fuel capacities of 50 tonnes of diesel, E13 was capable of operating submerged for five hours when travelling at 5 knots. As with most of the early E class boats, E13 was not fitted with a gun during construction. She had five 18 inches torpedo tubes, two in the bow, one either side amidships, and one in the stern, a total of 10 torpedoes were carried. E-Class submarines had wireless systems with 1 kilowatt power ratings, in some submarines and their maximum design depth was 100 feet although in service some reached depths of below 200 feet.
Some submarines contained Fessenden oscillator systems and her complement was three officers and 28 men. HMS E13 had a short career during World War I. On 14 August 1915, she was despatched from Harwich, accompanied by her sister vessel HMS E8, the two submarines had orders to sail to the Baltic Sea to interdict German shipping, particularly vessels carrying iron ore shipments from Sweden. At around 01,00 on 18 August 1915, the submarine ran aground in shallow water near Saltholm island in the Øresund between Malmö and Copenhagen, because of a defective gyrocompass, at dawn she became clearly visible. The E13s crew sought to lighten the submarine by pumping out tanks and discharging fuel and he was unable to contact the Admiralty for assistance, as the Germans were jamming radio frequencies. At 10,28 the German torpedo boat G132 arrived but withdrew when the Danish torpedo boats Støren and Søulven approached, a third Danish torpedo boat, the Tumleren, arrived shortly afterwards. Meanwhile, the commander of the G132, Oberleutnant zur See Paul Graf von Montgelas, had informed Rear Admiral Robert Mischke by radio about the E13s grounding and he ordered G132 and another torpedo boat to destroy the submarine.
The two vessels returned to Saltholm and opened fire on the E13 with torpedoes, machine-guns and shell fire from a range of 300 yards, the submarine was hit repeatedly and set on fire. Seeing this, Lt Cdr Layton ordered the submarine to be abandoned, the engagement ended when the Danish torpedo boat Søulven placed herself between the submarine and the two German ships, which withdrew. Fourteen of the E13s crew were killed in the attack and one was missing, the E13s fifteen surviving crew members were interned at the Copenhagen Navy Yard by the Danes for the rest of the war
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of persons, it is a state of enforced isolation. This is often used in connection to disease and illness, such as those who may possibly have been exposed to a communicable disease. The term is often used to mean medical isolation, which is to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease from those who are healthy. Quarantine can be applied to humans, but to animals of various kinds, for example, an article entitled Daily News workers quarantined describes a brief quarantine that lasted until people could be showered in a decontamination tent. The February/March 2003 issue of HazMat Magazine suggests that people be locked in a room until proper decon could be performed, but Capt. Chmiel said local health authorities have certain powers to quarantine people. It can be used to limit exposure, as well as eliminate a vector, the first astronauts to visit the Moon were quarantined upon their return at the specially built Lunar Receiving Laboratory.
Infected people were separated to prevent spread of disease among the ancient Israelites under the Mosaic Law, the word quarantine originates from the Venetian dialect form of the Italian quaranta giorni, meaning forty days. This is due to the 40-day isolation of ships and people entering the city of Dubrovnik in Croatia. This was practiced as a measure of disease related to the Black Death. Between 1348 and 1359, the Black Death wiped out an estimated 30% of Europes population, isolation was prolonged to 40 days and was called quarantine. Other diseases lent themselves to the practice of quarantine before and after the devastation of the plague, Venice took the lead in measures to check the spread of plague, having appointed three guardians of public health in the first years of the Black Death. The next record of preventive measures comes from Reggio in Modena in 1374, the first lazaret was founded by Venice in 1403, on a small island adjoining the city. In 1467, Genoa followed the example of Venice, and in 1476 the old hospital of Marseille was converted into a plague hospital.
The great lazaret of Marseilles, perhaps the most complete of its kind, was founded in 1526 on the island of Pomègues, the practice at all the Mediterranean lazarets was not different from the English procedure in the Levantine and North African trade. On the approach of cholera in 1831 some new lazarets were set up at ports, notably a very extensive establishment near Bordeaux. Since 1852 several conferences were held involving European powers, with a view to uniform action in keeping out infection from the East, all but that of 1897 were concerned with cholera. The principal countries which retained the old system at the time were Spain, Turkey, the aim of each international sanitary convention had been to bind the governments to a uniform minimum of preventive action, with further restrictions permissible to individual countries. The minimum specified by international conventions was very nearly the same as the British practice, an additional convention was signed in Paris on 3 December 1903
Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, the entire Zealand, the Øresund Region, and a large part of southern Sweden. It is the largest airport in the Nordic countries with 29 million passengers in 2016 and it is the third-busiest airport in Northern Europe, and by far the busiest for international travel in Scandinavia. The airport is located on the island of Amager, just 8 kilometres south of Copenhagen city centre, the airport covers an area of 11.8 square kilometres. Most of the airport is situated in the municipality of Tårnby, the airport is the main hub out of three used by Scandinavian Airlines and is an operating base for Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia and Norwegian Air Shuttle. Copenhagen Airport handles around 60 scheduled airlines, and has a maximum operation capability of 83 operations/hour, unlike other Scandinavian airports, most of the airports passengers are international. In 2015,6. 1% of passengers travelled to and from other Danish airports,83.
5% to/from other European airports, the airport is owned by Københavns Lufthavne, which operates Roskilde Airport. Copenhagen Airport was originally called Kastrup Airport, since it is located in the town of Kastrup. The formal name of the airport is still Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, to distinguish it from Roskilde Airport, whose name is Copenhagen Airport. The airport was inaugurated 20 April 1925 and was one of the first civil airports in the world. It consisted of a large, impressive terminal built of wood, a couple of hangars, a balloon mast, a landing stage. The grass on the runways was kept short by sheep, which were shepherded away before take-offs, from 1932 to 1939, takeoffs and landings increased from 6,000 to 50,000 and passenger number increased to 72,000. Between 1936 and 1939, a new terminal was built, considered one of the finest examples of Nordic functionalism. The terminal was designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen, who was considered a pioneer among architects, in not only of architecture and construction.
In the years of World War II, the Copenhagen airport was closed for operations except for periodic flights to destinations in Sweden, Germany. In the summer of 1941 the first hard-surface runway opened and it was 1,400 metres long and 65 metres wide. When World War II ended in May 1945, the Copenhagen airport was the most modern airport in Europe. On 1 August 1947, Scandinavian Airlines was founded, an important event for the Copenhagen Airport, traffic increased rapidly in the first years Scandinavian Airlines operated. On 26 January 1947, a KLM Douglas DC-3 Dakota crashed at the airport after stopping en route to Stockholm,22 people on board died, including the Swedish prince Gustav Adolf and the American opera singer Grace Moore
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as herbs, grasses, or low shrubs. These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a role in the aquatic food web. They support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection, salt marshes occur on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable or emerging, or submerging if the sedimentation rate exceeds the subsidence rate. Commonly these shorelines consist of mud or sand flats which are nourished with sediment from inflowing rivers and these typically include sheltered environments such as embankments and the leeward side of barrier islands and spits. In the tropics and sub-tropics they are replaced by mangroves, an area that differs from a marsh in that instead of herbaceous plants. Most salt marshes have a low topography with low elevations but a vast wide area, salt marshes are located among different landforms based on their physical and geomorphological settings.
Such marsh landforms include deltaic marshes, back-barrier, open coast, deltaic marshes are associated with large rivers where many occur in Southern Europe such as the Camargue, France in the Rhone delta or the Ebro delta in Spain. They are extensive within the rivers of the Mississippi Delta in the United States, in New Zealand, most salt marshes occur at the head of estuaries in areas where there is little wave action and high sedimentation. Such marshes are located in Awhitu Regional Park in Auckland, the Manawatu Estuary, back-barrier marshes are sensitive to the reshaping of barriers in the landward side of which they have been formed. They are common along much of the eastern coast of the United States, shallow coastal embayments can hold salt marshes with examples including Morecambe Bay and Portsmouth in Britain and the Bay of Fundy in North America. They have a big impact on the biodiversity of the area, salt marsh ecology involves complex food webs which include primary producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers.
The low physical energy and high grasses provide a refuge for animals, many marine fish use salt marshes as nursery grounds for their young before they move to open waters. Saltmarshes across 99 countries were mapped by Mcowen et al, a total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile. This estimate is at the low end of previous estimates. Mats of filamentous blue-green algae can fix silt and clay sized sediment particles to their sticky sheaths on contact which can increase the erosion resistance of the sediments. This assists the process of sediment accretion to allow colonising species to grow, as a result, competitive species that prefer higher elevations relative to sea level can inhabit the area and often a succession of plant communities develops. Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the tidal flow that occurs
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Iris spuria is a species of the genus Iris, part of a subgenus series known as Limniris and in the Series Spuriae. It is a perennial plant, from Europe, Asia. It has purple or lilac flowers, and slender, elongated leaves and it is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions and hybridized for use in the garden. It has several subspecies, Iris spuria subsp, maritima P. Fourn. and Iris spuria subsp. It used to have 3 other subspecies, which have now been re-classified as separate species, Iris spuria ssp. sogdiana and Iris spuria subsp. It has many names including blue iris, Spurious Iris. It has a thin, slender rhizome, that is about 2 cm in diameter, under the rhizome are wiry roots. The creeping habit creates compact clumps of plants and they can reach over 90 cm wide. It has erect, sword-shaped, glaucous green to blue green basal leaves and they can grow up to between 25–90 cm long and 5–12 mm wide. They are normally nearly as long as the flowering stem, after the plant has flowered and set seed, the leaves die in the late summer.
It has a strong, round stem, that can reach up to between 50–80 cm long, the stem has 1 or 2 lateral, upright branches, or pedicels, which are about 2 cm long. The stem has keeled, green and these are 40–80 cm long, and have a membranous tip. The upper cauline leaves are shorter than internodes, the stems hold 1-4 terminal flowers, in summer, between May and July. They flower after Iris germanica and are similar in form to Iris x hollandica and it has large, lightly scented, flowers that are up to 6–12 cm in diameter, and they come in shades of lilac, mauve-blue, violet-blue, purple-blue, violet, or blue. It has 2 pairs of petals,3 large sepals, known as the falls and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, the falls are broadly ovate, elliptic, or orbicular with a long claw. The fall is 4. 5–6 cm long, and 2.5 cm wide and they have purple or violet veining, and a central yellow or white stripe or signal area. The standards are short, lanceolate or oblanceolate, erect wavy and it has a 7–10 mm long perianth tube, the ovary has a long tapering beak, which can be up to 40mm long.
It has a narrow, violet Stigma #Style,2.5 cm long violet-lilac stigmas,1.27 cm long anthers, after the iris has flowered, it produces an oblong-ovate, seed capsule in September
Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae. The name henbane dates at least to AD1265, the origins of the word are unclear, but hen probably originally meant death rather than referring to chickens. Henbane was historically used in combination with other plants, such as mandrake, deadly nightshade and these psychoactive properties include visual hallucinations and a sensation of flight. It was originally used in continental Europe and the Arab world, the plant, recorded as Herba Apollinaris, was used to yield oracles by the priestesses of Apollo. Recently evidence for its use in the Scottish Neolithic has been debated. John Gerards Herball states, The leaves, the seeds and the juice, when taken internally cause a sleep, like unto the sleep of drunkenness. To wash the feet in a decoction of Henbane, as the often smelling of the flowers causeth sleep, Henbane was one of the ingredients in gruit, traditionally used in beers as a flavouring.
Several cities, most notably Pilsen, were named after its German name Bilsenkraut in the context of its production for beer flavouring. The recipe for henbane beer includes 40 g dried chopped henbane herbage,5 g bayberry,23 l water,1 l brewing malt,900 g honey,5 g dried yeast, and brown sugar. Henbane fell out of usage for beer when it was replaced by hops in the 11th to 16th centuries, as the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516 outlawed ingredients other than barley, hops and water. Henbane is sometimes identified with the hebenon poured into the ear of Hamlets father, Henbane originated in Eurasia, and is now globally distributed as a plant grown mainly for pharmaceutical purposes. Henbane is rare in northern Europe, its cultivation for medicinal use is spread and legal in central and eastern Europe, Henbane is an endangered plant according to the World Conservation Union’s Red List. Henbane is used within the treatment of bones and rheumatism, asthma, nervous diseases and it might be used as analgesic and narcotic in some cultures.
Adhesive bondages with henbane extract behind the ear are reported to prevent discomfort in travel-sick people, Henbane oil is used for medicinal massage. Henbane material in most Western countries can be bought in pharmacies with a prescription only, sales of henbane oil are not legally regulated and are allowed in shops other than pharmacies. Henbane leaves and herbage without roots are chopped and dried and are used for medicinal purposes or in incense and smoking blends, in making beer and tea. Henbane leaves are boiled in oil to derive henbane oil, Henbane seeds are an ingredient in incense blends. In all preparations, the dosage has to be estimated due to the high toxicity of henbane
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.
The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum
Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships. In recent naval usage, a barbette is a circular armour support for a heavy gun turret. This evolved from earlier forms of gun protection that led to the pre-dreadnought. The former gives better angles of fire but less protection than the latter, the disappearing gun was a variation on the barbette gun, it consisted of a heavy gun on a carriage that would retract behind a parapet or into a gunpit for reloading. They were primarily used in coastal defences, but saw use in a handful of warships. The term is used for certain aircraft gun mounts. By the late 1880s, all three systems were replaced with a hybrid system that combined the benefits of both types. The heavily-armored vertical tube that supported the new gun mount was referred to as a barbette, american authors generally refer to such mounts simply as tail guns or tail gun turrets. The use of barbette mountings originated in ground fortifications, the term originally referred to a raised platform on a rampart for one or more guns, enabling them to be fired over a parapet.
This gave rise to the phrase en barbette, which referred to a gun placed to fire over a parapet, rather than through an embrasure, while an en barbette emplacement offered wider arcs of fire, it exposed the guns crew to greater danger from hostile fire. In addition, since the position would be higher than a casemate position—that is. Fortifications in the 19th century typically employed both casemate and barbette emplacements, the type was usually used for coastal defence guns. Later heavy coastal guns were protected in hybrid installation, with wide casemate with cantilevered overhead cover partially covering a barbette mount. Following the introduction of ironclad warships in the early 1860s, naval designers grappled with the problem of mounting guns in the most efficient way possible. The first generation of ironclads employed the same arrangement as the old ship of the line. This was particularly important to designers, since the tactic of ramming was revived following its successful employment at the decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Lissa in 1866, ramming required a ship to steam directly at its opponent, which greatly increased the importance of end-on fire.
Designers such as Cowper Phipps Coles and John Ericsson designed the first gun turrets in the 1860s, in the 1870s, designers began to experiment with an en barbette type of mounting. The barbette was a fixed armoured enclosure protecting the gun, the barbette could take the form of a circular or elongated ring of armour around the rotating gun mount over which the guns fired