Salted: A Manifesto on the World's Most Essential Mineral, with Recipes is a reference book and cookbook written by food writer Mark Bitterman. In May 2011 Salted won the James Beard Foundation Award for Scholarship Cookbook, it has been nominated for the International Association of Culinary Professionals Cookbook Awards for the Food & Beverage Reference/Technical category and First Book: The Julia Child Award. It is available both on the Kindle. Bitterman's fascination with salt started at age 20 when, on a motorcycle trip across Europe, he stopped at a provincial French truck stop and had a grilled steak finished with a locally harvested fleur de sel. In the following years Bitterman continued to travel the world while collecting artisan-made salts, he went on to open a store with his wife called The Meadow, where they sell a variety of finishing salts as well as dark chocolates, bitters and flowers. The Meadow was started in Portland and has since expanded to the West Village in New York.
Salted was released in October 2010. The book is divided into three sections. "The Life of Salt" – This section treats the history of salt from its supposed first use by humans for preservation 12,000 years ago. Salt took on increasing importance in the Neolithic period as humans developed agriculture and domestication of wild plants and animals. Salt-preserved foods and treated animal hides enabled the construction of empires. Saltmaking was an artisanal craft up until the industrial revolution, when mechanization allowed production to increase rapidly. More this industrially produced salt has come to be used in chemical manufacturing as well as for clearing wide stretches of icy roads and freeways. In this section Bitterman goes on to detail salt's role in biochemistry and addresses the controversy it has provoked in the public health sector. Lastly, he discusses the taxonomy of salt and his take on how to describe a salt."Salt Guide" – This chapter contains a chart of over 150 salts. Each has a macro photograph of its crystals as well as columns for description, application and recommended food uses.
This is followed by a section of longer entries on 80 salts wherein one can find more in-depth descriptions and information on a salt's alternate names and producers. "Salting" – Here Bitterman lays out his suggestions for "strategic salting" and some pointers on key salts for the kitchen and important salting techniques. He provides recipes for using salts in various cooking techniques as well as recipes utilizing Himalayan salt blocks for serving and cooking food; the Tasting Table The Splendid Table Serious Eats The Italian Dish The Atlantic Michael Ruhlman: Ruhlman.com OregonLive.com Christian Science Monitor StarChefs.com Al Dente, Amazon food blog FoxNews.com food blog DailyCandy Publishers Weekly NW Food News In Defense of Food Fat: An Appreciation of a Misunderstood Ingredient, with Recipes
Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt. It is related to pickling in general and more to brining and is one form of curing, it is one of the oldest methods of preserving food, two significant salt-cured foods are salted fish and salt-cured meat. Vegetables such as runner beans and cabbage are often preserved in this manner. Salting is used because most bacteria and other pathogenic organisms cannot survive in a salty environment, due to the hypertonic nature of salt. Any living cell in such an environment will become dehydrated through osmosis and die or become temporarily inactivated, it was discovered in the 19th century that salt mixed with nitrates would color meats red, rather than grey, consumers at that time strongly preferred the red-colored meat. The food hence preserved stays fresh for days avoiding bacterial decay. Jewish and Muslim dietary laws require the removal of blood from freshly slaughtered meat. Salt and brine are used for the purpose in both traditions, but salting is more common in Kosher Shechita than in Halal Dhabiha.
Curing Food preservation Food storage List of dried foods Food portal
The Madonna with Child is a painting attributed on basis of style to the early Italian Renaissance master Antonello da Messina, depicting the Madona holding the doll-like Child and wearing an ornate golden crown, held by angels over her head. It is housed in the National London; the name Salting, applied to a Madonna by Robert Campin, denotes George Salting, the collector who donated it to the gallery in 1910. The Salting Madonna shows a complex series of cultural references that in the past have led scholars to classify it variously as a Flemish, Spanish or Russian work, it is one of Antonello's earlier works, dating most from the 1460s, when the artist was still in Sicily. It portrays the Madonna adorned with a series of well-crafted and rendered details, such as the crown and the Venetian-style garments and gossamer veil; the Madonna has the attributes of mother of Christ. The crown with two angels represents her as the Queen of Heaven; the Child holds a pomegranate in his hands. The abstract beauty of the Madonna's face derives from the style of contemporary Provençal artists Enguerrand Quarton.
Italian Renaissance painting, development of themes Barbera, K, ed.. Antonello da Messina: Sicily's Renaissance master. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bensalhia, John. "Sicilian Art: Gallery of the Great". Italy Magazine
George Salting was an Australian-born British art collector. He had inherited considerable wealth from his father, he left his paintings to the National Gallery, London and drawings to the British Museum, the remainder to the Victoria & Albert Museum, requesting that the collection be displayed intact rather than divided among the museum's departments. Salting was born in Sydney, the son of Severin Knud Salting, a Dane who had extensive business interests in New South Wales. In 1858 he made a gift of £500 to the University of Sydney to found scholarships to be awarded to students from Sydney Grammar School. George Salting's mother was née Fiellerup. George Salting was educated locally and moved with his family to England and studied at Eton College. In 1853 the family returned to New South Wales, Salting entered the newly founded University of Sydney. There he won prizes for compositions in Latin hexameters in 1855 and 1857, in Latin elegiacs in 1856, 1857 and 1858, for Latin essays in 1854 and 1856.
Salting graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1857. In 1858 the Salting family again travelled to England. Severin Salting settled in Kent, where he died in 1865. Severin Salting made a large fortune in sheep-farming and sugar-growing which he bequeathed to his son. Influenced by the connoisseur, Louis Huth, Salting began collecting Chinese porcelain, developing a fine discriminating taste for it, his collection extended and included English furniture, majolica, hard stones, miniatures, pictures and other items which might be found in a good museum. Salting was a careful buyer, as a rule dealing only with two or three dealers whom he felt he could trust, though he sometimes bought at auction, he obtained expert advice and his own knowledge was always growing. As a consequence he made few mistakes, these were corrected by the pieces being exchanged for better specimens. Salting lived modestly in London, occupying just two living rooms. Except for an occasional few days shooting, he made collecting, its associated research and study, his occupation.
Salting never married and he did not give to charities. In spite of his large expenditure on collecting, his fortune increased during his lifetime. Salting is buried in Brompton Cemetery, his will was sworn at over £1,300,000. Of this he bequeathed £10,000 to London hospitals, £2000 to the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital at Sydney, £30,000 to relatives and others; the residue of his estate went to the heirs of his brother. Salting left his entire collection of paintings, Oriental china and miniatures, valued at from $5,000,000 to $20,000,000, to British museums, he bequeathed his paintings to the National Gallery and his prints and drawings to the British Museum as the respective trustees might select. The remainder of his art collection went to the Victoria and Albert Museum, with a proviso that it was to be kept together and not distributed over the various departments, it is a notable collection to have been put together by one person, the standard being extraordinarily high. The Chinese pottery and porcelain belonged to the dynasties, but much of the work of the great T'ang period was unobtainable when Salting was collecting.
It was suggested at the time of his death that as his wealth had been drawn from Australia, some of his collection should be donated to the Australian galleries. Nothing came of this, he gave three paintings to the National Gallery during his life, bequeathed an additional 192 in his will. Of those 31 have since been transferred to the Tate Gallery, his collection of paintings included: Dieric Bouts and Child Robert Campin, The Virgin and Child before a Firescreen Canaletto, Venice: The Piazza San Marco from Two Views of Piazza San Marco Petrus Christus, Portrait of a Young Man Cima da Conegliano and Jonathan and The Virgin and Child Joos van Cleve, The Holy Family John Constable, Salisbury Cathedral and Leadenhall from the River Avon and Weymouth Bay: Bowleaze Cove and Jordon Hill Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, A Wagon in the Plains of Artois, The Wood Gatherer, The Leaning Tree Trunk, Evening on the Lake, Cows in a Marshy Landscape, Souvenir of a Journey to Coubron, A Flood Charles-François Daubigny, River Scene with Ducks, The Garden Wall and Alders Gaspard Dughet, Landscape with a Cowherd Domenico Ghirlandaio, Portrait of a Young Man in Red Jan van Goyen, A Windmill by a River, A River Scene, with Fishermen laying a Net and A Scene on the Ice Frans Hals, Portrait of a Woman with a Fan and Portrait of a Man holding Gloves Meindert Hobbema, Cottages in a Wood and A Road winding past Cottages Hans Memling, A Young Man at Prayer Gabriël Metsu, The Interior of a Smithy and An Old Woman with a Book Jean-François Millet, The Whisper Adriaen van Ostade, A Peasant holding a Jug and a Pipe, A Peasant courting an Elderly Woman and'The Interior of an Inn Sebastiano del Piombo, The Daughter of Herodias Paulus Potter and Sheep in a Stormy Landscape Francesco Raibolini, Bartolomeo Bianchini Théodore Rousseau, Sunset in the Auvergne Peter Paul Rubens, Aurora abducting Cephalus Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, A Cottage and a Hayrick by a River, A Rocky Hill with Three Cottages, a Stream at its Foot, Vessels in a Fresh Breeze, A Road leading into a Wood, A Ruined Castle Gateway and An Extensive Landscape
Salting the earth
Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation. It originated as a symbolic practice in the ancient Near East and became a well-established folkloric motif in the Middle Ages. Contrary to popular belief, using salt in this way would not have been a practical method of rendering an area unfit for crop production due to the large quantity of salt required; the custom of purifying or consecrating a destroyed city with salt and cursing anyone who dared to rebuild it was widespread in the ancient Near East, but historical accounts are unclear as to what the sowing of salt meant in that process. Various Hittite and Assyrian texts speak of ceremonially strewing salt, minerals, or plants over destroyed cities, including Hattusa, Arinna, Hunusa and Susa; the Book of Judges says that Abimelech, the judge of the Israelites, sowed his own capital, with salt, c. 1050 BC, after quelling a revolt against him. This may have been part of a ḥērem ritual.
Starting in the 19th century, various texts claim that the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus Africanus plowed over and sowed the city of Carthage with salt after defeating it in the Third Punic War, sacking it, enslaving the survivors. Though ancient sources do mention symbolically drawing a plow over various cities, salting them, none mention Carthage in particular; the Carthage story is a invention modeled on the story of Shechem. When Pope Boniface VIII destroyed Palestrina in 1299, he ordered that it be plowed "following the old example of Carthage in Africa", salted. "I have run the plough over it, like the ancient Carthage of Africa, I have had salt sown upon it...." The text is not clear as to. Accounts of other saltings in the destructions of medieval Italian cities are now rejected as unhistorical: Padua by Attila in a parallel between Attila and the ancient Assyrians; the English epic poem Siege of Jerusalem recounts that Titus commanded the sowing of salt on the Temple, but this episode is not found in Josephus.
In Spain and the Spanish Empire, salt was poured onto the land owned by a convicted traitor after their house was demolished. This was done in Portugal as well; the last known event of this sort was the destruction of the Duke of Aveiro's palace in Lisbon in 1759, due to his participation in the Távora affair. His palace was demolished and his land was salted. A stone memorial now perpetuates the memory of the shame of the Duke, where it is written: In this place were put to the ground and salted the houses of José Mascarenhas, stripped of the honours of Duque de Aveiro and others.... Put to Justice as one of the leaders of the most barbarous and execrable upheaval that... was committed against the most royal and sacred person of the Lord Joseph I. In this infamous land nothing may be built for all time. In the Portuguese colony of Brazil, the leader of the Inconfidência Mineira, was sentenced to death and his house was "razed and salted, so that never again be built up on the floor... and the floor will rise up a standard by which the memory is preserved the infamy of this heinous offender..."
He suffered further indignities, being hanged and quartered, his body parts carried to various parts of the country where his fellow revolutionaries had met, his children deprived of their property and honor. An ancient legend says that Odysseus feigned madness by yoking a horse and an ox to his plow and sowing salt. Soil salinity Salted bomb "Salt of the earth", a metaphor, part of a discourse on salt and light Gevirtz, Stanley Gevirtz. "Jericho and Shechem: A Religio-Literary Aspect of City Destruction". Vetus Testamentum. 13: 52–62. JSTOR 1516752. Ridley, R. T.. "To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The Destruction of Carthage". Classical Philology. 81: 140–146. Doi:10.1086/366973. JSTOR 269786. Stevens, Susan T.. "A Legend of the Destruction of Carthage". Classical Philology. 83: 39–41. Doi:10.1086/367078. JSTOR 269635. Visona, Paolo. "On the Destruction of Carthage Again". Classical Philology. 83: 41–42. Doi:10.1086/367079. JSTOR 269636. Warmington, B. H.. "The Destruction of Carthage: A Retractatio". Classical Philology.
83: 308–310. Doi:10.1086/367123. JSTOR 269510
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface. Anti-icing is understood to be the application of chemicals that not only de-ice but remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time, or prevent adhesion of ice to make mechanical removal easier. De-icing can be accomplished by mechanical methods. Trains and rail switches in arctic regions have large problems with ice build up, they need a constant heat source in cold days to assure functionality. On trains it is the brakes and couplers that require heaters for de-icing. On rails it is the switches that are sensitive to ice; these high-powered electrical heaters efficiently prevent ice formation and melt any ice that forms. The heaters are preferably made of PTC material, e.g. PTC rubber, to avoid overheating and destroying the heaters; these heaters require no regulating electronics. On the ground, when there are freezing conditions and precipitation, de-icing an aircraft is crucial.
Frozen contaminants cause critical control surfaces to be rough and uneven, disrupting smooth air flow and degrading the ability of the wing to generate lift, increasing drag. This situation can cause a crash. If large pieces of ice separate when the aircraft is in motion, they can be ingested in engines or hit propellers and cause catastrophic failure. Frozen contaminants can jam control surfaces; because of this severe consequence, de-icing is performed at airports where temperatures are to be around 0 °C. In flight, droplets of supercooled water exist in stratiform and cumulus clouds, they form into ice. This disrupts airflow over the wing, reducing lift, so aircraft that are expected to fly in such conditions are equipped with a de-icing system. De-icing techniques are employed to ensure that engine inlets and various sensors on the outside of the aircraft are clear of ice or snow. De-icing fluids consisting of propylene glycol and additives are used by airlines for de-icing aircraft. Ethylene glycol fluids are still in use for aircraft de-icing in some parts of the world because it has a lower operational use temperature than PG.
However, PG is more common. When applied, most of the de-icing fluid does not adhere to the aircraft surfaces, falls to the ground. Airports use containment systems to capture the used liquid, so that it cannot seep into the ground and water courses. Though PG is classified as non-toxic, it pollutes waterways since it consumes large amounts of oxygen as it decomposes, causing aquatic life to suffocate. Anti-icing of aircraft is accomplished by applying a protective layer, using a viscous fluid called anti-ice fluid, over a surface to absorb the contaminant. All anti-ice fluids offer only limited protection, dependent upon frozen contaminant type and prevailing weather conditions. A fluid has failed when it no longer can absorb the contaminant and it becomes a contaminant itself. Water can be a contaminant in this sense, as it dilutes the anti-icing agent until it is no longer effective. Direct infrared heating has been developed as an aircraft de-icing technique; this heat transfer mechanism is faster than conventional heat transfer modes used by conventional de-icing due to the cooling effect of the air on the de-icing fluid spray.
One infrared de-icing system requires that the heating process take place inside a specially-constructed hangar. This system has had limited interest among airport operators, due to the space and related logistical requirements for the hangar. In the United States, this type of infrared de-icing system has been used, on a limited basis, at two large hub airports and one small commercial airport. Another infrared system uses mobile, truck-mounted heating units that do not require the use of hangars; the manufacturer claims that the system can be used for both fixed wing aircraft and helicopters, although it has not cited any instances of its use on commercial aircraft. De-icing operations for airport pavement may involve several types of liquid and solid chemical products, including propylene glycol, ethylene glycol and other organic compounds. Chloride-based compounds are not used at airports, due to their corrosive effect on aircraft and other equipment. Urea mixtures have been used for pavement de-icing, due to their low cost.
However, urea is a significant pollutant in waterways and wildlife, as it degrades to ammonia after application, it has been been phased out at U. S. airports. In 2012 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency prohibited use of urea-based deicers at most commercial airports. De-icing of roads has traditionally been done with salt, spread by snowplows or dump trucks designed to spread it mixed with sand and gravel, on slick roads. Sodium chloride is used, as it is inexpensive and available in large quantities. However, since salt water still freezes at −18 °C, it is of no help when the temperature falls below this point, it has a strong tendency to cause corrosion, rusting the steel used in most vehicles and the rebar in concrete bridges. Depending on the concen
A salt marsh or saltmarsh known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water, flooded by the tides. It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as grasses, or low shrubs; these plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a large role in the aquatic food web and the delivery of nutrients to coastal waters, they support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection. Salt marshes occur on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable, emerging, or submerging depending if the sedimentation is greater, equal to, or lower than relative sea level rise, respectively; these shorelines consist of mud or sand flats which are nourished with sediment from inflowing rivers and streams. These include sheltered environments such as embankments and the leeward side of barrier islands and spits.
In the tropics and sub-tropics they are replaced by mangroves. Most salt marshes have a low topography with low elevations but a vast wide area, making them hugely popular for human populations. Salt marshes are located among different landforms based on their physical and geomorphological settings; such marsh landforms include deltaic marshes, back-barrier, open coast and drowned-valley marshes. Deltaic marshes are associated with large rivers where many occur in Southern Europe such as the Camargue, France in the Rhone delta or the Ebro delta in Spain, they are extensive within the rivers of the Mississippi Delta in the United States. In New Zealand, most salt marshes occur at the head of estuaries in areas where there is little wave action and high sedimentation; such marshes are located in Awhitu Regional Park in Auckland, the Manawatu Estuary, the Avon-Heathcote Estuary in Christchurch. Back-barrier marshes are sensitive to the reshaping of barriers in the landward side of which they have been formed.
They are common along much of the eastern coast of the Frisian Islands. Large, shallow coastal embayments can hold salt marshes with examples including Morecambe Bay and Portsmouth in Britain and the Bay of Fundy in North America. Salt marshes are sometimes included in lagoons, the difference is not marked, they have a big impact on the biodiversity of the area. Salt marsh ecology involves complex food webs which include primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers; the low physical energy and high grasses provide a refuge for animals. Many marine fish use salt marshes as nursery grounds for their young before they move to open waters. Birds may raise their young among the high grasses, because the marsh provides both sanctuary from predators and abundant food sources which include fish trapped in pools, insects and worms. Saltmarshes across 99 countries were mapped by al.. 2017. A total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile.
This estimate is at the low end of previous estimates. The most extensive saltmarshes worldwide are found outside the tropics, notably including the low-lying, ice-free coasts and estuaries of the North Atlantic which are well represented in their global polygon dataset; the formation begins as tidal flats gain elevation relative to sea level by sediment accretion, subsequently the rate and duration of tidal flooding decreases so that vegetation can colonize on the exposed surface. The arrival of propagules of pioneer species such as seeds or rhizome portions are combined with the development of suitable conditions for their germination and establishment in the process of colonisation; when rivers and streams arrive at the low gradient of the tidal flats, the discharge rate reduces and suspended sediment settles onto the tidal flat surface, helped by the backwater effect of the rising tide. Mats of filamentous blue-green algae can fix silt and clay sized sediment particles to their sticky sheaths on contact which can increase the erosion resistance of the sediments.
This assists the process of sediment accretion to allow colonising species to grow. These species retain sediment washed in from the rising tide around their stems and leaves and form low muddy mounds which coalesce to form depositional terraces, whose upward growth is aided by a sub-surface root network which binds the sediment. Once vegetation is established on depositional terraces further sediment trapping and accretion can allow rapid upward growth of the marsh surface such that there is an associated rapid decrease in the depth and duration of tidal flooding; as a result, competitive species that prefer higher elevations relative to sea level can inhabit the area and a succession of plant communities develops. Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the daily tidal flow that occurs and continuously floods the area, it is an important process in delivering sediments and plant water supply to the marsh. At higher elevations in the upper marsh zone, there is much less tidal inflow, resulting in lower salinity levels