Stockholm County Council
The Stockholm County Council, or Stockholms läns landsting, is a County Council, a regional municipal body corresponding to the territory of Stockholm County in Sweden. Its main responsibilities are for the public transport; the Landsting Assembly election results 2014: Karolinska University Hospital Storstockholms Lokaltrafik Stockholm Metro Roslagsbanan Politics of Sweden Elections in Sweden Stockholm City Council Stockholm County Administrative Board List of Stockholm Governors Stockholm County Council - Official site
Electric multiple unit
An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. An EMU is formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as EMUs; the great majority of EMUs are passenger trains, but versions exist for carrying parcels and mail. EMUs are popular on commuter and suburban rail networks around the world due to their fast acceleration and pollution-free operation. Being quieter than diesel multiple units and locomotive-hauled trains, EMUs can operate at night and more without disturbing nearby residents. In addition, tunnel design for EMU trains is simpler as no provision is needed for exhausting fumes, although retrofitting existing limited-clearance tunnels to accommodate the extra equipment needed to transmit electric power to the train can be difficult.
Multiple unit train control was first used in the 1890s. The Liverpool Overhead Railway opened in 1893 with two car electric multiple units, controllers in cabs at both ends directly controlling the traction current to motors on both cars; the multiple unit traction control system was developed by Frank Sprague and first applied and tested on the South Side Elevated Railroad in 1897. In 1895, derived from his company's invention and production of direct current elevator control systems, Frank Sprague invented a multiple unit controller for electric train operation; this accelerated the construction of electric traction railways and trolley systems worldwide. Each car of the train has its own traction motors: by means of motor control relays in each car energized by train-line wires from the front car all of the traction motors in the train are controlled in unison; the cars that form a complete EMU set can be separated by function into four types: power car, motor car, driving car, trailer car.
Each car can have more than one function, such as power-driving car. A power car carries the necessary equipment to draw power from the electrified infrastructure, such as pickup shoes for third rail systems and pantographs for overhead systems, transformers. Motor cars carry the traction motors to move the train, are combined with the power car to avoid high-voltage inter-car connections. Driving cars are similar to a cab car. An EMU will have two driving cars at its outer ends. Trailer cars are any cars that carry little or no traction or power related equipment, are similar to passenger cars in a locomotive-hauled train. On third rail systems the outer vehicles carry the pick up shoes, with the motor vehicles receiving the current via intra-unit connections. Many modern 2-car EMU sets are set up as "married pair" units. While both units in a married pair are driving motors, the ancillary equipment are shared between the two cars in the set. Since neither car can operate without its "partner", such sets are permanently coupled and can only be split at maintenance facilities.
Advantages of married pair units include weight and cost savings over single-unit cars while allowing all cars to be powered, unlike a motor-trailer combination. Each car has only one control cab, located at the outer end of the pair, saving space and expense over a cab at both ends of each car. Disadvantages include a loss of operational flexibility, as trains must be multiples of two cars, a failure on a single car could force removing both it and its partner from service; some of the more famous electric multiple units in the world are high-speed trains: the AGV in France, Italian Pendolino, Shinkansen in Japan, the China Railway High-speed in China and ICE 3 in Germany. The retired New York–Washington Metroliner service, first operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and by Amtrak featured high-speed electric multiple-unit cars, see Budd Metroliner. EMUs powered by fuel cells are under development. If successful, this would avoid the need for third rail. An example is Alstom’s hydrogen-powered Coradia iLint.
The term hydrail has been coined for hydrogen-powered rail vehicles. Electro-diesel multiple unit Diesel multiple unit Battery electric multiple unit British electric multiple units
Rail replacement bus service
A rail replacement bus service uses buses to replace a passenger train service either on a temporary or permanent basis. The train service, replaced may be of any type such as light rail, streetcar, commuter rail, regional rail or heavy rail, intercity passenger service; the rail service may be replaced if the line is closed due to rail maintenance, a breakdown of a train, a rail accident, strike action, or if the rail service is not economically viable. Terms for a rail replacement bus service include bus bridge. Substitution of rail services by buses can be unpopular and subject to criticism, so the term bustitution is used pejoratively. A similar concept in some ways is motorization, but that term more broadly refers to the rise of the automobile as well as bus transportation. In Australia, a permanent or temporary rail-replacement service change is referred to as bustitution. In November 1941, the Western Australian Government Railways introduced its first rail replacement service, operating a service from Perth to Kojonup via Boddington.
By 1949, there were 28 buses, by 1959, more than fifty. On the Queensland Rail network, to relieve congestion on the single track Sunshine Coast line, the rail service is supplemented by a bus service operated by Kangaroo Bus Lines on weekdays between Caboolture and Nambour as route 649. NSW TrainLink, Transwa and V/Line all introduced extensive networks in New South Wales, Western Australia and Victoria in the 1970s and 1980s that replaced regional trains. Via Rail, the operator of the national passenger rail network, uses the term "bustitution" to refer to rail replacement with buses; as in the United Kingdom buses replaced rail services on closed lines. The most recent example can be found in County Wexford whereupon the suspension of rail services between Rosslare Europort and Waterford in 2010 Bus Éireann route 370 was introduced; however the bus takes longer than the train journey and fails to serve Waterford railway station. Bus have been used to replace rail in Japan when rail service have to be suspended due to disaster, economics, or engineering works.
Notably, in some cases where those rail lines are closed permanently, some of the former rail right-of-way are converted into bus right-of-way to provide grade-separated Bus Rapid Transit service. When train services operated by Transdev in Auckland train services are sometimes replaced by a bus, the resulting service is called Rail Bus. New Zealand Railways Road Services replaced many train routes with buses. During the British Railways Board's railway rationalisation in the 1960s, known as the Beeching cuts, bus substitution was an official policy for replacing train services on closed lines; this policy was unsuccessful, however, as the bus services were far slower than the train services they replaced, causing many passengers to give up on public transport altogether. Rail replacement bus services have been used to operate Parliamentary train services; when North London Railways services between Watford Junction and Croxley Green were withdrawn in March 1996, to avoid the legal complications and costs of actual closure, train services were replaced by buses.
The service was withdrawn when the branch was formally closed in September 2003. Following the withdrawal of Central Trains services between Stafford and Stoke-on-Trent to facilitate the West Coast Main Line upgrade at the request of the Strategic Rail Authority in May 2003, BakerBus route X1 was introduced to serve Norton Bridge, Stone and Wedgwood stations; when the train service was reintroduced by London Midland in December 2008, only Stone regained a rail service with the other stations continuing to be served by route X1. In October 2017, the Department for Transport declared Norton Bridge station closed, but will continue to fund the replacement bus service until March 2019. Following the withdrawal of services by Arriva CrossCountry between Reading and Brighton in December 2008 that were the only passenger services on three short sections of line between Ealing Broadway and Wandsworth Road, a replacement weekly bus service was introduced; the service ceased in June 2013. Rail-replacement bus services occurred on a large scale following the dismantling of the street railway systems of many cities in North America in the mid-20th century.
Temporary substitution of buses for trains may be done with Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach service. Rail-replacement bus services are common among urban rail transit systems due to unexpected service disruptions. For example, one of the effects of Hurricane Sandy in New York was that the New York City Subway required replacement bus service for several subway routes; as the subway runs 24/7/365, replacement bus service is provided when subway lines were closed for scheduled maintenance, so interruptions in subway service require replacement bus service during off-peak hours. Planning rail-replacement services in a high-patronage environment, such as a high-capacity rapid transit network, requires efficient use and management of time and resources in order to prevent major travel disruptions; this was exemplified by a July 2015 shutdown on the Toronto subway during rush hour caused by a communication system breakdown, in which the local transit operator opted not to use replacement buses as "it wasn't possible to replace the entire subway's capacity with buses".
A similar incident as Toronto happened in Singapore on 7 July 2015 after a mass shutdown on the North South East West Lines after a power system failure. Operator SMRT and rival SBS Transit did not activate bus bridging but made all buses free islandwide due to the sheer scale of t
The Stockholm archipelago is the largest archipelago in Sweden, the second-largest archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The water has a pH-value from 7.0 or lower, to be compared with 8.0 for seawater. Together with humic substances this sometimes causes a bit brownish water colour in the inner parts; the salinity varies between brackish water with poor salinity. In the outer parts of the archipelago, the salinity reaches around 0.6–0.7 per cent by weight, to be compared with at least 1.5 for beginning to taste salty and around 3.0 or more for proper oceanic water. Sea ice is formed in the inner parts every winter; the archipelago extends from Stockholm 60 kilometres to the east. In a north–south direction, it follows the coastline of the Södermanland and Uppland provinces, reaching from Öja island, south of Nynäshamn, to Väddö, north of Norrtälje, it is separated from Åland by a stretch of water named South Kvarken. A separate group of islands lies further north, near the town of Öregrund. Between Arholma and Landsort there are 24,000 islands and islets.
Some of the better-known islands are Dalarö, Finnhamn, Nässlingen, Husarö, Ingarö, Ljusterö, Möja, Nämdö, Rödlöga, Tynningö, Utö, Svartsö and Värmdö. The biggest towns of the archipelago, apart from Stockholm, are Nynäshamn and Norrtälje; the village of Ytterby, famous among chemists for naming no fewer than four chemical elements, is situated on Resarö in the Stockholm archipelago. The shipping routes from the Baltic to Stockholm pass through the archipelago. There are three main entrances suitable for deep-draught craft, those near Landsort, Söderarm; the Stockholm archipelago is a joint valley landscape, shaped – and is still being shaped – by post-glacial rebound. It was not until the Viking Age; the islands rise by about three millimeters each year. In 1719 the archipelago had an estimated population of 2,900, consisting of fishermen. Today the archipelago is a popular holiday destination with some 50,000 holiday cottages; the Stockholm Archipelago Foundation, dedicated to the preservation of the nature and culture of the archipelago, owns some 15% of its total area.
The inhabitants in the archipelago, from around the mid-1400s to the end of the second world war, were combined farmers and fishermen. Spring and autumn fishing was quite intensive in the outer archipelago from 1450 until the mid-1800s, many fishermen lived for long periods in the outer islands because of the long distances to their permanent houses in the inner archipelago; the combined farming and fishing culture lasted until around 1950–1955 when the younger generation, born during and directly after the war, started to leave the archipelago and look for jobs in the cities on the mainland. Today most of the small farms on the islands are closed and the fishing industry has disappeared. Many poets and artists have been influenced and fascinated by the Stockholm archipelago. Among them are August Strindberg, Ture Nerman, Roland Svensson, Ernst Didring and Aleister Crowley. Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson from the group ABBA wrote most of their songs in a cabin located on the archipelago. Boating is an popular activity with the sailing race Ornö runt being the largest in the archipelago.
This annual race, organised by the Tyresö Boat Club, has taken place every year since 1973. It requires registration. There are different entry classes, with the family class being the least competitive. In the winter skaters make excursions over the ice. Visiting the larger islands in the archipelago is easy all year round, but during winter period the routes depend on the ice conditions. Several companies have regular routes; the largest ship owner company is Waxholmsbolaget owned by the Stockholm County government. Taxi boats are available. In summer the archipelago bristles with private boats filled with people who take advantage of Allemansrätt, a law which gives anyone the right to go ashore or anchor on any ground not in the direct vicinity of buildings. List of archipelagos Örsö Strömma Canal Stockholm archipelago 24,000 islands and islets. Nautical chart: International no. 1205, SE61, Baltic Sea, Sea of Åland. Jeppe Wikström, title Havsskärgård, 2004. Images from the outer parts of Stockholm archipelago.
ISBN 91-89204-80-8 The Archipelago Foundation
A buffer stop, bumping post, bumper block or stopblock, is a device to prevent railway vehicles from going past the end of a physical section of track. The design of the buffer stop is dependent, in part, on the kind of couplings that the railway uses, since the coupling gear is the first part of the vehicle that the buffer stop touches; the term "buffer stop" is of British origin, since railways in Great Britain principally use buffer-and-screw couplings between vehicles. Several different types of buffer stop have been developed, they differ depending on the intended application. Buffer stops with anticlimbers; these are important for passenger railway applications, because the anticlimbers prevent telescoping of the railroad cars during a head-on impact. Buffer stops for a knuckle coupler or an SA3 coupler Buffer stops with traditional "buffers" on either side Hydraulic buffer stops Friction buffer stops If there is extra room behind the bumper block, there is a sand or ballast drag, designed to further retard a runaway train.
One such accident occurred when a Northern Line train powered past the bumper block at Moorgate station in 1975 on the London Underground system. Because of its mass, a train transfers an enormous amount of kinetic energy in a collision with a buffer stop. Rigid buffers can safely cope only with low-speed impacts. To improve stopping performance, a way of dissipating this energy is needed, through compression or friction. Following a buffer stop accident at Frankfurt am Main in 1902, the Rawie company developed a large range of energy-absorbing buffer stops. Similar hydraulic buffer stops were developed by Ransomes & Rapier in the UK; when it is desired to slow or stop moving trains, without erecting a solid buffer stop, dowty retarders may be employed. They press upwards against the wheels, may optionally be turned off as required. Raja Trains Depot in Tehran Stopping speed: 20 km/h Stopping distance: 20 m. Wheel stops or car stops are used to stop small numbers of light vehicles at the end of level storage tracks or to chock individual vehicles on shallow grades.
22 October 1895 – Gare Montparnasse, France – express train overruns buffer stop and falls into street below. 4 April 1901 – at the Top Points of the Lithgow Zig Zag, a train lost control on the 1 in 42 gradient and failed to stop at the buffer stops, coming to rest overhanging Ida Falls Gully, with an immediate 200 ft drop in front of the engine. 1902 – Frankfurt am Main, Germany – Serious buffer stop collision inspires development of Rawie range of energy-absorbing buffer stops. 27 July 1903 – Glasgow St Enoch – 16 killed 27 injured 1948 – diesel train through buffer stops at Los Angeles. 15 January 1953 – Union Station, Washington, D. C. – Federal Express No. 173, pulled by PRR 4876, overruns the stop. The locomotive enters the concourse of the station building before falling through the floor. A temporary floor was built over the hole and locomotive for the upcoming inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower before the locomotive was cut into three pieces and shipped to Altoona, for repairs. 1972 – BART train went through buffer stops due to fault in automatic train operation.
28 February 1975 – Moorgate Underground rail crash – 43 killed, 74 injured – buffer stop collision made far worse by small size "tube" train running into large dimensioned dead-end tunnel beyond. The tunnel could accommodate full-size surface stock thus permitting the smaller train to concertina inside the tunnel. 13 April 1978 – Budapest, Hungary – commuter train overruns a buffer stop owing to brake failure and crashes into the station building. 16 killed, 25 injured. 8 November 1986 – Hua Lamphong, Thailand – 5 killed, 7 injured – buffer stop collision made by an unmanned train at a speed of 50 km/h. 8 January 1991 – Cannon Street station rail crash, London – 2 killed, 200+ injured – commuter train hits buffer stops. 11 July 1995 – Largs – Class 318 EMU goes through buffer stops. 24 July 2001 – ScotRail commuter train hits the buffers as it pulls into Edinburgh Waverley injuring seven people. 26 October 2006 – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia – a Star LRT train goes through buffer stops at the end of a stabling area and ends up dangling over street.
The train appears to have been empty of passengers. 21 December 2009 – Zagreb, Croatia – commuter train number 5100 from Sisak Caprag crashes into the platform bumper. The cause was antifreeze fluid in the locomotive's braking system which had frozen because of the low outside temperature. Luckily, the speed of the train was only between 20 km/h. 60 people from the train were injured, 7 of them seriously. There were no injuries among people on the platform; the engineer leaned out of the cab window to warn people on the platform that his brakes had failed and that the train would crash at the end of the platform. 25 July 2010 – Stavoren railway station, the Netherlands – A maintenance train collided with a buffer stop at the single-track terminus station. The train rammed a small shop, stopped at the square behind it. Only two people were injured, out of four people on the train; the accident happened late at night, when passenger services had finished. The cause is being investigated. 1 January 2011 – Malmö, Sweden – An X 2000 train reverses into the buffer stop.
The last car telescopes over the power unit. The driver was the only person on board the train, he sustained minor injuries. 2 March 2011 – San Francisco 4th and King Street Station, San Francisco, California – A Caltrain com
Stadsgården refers to the wharf on the shore of the Baltic Sea in Stockholm, located between Slussen in the west and Masthamnen in the east. The word gård in the name comes from skeppsgård, a word used in archaic Swedish for an area used for port and dock operations. Stadsgården constituted only the western, broader part of the shore, near to a steep cliff face on Fjällgatan; the name is credited to have first occurred in 1448, in a text mentioning "en tompt vppa sudra malm belegna vidh Stadz garden". At least from the early 14th century, so called "tran boats" or "seal boats" lay fastened to poles on the water around the area. In the boats, seal fat from the Stockholm archipelago and the Bothnian Sea was cooked, the resulting whale oil from this smelly contraption was packed in cans and sold further; the boats were left until the start of the 17th century. A certain building, containing stables, was prominent in the area. In Stockholm's privilege letter from 1594, proposals to tear down this building to give place for ship construction docks were mentioned: "Så skall och stadzgården på Södre malmen lydhe och liggie under stadhen, såsom af ålder varidt hafwer, och aldelis blifve fri och opbygd, på thet rum måtte vare att brådhe och byggie skipp ther sammestädz.
The bygninger, som ther nu opsatte äre emoth stadzens och borgerskapetz vilie, måghe bortrifves.""So should the Stadsgården in Södermalm lay under the city, where there has been sea, be free and built, there should be room to build ships there. The buildings that now stand there, against the will of the city and its inhabitants, must be dismantled." Ship construction on the area was started in 1687 when the Södra varvet in Tegelviken was founded. In the Karta öfver S:ta Catharina församling from 1674, a long row of narrow lots towards Saltsjön is visible, but no road connecting them. On the map, Tegelvik remains a bay. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the name Skeppsbron, or Nya Skeppsbron, is mentioned, relating to Skeppsbron in Gamla stan. In an attempt by city architect Johan Eberhard to improve the Stadsgården docks in the end of the 1730s, a long wooden wharf was built. From the wharf, wheat and coal were distributed to be transported across the sea. In wintertime, the wharf was used by many vinterliggarna.
Work to replace the wooden wharf by a stone construction proceeded slowly because of the great depth of water. From 1875 to 1882, a new wooden wharf was built instead, resting on three rows of poles, with a length of 528 metres. Railway tracks were laid down on the wharf and connected with the Sammanbildingsbanan in Stockholm and the Skeppsbro wharf track. A magazine was built in 1883, from 1888 to 1889 the Lilla Tullhuset was built. During the name revision in 1885, the name for the area between Slussen and Tegelviksplan was established as Stadsgården, having been called Stadsgårdhamnen. In the late 19th century, a railway track, Saltsjöbanan, was built and completed on 1 July 1893; the Stadsgården railway station was in use from 23 December 1893 to 21 December 1936, when it was moved to Slussen. The station building, dating from 1914, was sold to Stockholm's Christian Seaman Care, the building became known as Sjömansinstitutes hus. Work between 1911 and 1915 replaced the old wooden wharf with a granite-enforced concrete wharf, 12 metres longer than the old wharf.
At the same time, the sea bed around the wharf was scooped. The traffic way Stadsgårdleden was replaced a large part of the older traffic way; the traffic way is about 1.3 km long, the way from Söder Mälarstrand passes by Södra Järngraven, Saltsjörampen, Franska bukten, Stadsgårdhamnen and Tegelviksslingan. The major attraction in the west is the Katarina Elevator and in the east, the cliff with Fåfängan on its top. Stadsgårdhissen is located halfway between Slussen and Tegelviksplan, from there, the 638-metre Stadsgårdtunneln, located on the Saltsjöbanan railway track, begins. Today, "Stadsgården" refers to the 300-metre road part connection Östra Slussgatan with Stadsgårdleden. Along "Stadsgårdhamnen", the Stockholm city wharves can be found, with terminals for cruise ferries and ferries to Finland, including the Viking Line terminal. Kerstin Söderlund & Marcus Hjulhammar: Slussen: Arkeologisk utredning 2007, Stockholm city museum, department of cultural milieu Media for Stadsgården at Stockholmskällan
This article covers only the area of Nacka's municipal seat. See Nacka Municipality for other parts. Nacka is part of Stockholm urban area in Sweden; the municipality's name harks back to a 16th-century industrial operation established by the Crown at Nacka farmstead where conditions for water mills are good. However, somewhat confusingly, that spot is not densely populated today and the municipal seat is on land that once belonged to Järla farmstead on the other side of Lake Järla. On 9 December 2014, Stockholm police raided a data center in a former bomb shelter under a hill in Nacka municipality. Although it was rumored the raid targeted popular torrent site The Pirate Bay, officials from The Pirate Bay have revealed that this is false. Greenwich, Connecticut Sickla Köpkvarter – a retail park and shopping district in Nacka