Mario Vargas Llosa
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa, more known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, journalist and college professor. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, one of the leading writers of his generation; some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom. In 2010 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance and defeat."Vargas Llosa rose to fame in the 1960s with novels such as The Time of the Hero, The Green House, the monumental Conversation in the Cathedral. He writes prolifically across an array of literary genres, including literary criticism and journalism, his novels include comedies, murder mysteries, historical novels, political thrillers. Several, such as Captain Pantoja and the Special Service and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, have been adapted as feature films.
Many of Vargas Llosa's works are influenced by the writer's perception of Peruvian society and his own experiences as a native Peruvian. However, he has expanded his range, tackled themes that arise from other parts of the world. In his essays, Vargas Llosa has made many criticisms of nationalism in different parts of the world. Another change over the course of his career has been a shift from a style and approach associated with literary modernism, to a sometimes playful postmodernism. Like many Latin American writers, Vargas Llosa has been politically active throughout his career. While he supported the Cuban revolutionary government of Fidel Castro, Vargas Llosa became disenchanted with its policies after the imprisonment of Cuban poet Heberto Padilla in 1971, he ran for the Peruvian presidency in 1990 with the center-right Frente Democrático coalition, advocating classical liberal reforms, but lost the election to Alberto Fujimori. He is the person who, in 1990, "coined the phrase that circled the globe," declaring on Mexican television, "Mexico is the perfect dictatorship," a statement which became an adage during the following decade.
Mario Vargas Llosa was born to a middle-class family on March 28, 1936, in the southern Peruvian provincial city of Arequipa. He was the only child of Ernesto Vargas Maldonado and Dora Llosa Ureta, who separated a few months before his birth. Shortly after Mario's birth, his father revealed. Vargas Llosa lived with his maternal family in Arequipa until a year after his parents' divorce, when his maternal grandfather was named honorary consul for Peru in Bolivia. With his mother and her family, Vargas Llosa moved to Cochabamba, where he spent the early years of his childhood, his maternal family, the Llosas, were sustained by his grandfather. As a child, Vargas Llosa was led to believe that his father had died—his mother and her family did not want to explain that his parents had separated. During the government of Peruvian President José Bustamante y Rivero, Vargas Llosa's maternal grandfather obtained a diplomatic post in the northern Peruvian coastal city of Piura and the entire family returned to Peru.
While in Piura, Vargas Llosa attended elementary school at the religious academy Colegio Salesiano. In 1946, at the age of ten, he met his father for the first time, his parents re-established their relationship and lived in Magdalena del Mar, a middle-class Lima suburb, during his teenage years. While in Lima, he studied at the Colegio La Salle, a Christian middle school, from 1947 to 1949; when Vargas Llosa was fourteen, his father sent him to the Leoncio Prado Military Academy in Lima. At the age of 16, before his graduation, Vargas Llosa began working as an amateur journalist for local newspapers, he withdrew from the military academy and finished his studies in Piura, where he worked for the local newspaper, La Industria, witnessed the theatrical performance of his first dramatic work, La huida del Inca. In 1953, during the government of Manuel A. Odría, Vargas Llosa enrolled in Lima's National University of San Marcos, to study law and literature, he married Julia Urquidi, his maternal uncle's sister-in-law, in 1955 at the age of 19.
Vargas Llosa began his literary career in earnest in 1957 with the publication of his first short stories, "The Leaders" and "The Grandfather", while working for two Peruvian newspapers. Upon his graduation from the National University of San Marcos in 1958, he received a scholarship to study at the Complutense University of Madrid in Spain. In 1960, after his scholarship in Madrid had expired, Vargas Llosa moved to France under the impression that he would receive a scholarship to study there. Despite Mario and Julia's unexpected financial status, the couple decided to remain in Paris where he began to write prolifically, their marriage lasted only a few more years, ending in divorce in 1964. A year Vargas Llosa married his first cousin, Patricia Llosa, with whom he had three children: Álvaro Vargas Llosa, a writer and editor.
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different countries, constituent states, trade unions, political parties or other groups. The term denoting a parley during battle in the Late Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin congressus. In the mid-1770s, the term was chosen by the 13 British colonies for the Continental Congress to emphasize the status of each colony represented there as a self-governing entity. Subsequent to the use of congress as the name for the legislature of the U. S. federal government, the term has been adopted by many nations to refer to their national legislatures. The following congresses were formal meetings of representatives of different nations: The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of Devolution The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle The Congress of Berlin, which settled the Eastern Question after the Russo-Turkish War The Congress of Gniezno The Congress of Laibach The Congress of Panama, an 1826 meeting organized by Simon Bolivar.
The Congress of Paris, which ended the Crimean War The Congress of Troppau The Congress of Tucumán The Congress of Utrecht The Congress of Verona The Congress of Vienna, which settled the shape of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars The Congress of the Council of Europe. Countries with Congresses and presidential systems: The Congress of Guatemala is the unicameral legislature of Guatemala; the National Congress of Honduras is the legislative branch of the government of Honduras. The Congress of Mexico is the legislative branch of Mexican government; the Congress of Paraguay is the bicameral legislature of Paraguay. The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina; the Congress of the Dominican Republic is the bicameral legislature of the Dominican Republic. The Palau National Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the Republic of Palau; the Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia is the unicameral legislature of the Federated States of Micronesia.
The Congress of the Philippines is the legislative branch of the Philippine government. The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral legislature of Peru; the Congress of Colombia is the bicameral legislature of Colombia. The United States Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the United States federal government; the National Congress of Bolivia was the national legislature of Bolivia before being replaced by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly. The National Congress of Brazil is Brazil's bicameral legislature; the National Congress of Chile is the legislative branch of the government of Chile. The National Congress of Ecuador was the unicameral legislature of Ecuador before being replaced by the National Assembly; the Congress of Mauritania France: Although France has a Parliament, the term Congress is used on two circumstances: the Congress of the French Parliament, name used when both houses sit together as a single body at the Palace of Versailles, to vote on revisions to the Constitution, to listen to an address by the President of the French Republic, and, in the past, to elect the President of the Republic the Congress of New Caledonia, a territorial assembly ICCA Congress & Exhibition The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.
The Congress of the Confederation was the legislature of the United States under the Articles of Confederation. The National Congress of Belgium was a temporary legislative assembly in 1830, which created a constitution for the new state. In France, the Congress of France denotes a formal and convened joint session of both houses of Parliament to ratify an amendment to the Constitution or to listen to a speech by the President of the French Republic. Spanish Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch; the legislature of the People's Republic of China is known in English as the National People's Congress. The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was the legislature and nominal supreme institution of state power in the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, a Russian institution modeled after USSR one, existed in 1990—1993. Congress is included in the name of several political parties those in former British colonies: Guyana People's National Congress India Indian National Congress All India Trinamool Congress Kerala Congress Nationalist Congress Party Tamil Maanila Congress YSR Congress BSR Congress All India N.
R. Congress Lesotho Basotho Congress Party Lesotho Congress for Democracy Lesotho People's Congress Malawi Malawi Congress Party Malaysia Malaysian Indian Congress Namibia Congress of Democrats Pakistan Peoples Revolutionary Congress Pakistan Sudan National Congress Fiji National Congress of Fiji Canary Islands National Congress of the Canaries Nepal Nepali Congress Sierra Leone All People's Congress South Africa African National Congress Congress of the People Pan-Africanist Congress Sri Lanka All Ceylon Tamil Congress Sri Lanka Muslim Congress Swaziland Ngwane National Liberatory Congress Trinidad and
Ministry of Culture (Peru)
The Ministry of Culture in Peru was created on 20 July, 2010, by Law Nº 29565 in Government of Alan García. The inaugural minister was Juan Ossio Acuña after his appointment on 4 September 2010; the current minister is Patricia Balbuena
Fernando Martín Zavala Lombardi was the Prime Minister of Peru, in office from 28 July 2016 to 17 September 2017. He was the President of Backus and Johnston, a subsidiary of SABMiller. From 2005 to 2006 he was Minister of Finance. Zavala studied economics at the University of the Pacific and obtained a Masters in Business Administration degree from the University of Piura, he studied for an MBA at the University of Birmingham in England. He was assistant manager of Samtronics Peru, he was Chief Financial Officer of Apoyo S. A. a consultant and pollster. In 1995 he became the Chief Executive Officer of Peru's National Institute for the Defense of Competition and Protection of Intellectual Property, a position he held until 2000, he was Peru's Minister of Economy and Finance under President Alejandro Toledo and Prime Minister Pedro Pablo Kuczynski from 2005 to 2006. In 2006 he left the government and began working at Backus and Johnston as Vice President of Strategy and Corporate Relations. After three years in office, he was named the president of National Brewery – SABMiller Panamá.
In November 2013 he returned to Peru as President of Johnston. In July 2016, he was appointed Prime Minister of Peru by the President of Peru, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, having held the office until 17 September 2017, after his cabinet was censored by a vote of no confidence two days earlier. Zavala has been a member of the Boards of Directors of Interbank, inmobiliaria IDE, Cerveceria San Juan, Banco Falabella, Enersur
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Francisco José Lombardi
Francisco José Lombardi is a Peruvian film director and screenwriter. He has directed 17 films since 1977, he received the Silver Shell for Best Director in 1985 for his film The City and the Dogs based on the novel La ciudad y los perros by Mario Vargas Llosa. His film Without Compassion was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival. Maruja in Hell The City and the Dogs The Mouth of the Wolf Fallen from Heaven Without Compassion No se lo Digas a Nadie Captain Pantoja and the Special Services Tinta roja Black Butterfly Francisco José Lombardi on IMDb