Resurrection of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus from the dead after his crucifixion. According to the Apostle Paul, as stated by Newbigin, "in the ministry and resurrection of Jesus God has acted decisively to reveal and effect his purpose of redemption for the whole world." According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God", will return again to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God. The earliest surviving Christian writings are the letters of Paul, written between 50-57 AD. In one of these, his First Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes on what he has been told of how, after his death and burial, the resurrected Jesus appeared to Peter to "the Twelve," to five hundred followers to James to "all the Apostles." He claims that Jesus subsequently appeared to him in the same way he did to the others, in 2 Corinthians 12 he tells of "a man in Christ who... was caught up to the third heaven", while the language is obscure it is plausible that he saw Jesus enthroned at the right hand of God.
In the Epistle to the Philippians he describes how the body of the resurrected Christ is utterly different to the one he wore when he had "the appearance of a man," and holds out a similar glorified state, when Christ "will transform our lowly body," as the goal of the Christian life - "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God," and Christians entering the kingdom will be "putting off the body of the flesh". According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection, he stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans. Habermas argues three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body: Paul is a Pharisee and therefore believes in a physical resurrection. In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up". In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma to be like unto his soma".
According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma. According to Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."Many scholars have contended that in discussion on the resurrection, the apostle Paul refers to a rabbinic style transmission of an early authoritative tradition that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth. For this and other reasons, it is believed that this creed is of pre-Pauline origin. Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death and resurrection of Jesus"; the creed's ultimate origins are within the Jerusalem apostolic community having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection. Paul Barnett writes that this creedal formula, others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 " after his conversion.
All four gospels climax with the resurrection, preparing the reader by having Jesus predict it, or through allusions that only the reader will understand. The moment of resurrection is not described; the body of Jesus was buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea in accordance with Mosaic Law, which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown. When women followers of Jesus came to the tomb early on the third day they found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty. An angel told them that they should inform the remaining disciples. In Matthew and John, although not in Mark, the resurrection announcement is followed by post-resurrection appearances of Jesus to his followers - the number and location of these varies, from a single appearance in Galilee in Matthew to several appearances in Jerusalem in Luke to appearances in both Jerusalem and Galillee in John; the Apostle Paul records a series of post-resurrection appearances, the last being to himself - an appearance to Paul is recorded in detail in Acts, but it differs from that in the Pauline epistles.
These end with the ascension of Jesus to heaven - this is assumed in all the gospels and in other New Testament literature but described only in Acts, where it prepares the reader for the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and for the missionary task of the early church. Paul's proof of the resurrection is the appearances of the risen Lord to himself. At some point such appearances ceased - after a single day according to Luke, after forty according to Acts, although the Paul's experience was many years after that. In any event, the end of personal appearances meant that for the gospel-authors alternative proofs were needed; these were found in the narratives of the empty tomb, angelic announcement, witnesses to post-resurrection appearances on Earth rather than in heaven. In the process they moved from a Jewish to a Hellenistic and Roman paradigm in which Jesus dies and is buried, his body disappears, he returns in an immortalised physical body, able to appear and disappear at will like a
Dormition of the Mother of God
The Dormition of the Mother of God, Albanian: Fjetja e Shën Marisë, is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches which commemorates the "falling asleep" or death of Mary the Theotokos, her bodily resurrection before being taken up into heaven. It is celebrated on 15 August as the Feast of the Dormition of the Mother of God; the Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates the Dormition not on a fixed date, but on the Sunday nearest 15 August. The death or Dormition of Mary is not recorded in the Christian canonical scriptures. Hippolytus of Thebes, a 7th- or 8th-century author, claims in his preserved chronology to the New Testament that Mary lived for 11 years after the death of Jesus, dying in AD 41; the term Dormition expresses the belief that the Virgin died without suffering, in a state of spiritual peace. This belief does not rest on any scriptural basis, but is affirmed by Orthodox Christian Holy Tradition, it is testified to in some old Apocryphal writings, but neither the Orthodox Church nor other Christians regard these as possessing scriptural authority.
The Feast of the Dormition is preceded by a two-week fast, referred to as the Dormition Fast. From August 1 to August 14 Orthodox and Eastern Catholics fast from red meat, meat products, dairy products, fish and wine; the Dormition Fast is a stricter fast than either the Nativity Fast or the Apostles' Fast, with only wine and oil allowed on weekends. As with the other Fasts of the Church year, there is a Great Feast. In some places, the services on weekdays during the Fast are similar to the services during Great Lent. Many churches and monasteries in the Russian tradition perform the lenten services on at least the first day of the Dormition Fast. In the Greek tradition, during the Fast either the Great Paraklesis or the Small Paraklesis is celebrated every evening except Saturday evening and the Eves of the Transfiguration and the Dormition; the first day of the Dormition Fast is a feast day called the Procession of the Cross, on which day it is customary to have an outdoor procession and perform the Lesser Blessing of Water.
In Eastern Orthodoxy it is the day of the Holy Seven Maccabees, Martyrs Abimus, Gurias, Eusebonus and Marcellus, their mother Solomonia, their teacher Eleazar. Therefore, the day is sometimes referred to as "Makovei", it is considered the First of the three "Feasts of the Saviour" in August, the Feast to the All-Merciful Saviour and the Most Holy Mother of God. In Orthodoxy and Catholicism, in the language of the scripture, death is called a "sleeping" or "falling asleep". A prominent example of this is the name of this feast; the Dormition tradition is associated with various places, most notably with Jerusalem, which contains Mary's Tomb and the Basilica of the Dormition, Ephesus, which contains the House of the Virgin Mary, with Constantinople where the Cincture of the Theotokos was enshrined from the 5th through 14th centuries. The first four Christian centuries are silent regarding the end of the Virgin Mary's life, though it is asserted, without surviving documentation, that the feast of the Dormition was being observed in Jerusalem shortly after the Council of Ephesus.
Up until the 5th century Church Fathers do not mention the death of the Virgin, before the 4th-5th century Dormition was not celebrated among the Christians as a holy day. For example, Epiphanius of Salamis, a Jew by birth, born in Phoenicia, converted to Christianity in adulthood and lived as a monk for over 20 years in Palestine from 335–340 to 362, writes in "Panarion" in "Contra antidicomarianitas" about the death of the Virgin Mary the following: If any think am mistaken, let them search through the scriptures any neither find Mary's death, nor whether or not she died, nor whether or not she was buried—even though John travelled throughout Asia, and yet, nowhere does. Scripture kept silence because of the overwhelming wonder, not to throw men's minds into consternation. For I dare not say—though I have my suspicions, I keep silent. Just as her death is not to be found, so I may have found some traces of the holy and blessed Virgin.... The holy virgin may have died and been buried—her falling asleep was with honour, her death in purity, her crown in virginity.
Or she may have been put to death—as the scripture says,'And a sword shall pierce through her soul'—her fame is among the martyrs and her holy body, by which light rose on the world, amid blessings. Or she may have remained alive. No one knows her end, but we must not honour the saints to excess. It is time for the error of those. Christians in the late 4th century had different opinions regarding Mary's death. For this reason, for example, wrote: Neither the letter of Scripture nor Tradition does not teach us that Mary had left this life as a con
The Epitaphios is a Christian religious icon consisting of a large and richly adorned cloth, bearing an image of the dead body of Christ accompanied by his mother and other figures, following the Gospel account. It is used during the liturgical services of Good Friday and Holy Saturday in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, as well as those Eastern Catholic Churches, which follow the Byzantine Rite, it exists in painted or mosaic form, on wall or panel. The Epitaphios is a common short form of the Epitáphios Thrēnos, the "Lamentation upon the Grave" in Greek, the main part of the service of the Matins of Holy Saturday, served in Good Friday evening. Armenian Orthodox have the tradition of the epitaphios, their celebration on this day is called T'aghman Kark. The word Epitáphios is composite, from the Greek ἐπί, epí, "on" or "upon", τάφος, táphos, "grave" or "tomb". In Greek the word has, inter alia, the meaning of both the English epitaph and the liturgical one presented here, the latter having been acquired during the Christian period.
The icon depicts Christ after he has been removed from the cross, lying supine, as his body is being prepared for burial. The scene is taken from the Gospel of St. John. Shown around him, mourning his death, may be his mother. Nicodemus and others may be depicted; the Four Evangelists will be shown in the corners. Sometimes, the body of Christ appears alone, except for angels, as if lying in state; the oldest surviving embroidered icon, of about 1200 is in this form. The equivalent subjects in the West are called the "Anointing of Christ's body", or Lamentation of Christ, or the Pietà, with just Christ held by Mary; the image may be embroidered or painted on fabric or some other substrate, mounted in a wide cloth border edged in gold fringe. Some cloths are missing the corners of the border; the troparion of the day is embroidered in gold letters around the edges of the icon: The Noble Joseph, taking down Thy most pure Body from the Tree, did wrap it in clean linen with sweet spices, he laid it in a new tomb.
In the Late Byzantine period, the icon depicting the burial of Jesus was painted below a Christ Pantocrator in the apse of the prothesis in Orthodox churches, illustrating a liturgical hymn which celebrated Christ "On the throne above and in the tomb below". The icon, in particular a panel mosaic version taken to Rome in the 12th century, developed in the West into the subject Man of Sorrows, enormously popular in the Late Middle Ages, though that image shows a living Christ with eyes open; the Epitaphios is used on the last two days of Holy Week in the Byzantine rite, as part of the ceremonies marking the death and resurrection of Christ. It is placed on the Holy Table, where it remains throughout the Paschal season; the Deposition from the Cross. Prior to the Apokathelosis, Vespers on the afternoon of Great Friday, the priest and deacon will place the Epitaphios on the Holy Table; the priest may anoint the Epitaphios with perfumed oil. A chalice veil and the Gospel Book is placed on top of the Epitaphios.
This may be either the large Gospel Book used at the Divine Liturgy. During the reading of the Gospel lesson which recounts the death and burial of Christ, an icon depicting the soma of Christ is taken down from a cross, set up in the middle of the church; the soma is taken into the sanctuary. Near the end of the service, the priest and deacon, accompanied by acolytes with candles and incense, bring the Epitaphios in procession from the Holy Table into the center of the church and place it on a table, richly decorated for that purpose; the Gospel Book is laid on top of the epitaphios. In some Greek churches, an elaborately carved canopy, called a kouvouklion, stands over the Epitaphios; this bier or catafalque represents the Tomb of Christ, is made of wood elaborately carved. On Good Friday morning, the bier is decorated with spring flowers white and purple, until it is covered by the flowers in its entirety; the Tomb is sprinkled with flower petals and rosewater, decorated with candles, ceremonially censed as a mark of respect.
The bells of the church are tolled, in traditionally Orthodox countries, flags are lowered to half-mast. The priest and faithful venerate the Epitaphios as the choir chants hymns. In Slavic churches, the service of Compline will be served next, during which a special Canon will be chanted which recalls the lamentations of the Theotokos; the faithful continue to visit the tomb and venerate the Epitaphios throughout the afternoon and evening, until Matins—which is served in the evening during Holy Week, so that the largest number of people can attend. The form which the veneration of the epitaphios takes will vary between ethnic traditions; some will make three prostrations kiss the image of Christ on the Epitaphios and the Gospel Book, make three more prostrations. Sometimes, the faithful will crawl under the table on which the Epitaphios has been placed, as though entering into death with Christ. Others may light a candle and/or say a short prayer with bowed head
Pisanica is a decorated Croatian Easter egg that comes from an old Slavic custom dating back to pagan times. During Easter, eggs would be painted with bright colors, would be given as gifts to young children or a significant other. Before paint became common, villagers would have to use whatever resources they had available around them to make the dyes and paints themselves; the most common color for eggs was red, due to the abundance of other vegetables. In the Međimurje area, soot would be mixed with oak to make a dark brown color. Green plants would be used for green dye; the word pisanica is derived from the Croatian word that means "writing." The most common phrase put on pisanicas is Happy Easter, or "Sretan Uskrs." Other common decorations are doves, flowers, traditional designs, other slogans wishing health and happiness. The day before Easter, Roman Catholics and other Christians go to a late night mass carrying a basket of traditional food (including bread and eggs. During the mass, priests bless the food.
On Easter day, a traditional game is played in which at least two people choose eggs and hold them vertically while one person taps the end of the other egg with their end, to see whose will crack. Anyone whose egg cracks must choose another and tap the other person's egg, they continue until all the eggs have been used and cracked but the last one. Whoever holds the strongest egg in the end which wins. Easter egg Egg decorating in Slavic culture Pisanka Pysanka Croatian Easter USKRSNI OBIČAJI U HRVATSKOJ
Easter postcards are a form of postcard that people send to each other at Easter. They have now changed to e-cards rather than postcards, but their purpose remains the same; the tradition of sending Easter postcards to relatives and friends developed during the end of the 19th century. Although only a few were sent in 1898, the cards subsequently became popular worldwide. In the beginning, monochrome as well as colored cards were printed. Most of the time, the center of the cards contained an oversized egg. During the first years during which Easter postcards were sent, the front side was empty; this was the space for senders to write their greetings because post offices would only allow the address and the stamp on the back side. Because of that, the artistically precious illustrations were deformed. In 1905, post offices in Austria and Germany separated the back side of the cards into two halves; the right half served as before and the other half was the new space for the message. In 1906 this was allowed by the world-post-congress in Rome.
Circa 1910, the cards were monochrome pictures which were sometimes colored with children in the context with lambs and eggs. Young girls were a symbol for hope; the Easter bunny, a personified symbol of fruitfulness, was portrayed with eggs. German publishers were leading in the production of Easter postcards before the First World War. During the time of the First World War, children were replaced with soldiers and a military appearance of the Easter bunny was common. After the First World War, photos no longer served as the foundation for Easter postcards. A popular motive was Jesus in the open countryside surrounded by sheep. Cards with flowers were common. During times of prosperity, the cards were created using chromolithography. Many impressive cards still exist with silver and relief-stamping; the number of Easter postcards declined through the Second World War. Since the number of cards sent has declined. Easter Postcards, Clip Arts, Vector illustrations, Icons Easter postcards from 1898 until today - Cards from 42 countries - exhibition Easter Vintage Postcards
Passion of Jesus
In Christianity, the Passion is the short final period in the life of Jesus beginning with his triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his crucifixion and his death on Good Friday. It includes, among other events, the last supper, Jesus' agony in the garden, his arrest by the Sanhedrin priests, his trial before Pontius Pilate; those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events are known as the "Passion narratives". In some Christian communities, commemoration of the Passion includes remembrance of the sorrow of Mary, the mother of Jesus, on the Friday of Sorrows; the word passion has taken on a more general application and now may apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio. The accounts of the Passion are found in the four canonical gospels, Mark and John. Three of these, Matthew and Luke, known as the Synoptic Gospels, give similar accounts; the Gospel of John account varies slightly. The events include: The conspiracy against Jesus by the Jewish Sanhedrin priests and the teachers of the law, now known as Council Friday.
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, his anger and outburst at the Cleansing of the Temple A meal a few days before Passover. A woman anoints Jesus, he says. In Jerusalem, the Last Supper shared by his disciples. Jesus gives final instructions, predicts his betrayal, tells them all to remember him. On the path to Gethsemane after the meal. Jesus tells them they will all fall away that night. Gethsemane that night, Jesus prays, the disciples rest. Judas Iscariot leads in either "a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees", or a "large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests and elders of the people," which arrests Jesus. During the arrest in Gethsemane, someone takes a sword and cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus; the high priest's palace that night. The arresting party brings Jesus to the Sanhedrin. According to Matthew's Gospel, the court "spat in his face and struck him with their fists." They send him to Pontius Pilate. According to the synoptic gospels, the high priest who examines Jesus is Caiaphas.
The courtyard outside the high priest's palace, the same time. Peter joined the mob awaiting Jesus' fate; the cock crows and Peter remembers what Jesus had said. The governor's palace, early morning. Pilate, the Roman governor, examines Jesus, decides. In response to the screaming mob Pilate sends Jesus out to be crucified. According to the Gospel of Matthew, the betrayer, is filled with remorse and tries to return the money he was paid for betraying Jesus; when the high priests say that, his affair, Judas throws the money into the temple, goes off, hangs himself. Golgotha, a hill outside Jerusalem morning through mid afternoon. Jesus dies; the Gospel of Luke states that Pilate sends Jesus to be judged by Herod Antipas because as a Galilean he is under his jurisdiction. Herod hopes Jesus will perform a miracle for him. Herod mocks him and sends him back to Pilate after giving him an "elegant" robe to wear. All the Gospels relate. Matthew and John have Pilate offer a choice between Jesus and Barabbas to the crowd.
In all the Gospels, Pilate asks Jesus if he is King of the Jews and Jesus replies "So you say". Once condemned by Pilate, he was flogged before execution; the Canonical Gospels, except Luke, record that Jesus is taken by the soldiers to the Praetorium where, according to Matthew and Mark, the whole contingent of soldiers has been called together. They place a purple robe on him, put a crown of thorns on his head, according to Matthew, put a rod in his hand, they mock him by hailing him as "King of the Jews", paying homage and hitting him on the head with the rod. According to the Gospel of John, Pilate has Jesus brought out a second time, wearing the purple robe and the crown of thorns, in order to appeal his innocence before the crowd, saying Ecce homo. But, John represents, the priests urge the crowd to demand Jesus' death. Pilate resigns himself to the decision, washing his hands before the people as a sign that Jesus' blood will not be upon him. According to the Gospel of Matthew they replied, "His blood be on us and on our children!"Mark and Matthew record that Jesus is returned his own clothes, prior to being led out for execution.
According to the Gospel accounts he is forced, like other victims of crucifixion, to drag his own cross to Golgotha, the location of the execution. The three Synoptic Gospels refer to a man cal
An egg hunt is a game during which decorated eggs or Easter eggs are hidden for children to find. Real hard-boiled eggs, which are dyed or painted, artificial eggs made of plastic filled with chocolate or candies, or foil-wrapped egg-shaped chocolates of various sizes are hidden in various places; the game is played outdoors, but can be played indoors. The children collect the eggs in a basket; when the hunt is over, prizes may be given out for various achievements, such as the largest number of eggs collected, for the largest or smallest egg, for the most eggs of a specific color, consolation prizes or booby prizes. Real eggs may further be used in egg tapping contests. If eggs filled with confetti left from Mardi Gras are used an egg fight may follow. Eggs are placed with varying degree of concealment, to accommodate children of varying ages and development levels. In South German folk traditions it was customary to add extra obstacles to the game by placing them into hard-to reach places among nettles or thorns.
The egg was a symbol of the rebirth of the earth in pre-Christian celebrations of spring. However, the Easter egg itself was defined by early Christians as an Easter symbol of the resurrection of Jesus: the egg symbol was likened to the tomb from which Christ arose. Lizette Larson-Miller, a professor with the Graduate Theological Union of Berkeley, traces the specific custom of the Easter egg hunt to the Protestant Christian Reformer Martin Luther, stating "We know that Martin Luther had Easter egg hunts where the men hid the eggs for the women and children, it has this connection back to this idea of eggs being the tomb." At least since the 17th century the idea of the Easter Bunny to bring the Easter eggs has been known. The novelty of the introduction of Easter egg hunts into England is evidenced by A. E. Housman's inaugural lecture as Professor of Latin at University College, London in 1892, in which he said, "In Germany at Easter time they hide coloured eggs about the house and garden that the children may amuse themselves in discovering them."
Reverend MaryJane Pierce Norton, Associate General Secretary of Leadership Ministries at the General Board of Discipleship, states that "there’s something about going to hunt the eggs just as we might go to hunt for Jesus in the tomb. And when we find them it’s that joy that the women had when they reached the tomb first and found that Jesus was no longer there." Traditionally the game is associated with Easter and Easter eggs, but it has been popular with spring time birthday parties. Egg hunts are a subject of the Guinness Book of World Records. To enable children to take part in egg hunts despite visual impairment, eggs have been created that emit various clicks, noises, or music. A number of companies have made use of the popularity of Easter and more Easter egg hunts to promote the sales of their candy products. Most notable have been chocolatiers including Cadbury with their annual Easter Egg Trail. In 2015, the British chocolate company Thorntons worked with the geocaching community to hide chocolate eggs across the United Kingdom.
Egg and spoon race Egg dance Egg rolling Egg tapping Pace Egg play Easter basket