The Comics Journal
The Comics Journal abbreviated TCJ, is an American magazine of news and criticism pertaining to comic books, comic strips and graphic novels. Known for its lengthy interviews with comic creators, pointed editorials and scathing reviews of the products of the mainstream comics industry, the magazine promotes the view that comics are a fine art meriting broader cultural respect, thus should be evaluated with higher critical standards. In 1976, Gary Groth and Michael Catron acquired The Nostalgia Journal, a small competitor of the newspaper adzine The Buyer's Guide for Comics Fandom. At the time and Catron were publishing Sounds Fine, a formatted adzine for record collectors that they had started after producing Rock'N Roll Expo'75, held during the July 4 weekend in 1975 in Washington, D. C; the publication was relaunched as The New Nostalgia Journal with issue No. 27, with issue No. 32, it became The Comics Journal. Issue No. 37 adopted a magazine format. With issue #45, the magazine moved to a monthly schedule.
In addition to lengthy interviews with comics industry figures, the Journal has always published criticism—and received it in turn. Starting in the early 2000s, the Journal published a series of annual specials combining its usual critical format with extended samples of comics from specially selected contributors. With issue No. 300, The Comics Journal ceased its semi-monthly print publication. TCJ shifted from an eight-times a year publishing schedule to a larger, more elaborate, semi-annual format supported by a new website; this format lasted until 2013 with issue #302. The print magazine went on hiatus, returning to a magazine format in 2019 with issue #303. Over the years The Journal has been involved in a handful of lawsuits. Artist Rich Buckler attempted legal action for a review that called him a plagiarist while printing his panels next to earlier and quite similar Jack Kirby art. A Groth interview with science fiction writer Harlan Ellison sparked a lawsuit by writer Michael Fleisher, over an informal discussion of Fleisher's work and temperament.
Co-defendants Groth and Ellison emerged from the suit estranged. Ellison became a plaintiff against The Comics Journal, filing suit in part to enjoin The Comics Journal Library: The Writers, a 2006 Fantagraphics book that reprinted the Ellison interview, which used a cover blurb calling Ellison a "Famous Comics Dilettante." That case was settled, with Fantagraphics agreeing to omit both the blurb and the interview from any future printings of the book, Ellison agreeing to post a Groth rebuttal statement on Ellison's webpage, both sides agreeing to avoid future "ad hominem attacks."The Journal has on occasion published, as cover features, lengthy court transcripts of comics-related civil suits. Notable instances include the Fleisher suit and Marv Wolfman's failed suit against Marvel Comics over ownership of the character Blade; the Journal features critical essays, articles on comics history and lengthy interviews, conducted by Gary Groth and others. Noteworthy interviews include Gil Kane in No.
38, Steve Gerber in No. 41, Harlan Ellison in No. 53, Dennis O'Neil in No. 64, Robert Crumb in No. 113, Charles M. Schulz in #200; the Journal's combination of forthright news coverage and critical analysis – although the norm for traditional journalistic enterprises – was in sharp contrast to the affectionate and promotional methods of publications like Comics Buyer's Guide and Wizard. In 1995, publisher Gary Groth joked that his magazine occupied "a niche that nobody wants." Gary Groth has been the Journal's publisher and nominal editor for all of its existence. Staff members and regular contributors have included Kim Thompson, Greg Stump, Eric Millikin, Eric Reynolds, Ng Suat Tong, R. Fiore, R. C. Harvey, Kenneth Smith, Don Phelps, Robert Boyd, Tom Heintjes, Michael Dean, Tom Spurgeon, Robert Rodi, Gene Phillips, Marilyn Bethke, Cat Yronwode, Heidi MacDonald, Lee Wochner, Bhob Stewart, Arn Saba, Ted White, Bob Levin, Carter Scholz, Noah Berlatsky. Guest contributors have included Trina Robbins.
1987–1988: Thom Powers 1988–1989: Greg S. Baisden 1989–1990: Robert Boyd 1990–September 1991: Helena Harvilicz September 1991 – 1993: Frank M. Young 1993–September 1993: Carole Sobocinski September 1993–September 1994: Scott Nybakken September 1994 – 1999: Tom Spurgeon 1999–2001: Eric Evans and Darren Hick 2001–2002: Anne Elizabeth Moore 2002–2004: Milo George 2004–2006: Dirk Deppey 2006–2011: Michael Dean 2019: RJ Casey and Kristy Valenti Kristy Valenti, 2010–2011 Dan Nadel and Tim Hodler, 2011–2017Tim Hodler and Tucker Stone, 2017–present The Journal published a 20th-century comics canon in its 210th issue. To compile the list, eight contributors and editors made eight separate top 100 lists of American works; these eight lists were informally combined, tweaked into an ordered list. Krazy Kat topped the list, followed by Peanuts and Art Spiegelman's Maus. Harvey Kurtzman had the most entries of any creator, five: his original run on Mad, his "New Trend" EC war comics, the 1959 Jungle Book graphic novel, his Hey Look!
Gag cartoons, the Goodman Beaver stories. The Village Voice cited the survey's ad hoc criteria: "Putting Bernard Krigstein and Al Feldstein's eight-page story "Master Race," Hal Foster's 34 years of work on Prince Valiant, Al Hirschfeld's theatrical caricatures, all the horror comics EC published in the first half of the'50s and Robert Crumb's sketchbooks in the same category suggests that they've cast their net a
Tillie the Toiler
Tillie the Toiler is a newspaper comic strip created by cartoonist Russ Westover who worked on his concept of a flapper character in a strip he titled Rose of the Office. With a title change, it sold to King Features Syndicate which carried the strip from 1921 to 1959; the daily strip began on Monday, January 3, 1921, followed by the Sunday page on October 10, 1922. For the Sunday page, Westover did a topper strip, Van Swaggers, beginning in 1926, he did another topper, Aunt Min, in the 1930s. Westover retired in 1951 with his assistant Bob Gustafson doing most of the writing and drawing. After Westover departed three years Gustafson's signature appeared on the strip beginning October 4, 1954; the daily strip ended March 7, 1959, with the last Sunday eight days on March 15. Stylish working girl Tillie was employed as a stenographer and part-time model. An attractive brunette, she had no problem finding men to escort her around town. Comics historian Don Markstein described the story situations: Tillie toiled for a fashionable women's wear company run by clothing mogul J. Simpkins.
Or did, anyway—she'd quit or be fired, as the plotline, which ran at breakneck pace and didn't always make perfect sense, required. During World War II, in fact, she joined the U. S. Army, but she always came back to Simpkins. She worked in his office, but she did a little modeling. Whatever she did and wherever she went, she was impeccably dressed in the latest styles; this helped her in the pursuit of charming and wealthy young men, who came and went at an alarming rate, providing grist for the story mill. She did, have one steady male associate, Clarence "Mac" MacDougall, a short, bulb-nosed co-worker who loved her persistently though she returned little of the feeling. Cupples & Leon collected the strips into book form in 1925, followed by seven other books in that series. Dell Comics reprinted the strip in 14 issues between 1941 and 1949. Tillie the Toiler and the Masquerading Duchess was a novel published by Whitman in 1943; the comic strip inspired two films of the same name: Tillie the Toiler, a silent film with Marion Davies in the title role, Tillie the Toiler, starring Kay Harris.
Christopher Wheeler: Tillie the Toiler books "See You in the Funnies" by Barbara Erdman
Charlie Brown is the lead role of the comic strip Peanuts, syndicated in daily and Sunday newspapers in numerous countries all over the world. Depicted as a "lovable loser," Charlie Brown is one of the great American archetypes and a popular and recognized cartoon character. Charlie Brown is characterized as a person who suffers, as a result is nervous and lacks self-confidence, he shows both pessimistic and optimistic attitudes: on some days, he is reluctant to go out because his day might just be spoiled, but on others, he hopes for the best and tries as much as he can to accomplish things. He is recognized by his trademark zigzag patterned shirt. There is only one exception: whenever he's a costumed character, he wears a red baseball cap on top of his head most of the time, rather than just wearing a white one during baseball seasons in comic strips and animation; the character's creator, Charles M. Schulz, said of the character that " must be the one who suffers because he is a caricature of the average person.
Most of us are much more acquainted with losing than winning." Despite this, Charlie Brown does not always suffer, as he has experienced some happy moments and victories through the years, he has sometimes uncharacteristically shown self-assertiveness despite his frequent nervousness. Schulz said: "I like to have Charlie Brown be the focal point of every story." Charlie Brown is the only character to have been a part of the strip from the beginning to the end of its 50-year run. Lee Mendelson, producer of the majority of the Peanuts television specials, has said of Charlie Brown that "He was, is, the ultimate survivor in overcoming bulliness—Lucy or otherwise."Charlie Brown's birth date is October 30. He is four years old in a strip published Nov. 3, 1950, putting his birth in 1946 and making him and his cohort part of the first wave of Baby Boomers. He ages slowly in the strip's floating timeline settling at around eight years old. A strip published on April 3, 1971 suggests he was born around 1963.
Charlie Brown suggests he lives in an apartment with his grandmother occupying the one above his. His name was first used on May 30, 1948, in an early Schulz comic strip called Lil’ Folks in which one boy has buried another in a sandbox and denies that he has seen the other boy when asked, he made his official debut in the first Peanuts comic strip on October 2, 1950. The strip features Charlie Brown walking by, as two other children named Shermy and Patty look at him. Shermy refers to him as "Good Ol' Charlie Brown" as he passes by, but immediately reveals his hatred toward him once he is gone on the last panel. During the strip's early years, Charlie Brown was much more playful than he is known for, as he played pranks and jokes on the other characters. On December 21 of the same year, his signature zig-zag. On the March 6, 1951, Charlie Brown first appears to play baseball, as he was warming up before telling Shermy that they can start the game. Charlie Brown's relationships with other Peanuts characters differed from their states, their concepts were grown up through this decade until they reached their more established forms.
An example is his relationship with Violet Gray, to whom he was introduced on the February 7, 1951, strip. The two remained on good terms. Charlie Brown fed on Violet's mud pies. On the August 16, 1951, she called Charlie Brown a "blockhead", being the first time Charlie Brown was referred by that insult. November 14 of that year, Charlie Brown is first unable to kick a football, Violet is responsible because fear of her hand being kicked by Charlie Brown resulted in her letting go of it. Charlie Brown is introduced to Schroeder on May 30, 1951; as Schroeder is still a baby, Charlie Brown cannot converse with him. On June 1 of the same year, Charlie Brown stated. On that year's October 10, he told Schroeder the story of Beethoven and set the piano player's obsession with the composer. Charlie Brown placed the Beethoven bust on Schroeder's piano on November 26, 1951. Schroeder aged over time, catching up to Charlie Brown in age, Charlie Brown became less like a father figure and more like a close friend to Schroeder.
Charlie Brown had Schroeder become his catcher for the first time on the April 1952, strip. Around this point, their final relationship has pretty much been established. On the sixth day of January 1952, Charlie Brown made his appearance on the first Sunday Peanuts strip. Charlie Brown is first seen interacting with the character Lucy van Pelt on March 3, 1952, he was on better terms with her than in the strip, as they made fun of each other out of mere playfulness. The November 16, 1952, strip is the first strip in which Charlie Brown was prevented by Lucy from kicking a football. Charlie Brown first began flying a kite on A
Addison Morton Walker was an American comic strip writer, best known for creating the newspaper comic strips Beetle Bailey in 1950 and Hi and Lois in 1954. He signed Addison to some of his strips. Walker was born in El Dorado, Kansas, as the third of four children in the family, his siblings were Peggy W. Harman, Robin Ellis Walker and Marilou W. White. After a couple of years, his family moved to Amarillo, to Kansas City, Missouri, in late 1927, where his father, Robin Adair Walker, was an architect, while his mother, Carolyn Richards Walker, worked as a newspaper staff illustrator, he was of Scottish and English descent. One of his ancestors was a doctor aboard the Mayflower. During his elementary school years, he drew for a student newspaper, he attended Northeast High School, where he was a cheerleader, school newspaper editor, yearbook art editor, stage actor in a radio show and ran neighborhood teen center that belonged to several organizations. He had his first comic published at age 11 and sold his first cartoon at 12.
At age 14, he sold gag cartoons to Child's Life, Flying Aces, Inside Detective magazines. When he was 15, he drew a comic strip, The Lime Juicers, for the weekly Kansas City Journal, working as a staff artist the same time for an industrial publisher. At age 18, he was the chief editorial designer for Hallmark Brothers and was instrumental in changing the company's card from cuddly bears to gag cartoons, more suitable for soldiers. Graduating from Northeast High School, he attended one year at Kansas City Junior College in 1942–43 before going to the University of Missouri. Walker's physical presence in Columbia is noted by The Shack, a rambling burger joint behind Jesse Hall on Conley Avenue. Images resembling the interior of the shack appeared in Beetle Bailey cartoons and is mentioned by name in the September 14, 1950 Beetle Bailey strip. Walker visited the Shack on return trips to Columbia with the last being to the original structure in 1978; the Shack was destroyed in a fire in 1988 and Walker returned in 2010 for dedication of a replica of the building in the student center with dining area now formally called "Mort's".
A life-sized bronze statue of Beetle Bailey stands in front of the alumni center, near The Shack. In 1943, Walker was drafted into the United States Army and served in Italy, where he was an intelligence and investigating officer and was in charge of an Allied camp for 10,000 German POWs. After the war he was posted to Italy where he was in charge of an Italian guard company, he was discharged as a first lieutenant in 1947. He graduated in 1948 from the University of Missouri, where he was the editor and art director of the college's humor magazine and was president of the local Kappa Sigma chapter. After graduation, Walker went to New York to pursue a career in cartooning, he began doing Spider, a one-panel series for The Saturday Evening Post, about a lazy, laid-back college student. When he decided he could make more money doing a multi-panel comic strip, Spider morphed into Beetle Bailey distributed by King Features Syndicate to 1,800 newspapers in more than 50 countries for a combined readership of 200 million daily.
In 1954, Walker and Dik Browne teamed to launch Hi and Lois, a spin-off of Beetle Bailey. Under the pseudonym "Addison", Walker began Boner's Ark in 1968. Other comic strips created by Walker include Gamin and Patches, Mrs. Fitz's Flats, The Evermores, Sam's Strip, Sam and Silo. In 1974, Walker opened the Museum of Cartoon Art, the first museum devoted to the art of comics, it was located in Greenwich and Rye Brook, New York, before moving to Boca Raton, Florida, in 1992. During his life he drew special drawings for individuals, in particular for those who were ill. From previous marriages and his wife, had ten children between them. Walker's sons Brian and Greg Walker produce the Hi and Lois strip with Chance Browne. In addition to books about comics and children's books, Walker has collected his strips into 92 "Beetle Bailey" paperbacks and 35 "Hi and Lois" paperbacks, plus writing his autobiography, Mort Walker's Scrapbook: Celebrating a Life of Love and Laughter. In his book The Lexicon of Comicana, written as a satirical look at the devices cartoonists use, Walker invented a vocabulary called Symbolia.
For example, Walker coined the term "squeans" to describe the starbusts and little circles that appear around a cartoon's head to indicate intoxication. The typographical symbols that stand for profanities, which appear in dialogue balloons in the place of actual dialogue, Walker called "grawlixes". In 2006, he launched a 24-page magazine, The Best of Times, distributed free throughout Connecticut and available online, it features artwork, editorial cartoons, a selection of articles and columns syndicated by King Features. His son, Neal Walker, was the editor and publisher. Between 2006 and 2010, they published 27 issues. In September 2000, the University of Missouri staged a Beetle Bailey 50th-anniversary exhibition in the grand concourse of the Elmer Ellis Library, displaying original daily and Sunday strips, published reprints and poster-size lithographs of selected strips. In 1974, Walker founded the National Cartoon Museum, in 1989 was inducted into its Museum of Cartoon Art Hall of Fame.
He received the Reuben Award of 1953 for Beetle Bailey, the National Cartoonists Society's Humor Strip Award for 1966 and 1969, the Gold T-Square Award in 1999, the Elzie Segar Award for 1977 and 1999, numerous other awards. In 1978, Walker received the American Legion'
King Features Syndicate
King Features Syndicate, Inc. is a print syndication company owned by Hearst Communications that distributes about 150 comic strips, newspaper columns, editorial cartoons and games to nearly 5,000 newspapers worldwide. King Features Syndicate is a unit of Hearst Holdings, Inc. which combines the Hearst Corporation's cable-network partnerships, television programming and distribution activities, syndication companies. King Features' affiliate syndicates are Cowles Syndicate; each week, Reed Brennan Media Associates, a unit of Hearst and distributes more than 200 features for King Features. William Randolph Hearst's newspapers began syndicating material in 1895 after receiving requests from other newspapers; the first official Hearst syndicate was called Newspaper Feature Service, Inc. established in 1913. In 1914, Hearst and his manager Moses Koenigsberg consolidated all of Hearst's syndication enterprises under one banner. Koenigsberg gave it his own name when he launched King Features Syndicate on November 16, 1915.
Production escalated in 1916 with King Features buying and selling its own staff-created feature material. A trade publication — Circulation — was published by King Features between 1916 and 1933. Syndication peaked in the mid-1930s with 130 syndicates offering 1,600 features to more than 13,700 newspapers. In 1986, King Features acquired the Tribune Syndicate for $4.3 million. That year, Hearst bought News America Syndicate. By this point, with both King Features and News America, Hearst led all syndication services with 316 features. In 2007, King Features donated its collection of comic-strip proof sheets to the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum and the Michigan State University Comic Art Collection while retaining the collection in electronic form for reference purposes; as of 2016, with 62 strips being syndicated, Hearst was considered the second-largest comics service, second only to Uclick. In 1941, King Features manager Moses Koenigsberg wrote an autobiographical history of the company entitled King News.
William Randolph Hearst paid close attention to the comic strips in the last years of his life, as is evident in these 1945–46 correspondence excerpts in Editor & Publisher, about the creation of Dick's Adventures in Dreamland — a strip that made its debut on Sunday, January 12, 1947. The difficulty is to find something that will sufficiently interest the kids… Perhaps a title — "Trained by Fate" — would be general enough. Take Paul Revere and show him as a boy making as much of his boyhood life as possible, culminate, of course, with his ride. Take Betsy Ross for a heroine, or Barbara Fritchie… for the girls."King Features editor Ward Greene to Hearst: "There is another way to do it, somewhat fantastic, but which I submit for your consideration. That is to devise a new comic… a dream idea revolving around a boy we might call Dick. Dick, or his equivalent, would go in his dream with Mad Anthony Wayne at the storming of Stony Point or with Decatur at Tripoli… provide a constant character… who would become known to the kids."Hearst to Greene: "The dream idea for the American history series is splendid.
It gives continuity and personal interest, you can make more than one page of each series… You are right about the importance of the artist."Greene to Hearst: "We employed the dream device, building the comic around a small boy."Hearst: "I think the drawing of Dick and His Dad is amazingly good. It is splendid. I am afraid, that similar beginning and conclusion of each page might give a deadly sameness to the series… Perhaps we could get the dream idea over by having only the conclusion on each page. I mean, do not show the boy going to sleep every time and show him waking up, but let the waking up come as a termination to each page… Can you develop anything out of the idea of having Dick the son of the keeper of the Liberty Statue in New York Harbor? I do not suggest this, as it would add further complications, but it might give a spiritual tie to all the dreams; the main thing, however, is to get more realism." Greene: "We do not have to show the dream at the beginning and end of every page… If we call the comic something like Dreamer Dick, we would have more freedom… Some device other than the dream might be used… A simple method would be to have him curl up with a history book."Hearst: "If we find is not a success, of course we can brief it, but if it is a success it should be a long series."Greene: "I am sending you two sample pages of Dick's Adventures in Dreamland which start a series about Christopher Columbus."Hearst: "In January, I am told, we are going to 16 pages on Puck, the Comic Weekly.
That would be a good time to introduce the Columbus series, don't you think so?"The last strips Hearst selected for syndication were Elliot Caplin & John Cullen Murphy's Big Ben Bolt and Mort Walker's Beetle Bailey. In the 1940s, Ward Greene was King Features' editor, he was a reporter and war correspondent for the Atlanta Jour
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U. S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953, he was subsequently elected to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960.
While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president, the youngest man to be elected as U. S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was the first president to have served in the U. S. Navy. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, he subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U. S. spy planes discovered. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964.
Kennedy continues to rank in polls of U. S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has been the focus of considerable public fascination following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs, his average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, his paternal grandfather P. J. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, his maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Fitzgerald served as a U. S. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Eunice, Robert and Edward.
As of 2019, he has been the only Catholic U. S. President. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St. Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917, he was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham and the Dexter School through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City. Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church; the Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns at their home in Hyannis Port and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida purchased in 1933.
In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious board
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif