Boyd Gaming Corporation is an American gaming and hospitality company based in Paradise, Nevada. The company continues to be run by founder Sam Boyd's family under the management of Sam's son, Bill Boyd, who serves as the company's executive chairman after retiring as CEO in January 2008; as of December 31, 2009, the 15 wholly owned properties had 7,550 hotel rooms. It had 812,500 square feet of casino space with 21,400 slot machines and 425 table games. Gaming revenue is 75% of total gross revenue. Boyd Gaming's history dates to 1941, when founder Sam Boyd first arrived in Las Vegas with his family. After being hired as a dealer, Sam Boyd worked his way up through the ranks of the Las Vegas casino industry, first to pit boss shift boss, he saved enough to buy a small interest in the Sahara Hotel and Casino. Sam Boyd first partnered with his son Bill in 1962, when the two teamed up to acquire the Eldorado Casino in Henderson, Nevada. Bill, a practicing attorney, acquired his first stake in the Eldorado by doing its legal work.
Sam would go on to manage the Eldorado full-time after the Mint was sold in 1968. Although the Boyd family had been involved in the Las Vegas casino industry for decades, Boyd Gaming Corporation wasn't founded until January 1, 1975, when the company was formed to develop and operate the California Hotel and Casino in downtown Las Vegas. Known as the Boyd Group, the company had 75 investors. Boyd Gaming embarked on its first expansion in 1979, when it opened Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall on Boulder Highway at Nellis Boulevard. Considered one of the first "locals" properties in Las Vegas, Sam's Town helped inaugurate the development of Las Vegas' "Boulder Strip." During these first two decades in operation and Bill Boyd developed a reputation for running a squeaky-clean operation. As a result, Nevada regulators turned to the Boyds for help following an investigation of skimming operations at the Stardust and Fremont casinos in the mid-1980s; the properties were notorious at the time for their extensive skimming operations.
In 1984, after leveling a $3 million fine against the Stardust for skimming, the Nevada Gaming Commission asked to Boyds to run the property's gaming operations. When the Stardust was taken over by the reputable Boyd family, they were surprised by its huge profits, now that every penny of income was being recorded. Ex-FBI agent William F. Roemer Jr. longtime senior agent of the FBI's organized-crime squad in Chicago and an expert in Las Vegas doings, said, "The amount of skim had been so heavy that the profit and loss statement did not present a true picture of the gold mine that the Stardust was." After several years of successful operations, Boyd Gaming acquired the Stardust and Fremont in 1985. Company founder Sam Boyd died on January 15, 1993, at the age of 82, was succeeded as Chief Executive Officer by Bill Boyd. In July of the same year, Boyd Gaming held its initial public offering of stock, debuting on the New York Stock Exchange under ticker symbol "BYD." Funds from the IPO supplied Boyd Gaming with a source of capital for expansion, the company embarked on a period of aggressive growth.
The company acquired the Eldorado and Jokers Wild in 1993. The company's first expansion outside of Nevada came in 1994, when Boyd Gaming opened Sam's Town in Tunica, Miss. Expansions included: Silver Star Hotel and Casino, owned by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. Boyd Gaming's most ambitious expansion project came in 2003, when the company opened the $1.1 billion Borgata Hotel Casino in Atlantic City, N. J. A joint venture with MGM Resorts International, Borgata was the first new casino property to open in Atlantic City in 13 years, emerged as the market's leading property by gaming revenue. Borgata is by far Boyd Gaming's largest property, supplies more than a third of the company's overall profits. Less than a year after Borgata opened, Boyd Gaming announced plans to acquire Coast Casinos, Inc. one of the largest operators of locals casinos in the Las Vegas market. Completed on July 1, 2004, the $1.3 billion acquisition gave Boyd Gaming four additional Las Vegas properties—Suncoast.
The Coast acquisition included the yet-to-be completed South Coast, located five miles south of the Strip on Las Vegas Boulevard. Boyd Gaming completed the project and opened its doors on December 22, 2005. Boyd Gaming operated the property for less than a year before selling it to former Coast CEO Michael Gaughan in 2006. In 2006, Boyd Gaming turned its focus to what would have been the largest project in its history: Echelon, a $4.8 billion resort complex at the site of the Stardust. In
A riverboat casino is a type of casino on a riverboat found in several states in the United States with frontage on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, or along the Gulf Coast. Several states authorized this type of casino in order to enable gaming but limit the areas where casinos could be constructed. Paddlewheel riverboats had long been used on the Mississippi River and its tributaries to transport passengers and freight. After railroads superseded them, in the 20th century, they were more used for entertainment excursions, sometimes for several hours, than for passage among riverfront towns, they were a way for people to escape the heat of the town, as well as to enjoy live music and dancing. Gambling was common on the riverboats, in card games and via slot machines; when riverboat casinos were first approved in the late 20th century by the states, which prohibited gaming on land, these casinos were required to be located on ships that could sail away from the dock. In some areas, gambling was allowed only when the ship was sailing, as in the traditional excursions.
They were approved in states with frontage along the Mississippi and its tributaries, including Illinois, Louisiana and Missouri. As an example, in 1994 Missouri voters approved amending the state constitution to allow "games of chance" on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. By 1998, "according to the state Gaming Commission, just three of the 16 operations comprising Missouri's $652-million riverboat gambling industry on the main river channel." The state supreme court had ruled that boats had to be "solely over and in contact with the surface" of the rivers. Several casinos had been located on riverboats located in a moat or an area with water adjacent to a navigable waterway, leading them to be referred to as "boats in moats." The state legislatures were unwilling to give up the revenues generated by gambling. Over time, they allowed gaming casinos to be built on stilts but they still had to be over navigable water. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which destroyed most riverboat casinos and their associated facilities of hotels, etc. in states along the Gulf Coast, several states changed their enabling legislation or amended constitutions.
They permitted such casinos to be built on land within certain geographic limits from a navigable waterway. Most of Mississippi's Gulf Coast riverboat casinos have been rebuilt since the hurricane. Partial listing of permanently moored casinos, DeJong and Lebet, Inc. Naval Architects and Marine Designers
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Cerner Corporation is an American supplier of health information technology solutions, services and hardware. As of February 2018, its products were in use at more than 27,000 facilities around the world; the company had more than 28,000 employees globally, with over 13,000 in Missouri. Its headquarters are in the suburb of Missouri. Cerner was founded in 1979 by Neal Patterson, Paul Gorup, Cliff Illig, who were colleagues at Arthur Andersen, its original name was PGI & Associates but was renamed Cerner in 1984 when it rolled out its first system, PathNet. It went public in 1986. Cerner's client base grew in the late 1980s, reaching 70 sites in 1987, 120 sites in 1988, 170 sites in 1989, reaching 250 sites in 1990. Installations were of PathNet systems. During this time, Cerner was developing components of a Health Network Architecture, an integrated IT system designed to automate health care processes. Clients could purchase the whole system at one time. By 1994, more than 30 clients had purchased the full HNA system, while 100 clients had purchased multiple components of the system.
In 1997, the company introduced Cerner Millennium, an upgrade to its HNA system which incorporated all of the company's software offerings into one unified architecture. The introduction of Millennium contributed to significant growth for the company, with revenue increasing to $1.1 billion in 2005 from $245.1 million in 1997. Cerner acquired IMC Health Care, Inc. in early 2010 to continue expanding its wellness services to outside commercial employers and wellness programs. In July 2010, president Trace Devanny left the company and Patterson became the company's president, in addition to his roles as chairman and chief executive officer. In September 2013, Zane Burke was named president. On August 5, 2014, Cerner announced its intent to purchase Siemens Health Services, the health information technology business of Germany's Siemens AG, for $1.3 billion. The acquisition was completed on February 2, 2015. On July 29, 2015, Leidos Partnership for Defense Health, which includes Cerner and Leidos, was awarded a 10-year, $4.3 billion contract to overhaul and manage the electronic health records for the Department of Defense.
CEO and co-founder Neal Patterson died July 9, 2017. On January 10, 2018, Brent Shafer was named Chairman and CEO and took over leadership responsibilities in February 2018. In 2001, a memo authored by CEO Patterson and sent to about 400 managers was leaked online; the memo, written in harsh language, was meant to motivate the managers to get more productivity out of employees and promised layoffs, a hiring freeze, closing of an "Associate Center", the implementation of a punch-card system if Patterson did not see evidence of changes. Patterson's metric was the fullness of the company's Kansas City office lot at the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. The memo was seen as inflammatory and poor management, Cerner's stock price fell 22% over three days. In 2005, Cerner and other companies paid for a report by the RAND Corporation which predicted great efficiencies from electronic health records, including savings of $81 billion a year or more, which RAND now says is overstated; this report helped drive growth in the electronic health record and billions of dollars in federal incentives to hospitals and doctors.
Cerner's revenue tripled from $1 billion in 2005 to a projected $3 billion in 2013. The study was criticized by the Congressional Budget Office for overstating potential savings. A 2013 reassessment of the 2005 report by the RAND Corporation said that the conversion had failed to produce savings and had mixed results in efficiency and patient care. In 2016, the Nanaimo BC hospital ER began using the system. Physicians and nurses have called it a "huge failure" with it increasing some types of errors and slowing down the emergency department; the system cost CAN$230 million dollars. In 2002, the installation of a computerized health system by Cerner in the UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh made it harder for the doctors and nurses to do their jobs in emergency situations and resulted in a "disaster", according to Phillip Longman, a senior fellow at the New America Foundation. Longman wrote, "According to a study conducted by the hospital and published in the journal Pediatrics, mortality rates for one vulnerable patient population—those brought by emergency transport from other facilities—more than doubled, from 2.8 percent before the installation to 6.6 percent afterward."
Defenders of Cerner in the study charged that the Pittsburgh hospital did not adequately prepare for the transition to the Computerized Provider Order Entry system because it had modified its pharmacy process, did not provide adequate wireless bandwidth, did not have order sets pre-programmed on day one. They stated that other hospitals that more planned the implementation did not experience the same problems. In 2010, Girard Medical Center, Crawford County, hired Cerner to install an electronic records system, but after receiving $1.3 million, Cerner employees failed to get the system running in time to qualify for federal incentive payments, in September 2011, notified the hospital that it was abandoning the project, according to a lawsuit Girard filed against Cerner. Cerner and executives at Girard agreed that Girard did not have adequate staff to manage the acquisition and implementation of the system; as of June 2014, the case remained in arbitration. The outcome of the Girard case will be kept confidential due to contract provisions.
In 2012, Trinity Health, a large hospital in North Dakota, sued Cerner, claiming that Cerner's patient accounting solution didn't work correctly.
Caesars Entertainment Corporation
Caesars Entertainment Corporation is an American gaming corporation based in Paradise, Nevada that owns and operates over 50 casinos and hotels, seven golf courses under several brands. In 2013, it was the fourth-largest gaming company in the world, with annual revenues of $8.6 billion. Caesars is a public company, majority-owned by a group of private equity firms led by Apollo Global Management and TPG Capital. Caesars's largest operating unit filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on January 15, 2015; the company's background can be traced to October 29, 1937, when Bill Harrah opened a small bingo parlor in Reno, Nevada, a predecessor to Harrah's Reno. In 1955, he expanded to Stateline, Nevada, on the south shore of Lake Tahoe, where he would open Harrah's Lake Tahoe. Harrah's Inc. made its initial public offering in 1971. In 1972, it was listed on the American Stock Exchange and in 1973, Harrah's became the first casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Bill Harrah died on June 30, 1978 of complications from aortic aneurysm and cardiac surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
In February 1980, Holiday Inn acquired. Liquidation of Harrah's collection of 7,000 antique automobiles returned the full purchase price of the company to Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn at the time had interests in two casinos: the under-construction Holiday Inn Marina Casino in Atlantic City, a 40 percent stake in the Holiday Casino, adjacent to the Holiday Inn hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. In July 1987, Bill's Casino Lake Tahoe opened. Harrah's Laughlin opened in August 1988; the company now known as Caesars Entertainment was formed in 1990 as The Promus Companies. To effect the sale of the Holiday Inn hotel business to Bass PLC, Promus was created as a corporate spin-off, holding Harrah's, Embassy Suites, Homewood Suites, Hampton Inn; the next year, the company's headquarters moved from Reno to Memphis, TennesseeIn April 1992, the Holiday Casino was rebranded as Harrah's Las Vegas. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw a rapid increase in gambling markets with the growth of Indian gaming and legalization of riverboat casinos.
In 1993 and 1994, the company opened Harrah's Joliet, Harrah's Vicksburg, Harrah's Tunica, Harrah's Black Hawk, Harrah's Central City, Harrah's Shreveport, Harrah's North Kansas City, Harrah's Ak-Chin. In 1995, Promus decided to spin off its non-gaming hotel businesses, in part because they had been undervalued by investors due to perception of the company as a risky gaming stock. Promus Hotel Corp. was established, holding Embassy Suites, Hampton Inn, Homewood Suites, while the parent company, holding 16 casinos, was renamed as Harrah's Entertainment. Harrah's continued its expansion over the next ten years, opening Harrah's Skagit Valley, Harrah's Sky City, Harrah's St. Louis-Riverport, Harrah's Cherokee, Harrah's Prairie Band, Harrah's New Orleans, Harrah's Rincon, acquiring the Southern Belle Casino, Inc. the Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino, Players International, Harveys Casino Resorts, Louisiana Downs, Horseshoe Gaming, the World Series of Poker. In 1997, Harrah's launched its Total Gold loyalty program, developed at a cost of $20 million.
It was the first gaming company to offer a systemwide comps program, allowing points earned at one casino to be redeemed for goods and services at any of the company's other casinos. The system would be credited as a major driver of Harrah's growth over the coming years. Harvard Business School professor Gary Loveman joined Harrah's as chief operating officer in 1998, would go on to serve as chief executive officer from 2003 to 2015. In 1999, the company moved its headquarters from Memphis to Las Vegas. Harrah's made its largest single expansion in 2005, when it acquired Caesars Entertainment, Inc. for $10.4 billion. Negotiations were spurred on by news of a merger agreement between MGM Mirage and Mandalay Resort Group; the two companies sold several properties ahead of the merger to assuage antitrust concerns, including Harrah's East Chicago and Harrah's Mardi Gras. The acquisition increased Harrah's portfolio to 40 casinos, plus four cruise ship casinos; the deal furthered Harrah's goal of gaining a larger presence on the Las Vegas Strip, where Caesars owned four casinos, improved its ability to market to high rollers.
Harrah's began to push for a larger international presence in 2005, announcing joint venture agreements to build casinos in Spain and the Bahamas, applying for a license to build a major resort in Singapore, though none of these projects would come to fruition. Harrah's acquired London Clubs International in 2006, the Macau Orient Golf club in 2007. From 2005 to 2010, the company consolidated control of a long stretch of the east side of the Las Vegas Strip, acquiring the Bourbon Street, Imperial Palace, Barbary Coast, Planet Hollywood casinos, along with large tracts of land behind the Strip properties. In 2005 and 2006, Harrah's closed its Lake Charles casino due to damage from Hurricane Rita, sold the Flamingo Laughlin, sold Grand Casino Gulfport. Loveman at some point sought advice from private equity tycoon David Bonderman about the possibility of spinning off ownership of Harrah's real estate as a separate real estate investment trust, hoping to attain the higher price-to-earnings ratios at which hotel companies traded, compared to gaming companies.
In 2006, the discussions evolved toward the idea of a leveraged buyout of Harrah's by Bonderman's company, TPG Capital. Another private equity firm, Apollo Global Management, approached Loveman about a buyout, he encouraged them to collaborate with TPG. By the end of the year, an agreement was announced fo
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in the U. S. state of Missouri. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States, it is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after. Sitting on Missouri's western boundary, with Downtown near the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, the modern city encompasses some 319.03 square miles, making it the 23rd largest city by total area in the United States. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay and Platte counties. Along with Independence, one of its major suburbs, it serves as one of the two county seats of Jackson County.
Other major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Blue Springs and Lee's Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of several neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east, the Country Club Plaza in the south. Kansas City is known for its long tradition of jazz music and culture, for its cuisine, its craft breweries. Kansas City, Missouri was incorporated as a town on June 1, 1850, as a city on March 28, 1853; the territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a good place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, Woodneath are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, he had deserted his post as fort commander and was avoiding French authorities.
Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. To clear his name, he wrote Exact Description of Louisiana, of Its Harbors and Rivers, Names of the Indian Tribes That Occupy It, the Commerce and Advantages to Be Derived Therefrom for the Establishment of a Colony in 1713 followed in 1714 by The Route to Be Taken to Ascend the Missouri River. In the documents, he describes the junction of the "Grande Riv des Cansez" and Missouri River, making him the first to adopt those names. French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the area's first reasonably accurate map; the Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, but were not to play a major role other than taxing and licensing Missouri River ship traffic. The French continued their fur trade under Spanish license; the Chouteau family operated under Spanish license at St. Louis in the lower Missouri Valley as early as 1765 and in 1821 the Chouteaus reached Kansas City, where François Chouteau established Chouteau's Landing.
After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, noting it was a good place to build a fort. In 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in, they built the first school within Kansas City's current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833 and their settlement remained vacant. In 1833 John McCoy, son of missionary Isaac McCoy, established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail, 3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a landing point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, taking their name from an English spelling of "Cansez." In 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas. By that time, the Town of Kansas and nearby Independence, had become critical points in the United States' westward expansion. Three major trails – the Santa Fe, Oregon – all passed through Jackson County. On February 22, 1853, the City of Kansas was created with a newly elected mayor.
It had an area of 0.70 square miles and a population of 2,500. The boundary lines at that time extended from the middle of the Missouri River south to what is now Ninth Street, from Bluff Street on the west to a point between Holmes Road and Charlotte Street on the east; the Kansas City area was rife with animosity just prior to the U. S. Civil War. Kansas petitioned the U. S. to enter the Union as a free state that did not allow slavery under the new doctrine of popular sovereignty. Missouri had many slaves, slavery sympathizers crossed into Kansas to sway the state towards allowing slavery, at first by ballot box and by bloodshed. During the Civil War, the city and its immediate surroundings were the focus of intense military activity. Although the First Battle of Independence in August 1862 resulted in a Confederate States Army victory, the Confederates were unable to leverage their win in any significant fashion, as Kansas City was occupied by Union troops and proved too fortified to assault.
The Second Battle of Independence, which occurred on October 21–22, 1864 as part of Sterling Price's Missouri expedition of 1864 resulted in a Confederate triumph. Once again their victory proved hollow, as Price was decisively defeated in the pivotal Battle of Westport the next day ending Confederate e