Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, to use Slavs as a slave labour force for the Axis war effort, to murder the rest, to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories. In the two years leading up to the invasion and the Soviet Union signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes; the German High Command began planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940, which Adolf Hitler authorized on 18 December 1940. Over the course of the operation, about three million personnel of the Axis powers – the largest invasion force in the history of warfare – invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2,900-kilometer front. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht deployed some 600,000 motor vehicles, between 600,000 and 700,000 horses for non-combat operations.
The offensive marked an escalation of World War II, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition. Operationally, German forces achieved major victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union and inflicted, as well as sustained, heavy casualties. Despite these Axis successes, the German offensive stalled in the Battle of Moscow at the end of 1941, the subsequent Soviet winter counteroffensive pushed German troops back; the Red Army absorbed the Wehrmacht's strongest blows and forced the Germans into a war of attrition that they were unprepared for. The Wehrmacht never again mounted a simultaneous offensive along the entire Eastern front; the failure of the operation drove Hitler to demand further operations of limited scope inside the Soviet Union, such as Case Blue in 1942 and Operation Citadel in 1943 – all of which failed. The failure of Operation Barbarossa proved a turning point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most the operation opened up the Eastern Front, in which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history.
The Eastern Front became the site of some of the largest battles, most horrific atrocities, highest World War II casualties, all of which influenced the course of both World War II and the subsequent history of the 20th century. The German armies captured 5,000,000 Red Army troops, who were denied the protection guaranteed by the Hague Conventions and the 1929 Geneva Convention. A majority of Red Army POWs never returned alive; the Nazis deliberately starved to death, or otherwise killed, 3.3 million prisoners of war, as well as a huge number of civilians. Einsatzgruppen death-squads and gassing operations murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust; as early as 1925, Adolf Hitler vaguely declared in his political manifesto and autobiography Mein Kampf that he would invade the Soviet Union, asserting that the German people needed to secure Lebensraum to ensure the survival of Germany for generations to come. On 10 February 1939, Hitler told his army commanders that the next war would be "purely a war of Weltanschauungen... a people's war, a racial war".
On 23 November, once World War II had started, Hitler declared that "racial war has broken out and this war shall determine who shall govern Europe, with it, the world". The racial policy of Nazi Germany portrayed the Soviet Union as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen, ruled by Jewish Bolshevik conspirators. Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that Germany's destiny was to "turn to the East" as it did "six hundred years ago". Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples, under the Generalplan Ost; the Germans' belief in their ethnic superiority is evident in official German records and discernible in pseudoscientific articles in German periodicals at the time, which covered topics such as "how to deal with alien populations". While older histories tended to emphasize the notion of a "Clean Wehrmacht", the historian Jürgen Förster notes that "In fact, the military commanders were caught up in the ideological character of the conflict, involved in its implementation as willing participants."
Before and during the invasion of the Soviet Union, German troops were indoctrinated with anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic, anti-Slavic ideology via movies, lectures and leaflets. Likening the Soviets to the forces of Genghis Khan, Hitler told Croatian military leader Slavko Kvaternik that the "Mongolian race" threatened Europe. Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as "Jewish Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood", the "Red beast". Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish and Slavic Untermenschen. An'order from the Führer' stated that the Einsatzgruppen were to execute all Soviet functionaries who were "less valuable Asiatics and Jews". Six months into the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen had murdered in excess of 500,000 Soviet Jews, a figure greater than the number of Red Army soldiers killed in combat during that same time frame.
German army command
Tamás Buday is a Canadian sprint canoe coach and retired Hungarian sprint canoer. He competed in doubles at the 1976 and 1980 Olympics and won two bronze medals in 1976, he won thirteen medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with four gold, five silvers, four bronzes. In 1987, Buday defected to Canada, he is a member of the Mississauga Sports Hall of Fame and recipient of the Canadian Coaching Excellence Award. His sons Attila and Tamás, Jr. competed in sprint canoe for Canada at three Olympics. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 1: flatwater: 1936–2007 at WebCite. Additional archives: Wayback Machine. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 2: rest of flatwater and remaining canoeing disciplines: 1936–2007 at WebCite
Kingston Penitentiary is a former maximum security prison located in Kingston, Canada, between King Street West and Lake Ontario. Constructed in 1833–34, opened on June 1, 1835 as the "Provincial Penitentiary of the Province of Upper Canada", it was one of the oldest prisons in continuous use in the world at the time of its closure. Kingston Penitentiary was one of nine prisons in the Kingston area which range from low-security facilities to the maximum-security facilities Kingston Penitentiary and Millhaven Institution; the institution was built on land described as "lot number twenty, in the first concession of the Township of Kingston". The cells measured 73.7 cm wide by 244 cm deep and 200.7 cm high. The area had a 12 foot high wooden picket fence. In 1845 towers, stock walls and the north gate house were completed. In 1859 – 1861 a dome was added connecting four cellblocks; the site was chosen for "combining the advantages of perfect salubrity, ready access to the water, abundant quantities of fine limestone."
Six inmates were accepted. Charles Dickens visited Kingston in 1842 and commented in his American Notes, "There is an admirable jail here and wisely governed, excellently regulated, in every respect; the men were employed as shoemakers, blacksmiths, tailors and stonecutters. The female prisoners were occupied in needlework."The penitentiary's western wall adjoins the Portsmouth Olympic Harbour, which hosted the sailing events for the 1976 Summer Olympics. Across the road to the north is the now closed Kingston Prison For Women, opened on January 24, 1934 to take female prisoners, housed in segregated quarters in the main facility. On August 14, 1954, a two-hour riot broke out in the penitentiary—the worst in its history up to that point—involving 900 inmates. During the riot a breakout was foiled by the guards at the gate; the trouble began during a morning baseball game in the exercise yard, when a guard was attacked, followed by several inmates setting fire to various buildings in the yard, including the shops and a warehouse, causing an estimated $2 million in damages.
The disturbance was quelled by the guards aided by 160 Canadian Army troops and a squad of Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers. The 50 ringleaders were placed in solitary confinement. On April 14, 1971, a riot lasted four days and resulted in the death of two inmates and destruction of much of the prison. Security was increased and prison reforms were instituted. Six guards were held hostage, but all were released unharmed; the prisoners issued formal grievances to the media including lack of recreational time, lack of work, concerns about their future conditions in the newly built Millhaven Prison. A 1971 inquiry into the riot, chaired by Justice J. W. Swackhamer, reported that they had "already noted a number of causes for Kingston's failure: the aged physical facilities, the shortage of professional staff, a program, curtailed, the confinement in the institution of a number of people who did not require maximum security confinement, too much time spent in cells, a lack of adequate channels to deal with complaints and the lack of an adequate staff which resulted in the breakdowns of established procedures to deal with inmate requests.
The polarization between inmates and custodial staff, between custodial staff and professional staff, led to the destruction of the program and deterioration in the life of the institution." This riot, together with successors in 1975, led to an official Sub-Committee on the Penitentiary System in Canada, chaired by Justice Mark MacGuigan. The 1977 MacGuigan Report recommended the creation of an Independent Chairperson to investigate prisoner complaints. From 1971–1981, the penitentiary served as Corrections Canada's Ontario Region Reception Centre. Before it closed, the facility housed between 350 and 500 inmates plus another 120 at the Regional Treatment Centre contained within the prison; every inmate was given an individual cell. In its years, Kingston Penitentiary became known as a "dumping ground for bad guards", after an investigation by the RCMP, eight guards were terminated. In 1990, Kingston Penitentiary was designated a National Historic Site of Canada. On April 19, 2012, the Government of Canada announced plans to close the Kingston Penitentiary, along with the Leclerc Institution in Laval and the Regional Treatment Centre in Kingston, Ontario.
Kingston Penitentiary closed on September 30, 2013. The penitentiary was opened during October/November 2013 for public tours hosted by the United Way of KFL&A and Habitat for Humanity Canada. On September 10, 1923, inmate Norman "Red" Ryan and carried out an escape with a number of fellow inmates. After setting fire to a shed as a distraction, the gang went over the wall, they fled the city. On September 20, 1991 Robert Brule escaped prison custody by feigning illness. On way to hospital in Kingston he ran from guards after using a homemade handcuff key to release his restraints in prison washroom before getting into ambulance, he remained at large for several hours until apprehended by police and off duty corrections officers. Reported on front page of the Kingston - Whig Standard September 21, 1991. In 1999, prisoner Ty Conn escaped from the facility. Although there had been at least 26 escape attempts since 1836, Conn was the first
Canadian Forces Station Carp is a former Canadian military facility located in the rural farming community of Carp, Ontario 30 km west of downtown Ottawa. CFS Carp was decommissioned in 1994, it was not until 1998 that it was reopened as a museum and designated a National Historic Site of Canada. The facility operates as a museum and is open year-round for tours. In 1958, at the height of the Cold War and the infancy of the intercontinental ballistic missile threat, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker authorized the creation of close to 50 Emergency Government Headquarters across Canada; these shelters were part of what came to be known as the Continuity of Government plan, meant to protect various members of government in the event of a nuclear attack. The original site, some 9.7 km east of Almonte was abandoned when ground water proved impossible to remove. An abandoned gravel pit outside Carp was selected instead, construction began in 1959 and was completed by 1962; the Carp shelter would be the largest of such facilities and the only one in the immediate Ottawa area.
The underground 4-storey bunker required 5,000 tonnes of steel. The structure was capable of withstanding a nuclear blast up to 5 megatons from 1.8 km away. It had massive blast doors at the surface, as well as extensive air filters to prevent radiation infiltration. Although effective against surface nuclear detonations, the facility was found to be vulnerable to conventional Bunker buster bombs developed after its construction, as these bombs had time delay fuses that would detonate after they had penetrated enough underground. Underground storage was built for food, fresh water, other supplies; the bunker was built to accommodate 565 people for up to one month without receiving additional supplies from the outside. It included an emergency broadcast studio for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and a vault on the lowest level to hold the gold reserves of the Bank of Canada; these facilities were administered by the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals. A decentralized transmitter site, the Richardson Detachment, with numerous transmitter antenna was located further to the west near Perth Ontario, supported from a 2-storey underground facility of similar construction to the Carp facility but much smaller.
Two radio receiving facilities, the CFS Carp Almonte Detachment and CFS Carp Dunrobin Detachment, with a complete receiving antenna arrays were built in the region but all buildings were above ground. CFS Carp was decommissioned in 1994 following the reduction in the ICBM threat. From 1959 to 1994, the site was owned and operated by the Government of Canada, Department of National Defence. After the local municipality took control of the facility in 1994, the community took a great interest in the bunker, requesting access to public tours of the facility; the local municipality took control of the facility and a group of local volunteers, recognizing the heritage and tourism value of the Carp Diefenbunker, undertook to open the facility as a cold war museum and conduct public tours. It was purchased by the Diefenbunker Development Group in 1998, opened as a museum; the name of the facility was changed to the Diefenbunker, Canada's Cold War Museum shortly thereafter. It is open year-round for public tours.
Many areas of the bunker, including the PM's Suite, the Emergency Government Situation Centre, the CBC Emergency Broadcasting Studio, the Military Federal Warning Centre, the External Affairs Ministerial Office, the Public Works Minister's Office and the Bank of Canada Vault, are being restored to their operational condition. The rest of the 358 rooms have been converted to exhibits of the Cold War era. Upon its opening in 1998, the museum was run by volunteers. However, the 5,000 visitors received that year was too much to be handled by volunteers. In 1999, the museum's second year of operation, a curator was hired along with some students; the museum's visitation doubled to 10,000 people that year. The museum continued to grow into the 2000s. Close to 15,000 visitors passed through the Diefenbunker in 2000. Additional part-time staff was hired throughout the year to keep up with museum maintenance and upkeep; as of 2008, the Diefenbunker averages 25,000 visitors each year. Four full-time staff, nine part-time staff and numerous volunteers work to keep the museum running smoothly.
In 2012, the museum had 45,280 visitors. This was one of the highest increases in attendance other than the opening year of the Bunker; the mandate of Diefenbunker, Canada's Cold War museum is "to increase throughout Canada and the world, interest in and a critical understanding of the Cold War, by preserving the Diefenbunker as a national historic site, operating a Cold War Museum. The Diefenbunker houses a collection of Cold War artefacts, an archive and a library, all of which are made available to researchers upon request, to the general public through the exhibitions; the Diefenbunker: Canada's Cold War museum is a not-for-profit, charitable museum. It is funded privately; the Diefenbunker applies for private, municipal and federal grants. The museum relies on the generous support of the community through donations and sponsorship; the Diefenbunker offers additional services on top of public tours. The museum has space available to rent both for events and storage; the decommissioned bunker has been
Canada in the Cold War
During the Cold War, Canada was one of the western powers playing a central role in the major alliances. It was an ally of the United States, but there were several foreign policy differences between the two countries over the course of the Cold War. Canada was a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949, the North American Aerospace Defence Command in 1958 and played a leading role in United Nations peacekeeping operations – from the Korean War to the creation of a permanent UN peacekeeping force during the Suez Crisis in 1956. Subsequent peacekeeping interventions occurred in the Congo, the Sinai, Golan Heights and Namibia. Canada did not follow the American lead in all Cold War actions. Canada refused to join the Vietnam War and in 1984 the last nuclear weapons based in Canada were removed. Relations were maintained with Cuba and the Canadian government recognized the People's Republic of China before the United States; the Canadian military maintained a standing presence in Western Europe as part of its NATO deployment at several bases in Germany – including long tenures at CFB Baden-Soellingen and CFB Lahr, in the Black Forest region of West Germany.
Canadian military facilities were maintained in Bermuda and the United Kingdom. From the early 1960s until the 1980s, Canada maintained weapon platforms armed with nuclear weapons – including nuclear-tipped air-to-air rockets, surface-to-air missiles, high-yield gravity bombs principally deployed in the Western European theatre of operations as well as in Canada. Canada emerged from the Second World War as a world power, radically transforming a principally agricultural and rural dominion of a dying empire into a sovereign nation, with a market economy focused on a combination of resource extraction and refinement, heavy manufacturing, high-technology research and development; as a consequence of supplying so much of the war effort for six long years, Canada's military grew to an exceptional size: over a million service personnel, the world's fifth largest surface fleet and fourth largest air force. Despite a draw-down at the end of the war, the Canadian military nonetheless executed Operation Muskox, a massive deployment across the Canadian Arctic designed in part to train for a ground and air war in the region.
Canadians assisted in humanitarian efforts, sending observers for the United Nations to India and Palestine in 1947 and 1948. There was never any doubt early on as to which side Canada was on in the Cold War due to its location. On the domestic front, the Canadian state at all levels fought vehemently against what it characterized as communist subversion. Canadian and business leaders opposed the advance of the labour movement on the grounds that it was a Bolshevik conspiracy during the interwar period; the peak moments of this effort were the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and the anticommunist campaigns of the depression, including the stopping of the On-to-Ottawa Trek. The formal onset of the Cold War pegged with the 1945 defection of a Soviet cipher clerk working in Ottawa, Igor Gouzenko, was therefore a continuation and extension of, rather than a departure from, Canadian anticommunist policies. Canada was a founding member of NATO. Canada was one of its most ardent supporters and pushed to have it become an economic and cultural organization in addition to a military alliance.
To defend North America against a possible enemy attack and the United States began to work closely together in the 1950s. The North American Aerospace Defense Command created a joint air-defense system. In northern Canada, the Distant Early Warning Line was established to give warning of Soviet bombers heading over the north pole. Similar early warning radar systems were developed in the middle of Canada, known as the Mid-Canada Line. Canada addressed the threat posed by Communist sympathizers in a manner more moderate than in the United States; the United States wished the Canadian government would go further, asking for a purging of trade unions, but the Canadian government left the purge of trade unions to the AFL-CIO. The American officials were concerned about the sailors on Great Lakes freight vessels, and, in 1951, Canada added them to those screened by its secret anti-communist screening program; the Communist Party of Canada had not been outlawed since Section 98 was repealed by Prime Minister Mackenzie King in 1935.
Despite its comparatively moderate stance towards Communism, the Canadian state continued intensive surveillance of Communists and sharing of intelligence with the United States. PROFUNC was a Government of Canada top secret plan to identify and detain Communist sympathizers during the height of the Cold War. Tensions between Canada and the United States heightened during this time as on April 4, 1957, Canadian Ambassador to Egypt, E. Herbert Norman, leaped to his death from a Cairo building after the United States Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security released a textual record of a previous hearing to the media. Despite having been cleared several years earlier, first by the RCMP in 1950 again by the Canadian Minister of External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, the United States media portrayed Norman as a traitor; the only evidence the United States had was that as a student at Cambridge and Harvard he was a part of a Marxist communist study group. This made Pearson, still External Affairs Minister, backed by outrage across the country, send a
The Mid-Canada Line known as the McGill Fence, was a line of radar stations running east-west across the middle of Canada, used to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. It was built to supplement the less-advanced Pinetree Line, located further south; the majority of Mid-Canada Line stations were used only from the late 1950s to the mid-1960s, as the attack threat changed from bombers to ICBMs. As the MCL was closed down, the early warning role passed entirely to the more capable DEW Line further north; the MCL was based on the bistatic radar principle, using separated receivers. An aircraft flying anywhere between the stations would reflect some of the transmitted signal towards the receiver, where it would mix with the signal travelling directly from the transmitter; the resulting change in signal is easy to detect using simple electronics, the transmitter is not pulsed so it does not require high voltages and is simple as well. This leads to a low-cost system that can cover huge areas, at the cost of providing no information about the precise location of the target.
Throughout its history, the MCL suffered from a problem, never solved. In the case of the MCL, this caused problems when flocks of birds would fly anywhere near either station and swamp the signal of a more distant aircraft. Solving this problem using the Doppler effect was a major design criterion for the AN/FPS-23 "Fluttar" that filled a similar role in the DEW line. Construction of the Pinetree Line had only just started when air planners started to have concerns about its capabilities and siting. By the time it detected a potential attack by jet-powered aircraft, there would be little time to do anything before the attack reached Canadian or northern U. S. cities. Additionally, the Pinetree systems used pulse-based radars that were easy to jam and were unable to detect targets close to the ground due to scattering. Although expensive in terms of fuel use, it would be possible for Soviet bombers to evade detection by flying lower and plotting a course between the stations. Bennett Lewis, head of the AECL Chalk River Laboratories and former Chief Superintendent of the UK Telecommunications Research Establishment had proposed to the Defence Research Board a system that avoided both of these problems.
Known today as a forward scatter bistatic radar, it used two antennas, a transmitter and receiver, separated by some distance. The antennas were positioned and aimed so that the signal from the transmitter filled the space above the line between the two stations. An aircraft flying into this region would reflect some signal back towards the receiver, allowing detection at altitudes as great as 65,000 ft. A major advantage of the system is. In a conventional radar, the radio signal has to back again; as each leg of the journey is subject to the inverse square law, the resulting radar equation contains a fourth-power dependence. In contrast, a forward-scatter radar signal always travels about the same total distance, from the transmitter to the receiver, modified only by the altitude of the target; this means it is dependent on a square of range and thus delivers more energy onto the receiver than a conventional radar at the same range. Unlike a conventional "monostatic" radar, the transmitter did not have to turn off to allow the receiver to listen for the signal.
Since the total amount of energy received at the receiver is a function of both the peak power and the length of the pulse, using a continual signal means the same total energy will be deposited using much lower peak transmitter power. As a result, Lewis' system would require smaller sites and much less power than conventional radars like those in Pinetree; the major disadvantage of the system is that it did not indicate the aircraft's location within the beam, unlike a pulsed system where pulse timing can be used to determine range. This means the forward-scatter concept is useful for making a "radar fence" or "trip wire" that indicates that something is approaching, but not where it is. To help address locating the target to a degree, the proposal was to build two interlinked fences, so that each pair of stations was 30 kilometres apart, a short enough distance that the radar on an interceptor aircraft would be able to find the target within that area. Using two overlapping sets allowed one pair to cover the dead zone directly above the towers of the other.
Lewis' initial concept was to place the transmitters and receivers on telephone poles and electric power transmission towers, which provided both a convenient location as well as the small amount of power needed to run the electronics. In the case of the telephone poles, the lines would be used to send the data back to the tracking stations; this concept generated a considerable amount of interest, although it was abandoned for reasons that are not clear. Willis and Griffiths speculate it might be the need for 1,000 such radars, but it is likely that the desired to locate the line further north than the settled areas in southern Canada was significant as well. In any event, the simplicity of the concept helped bring it to the attention of air planners; the DRB decided to pursue Lewis’ idea in 1950–51 by directing a research contract to the Eaton Electronics Research Laboratories of McGill University, headed by Professor Garfield Woonton. Lewis suggested to DRB and Woonton that he put the project in the hands