Ultimate Fighting Championship
The Ultimate Fighting Championship is an American mixed martial arts promotion company based in Las Vegas, owned and operated by parent company William Morris Endeavor. It is the largest MMA promotion company in the world and features the highest-level fighters on the roster; the UFC produces events worldwide that showcase twelve weight divisions and abide by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. As of 2018, the UFC has held over 400 events. Dana White serves as the president of the UFC. White has held that position since 2001; the first event was held in 1993 at the McNichols Sports Arena in Colorado. The purpose of the early Ultimate Fighting Championship competitions was to identify the most effective martial art in a contest with minimal rules and no weight classes between competitors of different fighting disciplines like boxing, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, wrestling, Muay Thai and judo. In subsequent events, fighters began adopting effective techniques from more than one discipline, which indirectly helped create an separate style of fighting known as present-day mixed martial arts.
In 2016, UFC's parent company, was sold to a group led by William Morris Endeavor for $4.025 billion. With a TV deal and expansion in Australia, Asia and new markets within the United States, the UFC has increased in popularity, has achieved greater mainstream media coverage. Art Davie proposed to John Milius and Rorion Gracie an eight-man single-elimination tournament called "War of the Worlds"; the tournament was inspired by the Gracies in Action video-series produced by the Gracie family of Brazil which featured Gracie jiu-jitsu students defeating martial-arts masters of various disciplines such as karate, kung fu, kickboxing. The tournament would feature martial artists from different disciplines facing each other in no-holds-barred combat to determine the best martial art and would aim to replicate the excitement of the matches Davie saw on the videos. Milius, a noted film director and screenwriter, as well as a Gracie student, agreed to act as the event's creative director. Davie drafted the business plan and twenty-eight investors contributed the initial capital to start WOW Promotions with the intent to develop the tournament into a television franchise.
In 1993, WOW Promotions sought a television partner and approached pay-per-view producers TVKO and SET, as well as Campbell McLaren and David Isaacs at the Semaphore Entertainment Group. Both TVKO and SET declined, but SEG – a pioneer in pay-per-view television which had produced such offbeat events as a gender versus gender tennis match between Jimmy Connors and Martina Navratilova – became WOW's partner in May 1993. SEG contacted video and film art director Jason Cusson to design the trademarked "Octagon", a signature piece for the event. Cusson remained the Production Designer through UFC 27. SEG devised the name for the show as The Ultimate Fighting Championship. WOW Promotions and SEG produced the first event called UFC 1, at McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado on November 12, 1993. Art Davie functioned as the show's matchmaker; the show proposed to find an answer for sports fans' questions such as: "Can a wrestler beat a boxer?" As with most martial arts at the time, fighters had skills in just one discipline and had little experience against opponents with different skills.
The television broadcast featured kickboxers Patrick Smith and Kevin Rosier, savate fighter Gerard Gordeau, karate expert Zane Frazier, shootfighter Ken Shamrock, sumo wrestler Teila Tuli, boxer Art Jimmerson, 175 lb Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belt Royce Gracie—younger brother of UFC co-founder Rorion, whom Rorion handpicked to represent his family in the competition. Royce Gracie's submission skills proved the most effective in the inaugural tournament, earning him the first UFC tournament championship after submitting Jimmerson and Gordeau in succession; the show proved successful with 86,592 television subscribers on pay-per-view. It's disputed whether the promoters intended for the event to become a precursor to a series of future events. "That show was only supposed to be a one-off", eventual UFC president Dana White said. "It did so well on pay-per-view they decided to do another, another. Never in a million years did these guys think they were creating a sport." Art Davie, in his 2014 book Is This Legal?, an account of the creation of the first UFC event, disputes the perception that the UFC was seen by WOW Promotions and SEG as a one-off, since SEG offered a five-year joint development deal to WOW.
He says, "Clearly, both Campbell and Meyrowitz shared my unwavering belief that War of the Worlds would be a continuing series of fighting tournaments—a franchise, rather than a one-night stand."With no weight classes, fighters faced larger or taller opponents. Keith "The Giant Killer" Hackney faced Emmanuel Yarbrough at UFC 3 with a 9 in height and 400 pounds weight disadvantage. Many martial artists believed that technique could overcome these size disadvantages, that a skilled fighter could use an opponent's size and strength against him. With the 175 lb Royce Gracie winning three of the first four events, the UFC proved that size does not always determine the outcome of the fight. During this early part of the organization, the UFC would showcase a bevy of different styles and fighters. Aside from the aforementioned Royce Gracie, Ken Shamrock, Pat
Steubenville is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, United States. Located along the Ohio River, it had a population of 18,659 at the 2010 census; the city's name is derived from Fort Steuben, a 1786 fort that sat within the city's current limits and was named for German-Prussian military officer Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben. Today, a replica of the fort is open to the public. Steubenville is known after its more than 25 downtown murals, it is home to Franciscan University of Eastern Gateway Community College. It is known for the Steubenville Nutcracker Village, an annual Christmastime event. Steubenville is a principal city of the Weirton–Steubenville, WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2010 population of 124,454 residents. Steubenville is not part of Greater Pittsburgh, the 20th largest combined statistical area in the United States with a 2016 estimated population of 2,635,228. In 1786–87, the soldiers of the 1st American Regiment built Fort Steuben to protect the government surveyors mapping the land west of the Ohio River, named the fort in honor of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.
When the surveyors completed their task a few years the fort was abandoned. In the meantime, settlers had built homes around the fort; the name Steubenville was derived from Fort Steuben to honor Baron von Steuben. The town was sometimes referred to as La Belle City, a franglais interpretation of "The Beautiful City". On July 29, 1797, Jefferson County was organized by a proclamation of Governor Arthur St. Clair, Steubenville was selected as the County seat and was platted in the same year by Bezaliel Wells and James Ross, the city's co-founders. Wells, a government surveyor born in Baltimore, received about 1,000 acres of land west of the Ohio River. On March 1, 1803, Ohio was admitted to the Union as the 17th state. During the first half of the nineteenth century, Steubenville was a port town, the rest of the county was small villages and farms. Steubenville received a city charter in 1851. In 1856, Frazier and Company erected a rolling mill and the Steubenville Coal and Mining Company sank a coal shaft.
The city was a stop along the Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, which connected Pittsburgh to Chicago and St. Louis. In 1946, the College of Steubenville was founded by the Franciscan Friars of the Third Order Regular. In 1980, its name was changed to University of Steubenville, in 1985 to Franciscan University of Steubenville. In 1966, the Jefferson County Technical Institute was founded. In 1977, its name was changed to Jefferson Technical College. In 1995, it was renamed Jefferson Community College. In 2009, the college expanded its service district by three Ohio counties, was renamed again: Eastern Gateway Community College. In 1992, the RZA, before starting the Wu-Tang Clan, was involved in a shoot-out in Steubenville and faced attempted murder charges for shooting an adversary in the leg, he was acquitted. "When they said'not guilty', my face stuck in a smile for three days," he recalled. "I was just walking around town, thinking about my wife. Right I said goodbye to anything that would put me in that situation again.
I was up on trial on an attempted murder charge. I was a motherfucking fool, with all that knowledge in my head and ending up there."The city gained international attention in late 2012 from the events surrounding the Steubenville High School rape case, which occurred in August 2012. The case was first covered by The New York Times that December, followed by the computer hacker group Anonymous that month, the subsequent coverage of the trials in late 2013; the case was significant in the extensive use of social media as evidence and in opening a national discussion on the concept of rape culture. Steubenville is located at 40°21′30″N 80°37′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.63 square miles, of which 10.55 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. The city lies along the Ohio River, with the city spreading west from the floodplains to the hills that surround the city, it lies within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau. The city's population has been in continuous decline since.
The 2010 census found 18,659 residents, down 1.8 percent from the 2000 census, while the 2011 estimate put the population at 18,440, a drop of another 1.2 percent since 2010. The poverty rate increased to 27.5 percent of the population. The proportion of the population, white remained at 79.5 percent, while the Hispanic proportion more than doubled to 2.4 percent as the black population dropped to 15.9 percent. From 1980 to 2000, census figures show that the Weirton–Steubenville population decreased faster than any other urban area in the United States. Steubenville is a principal city of the Weirton–Steubenville, WV–OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,659 people, 7,548 households, 4,220 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,768.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,857 housing units at an average density of 839.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 15.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were
Moline is a city located in Rock Island County, United States. With a population of 43,977 in 2010, it is the largest city in Rock Island County. Moline is one of the Quad Cities, along with neighboring East Moline and Rock Island in Illinois and the cities of Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa; the Quad Cities have an estimated population of 381,342. The city is the ninth-most populated city in Illinois outside the Chicago Metropolitan Area; the corporate headquarters of Deere & Company is located in Moline, as was Montgomery Elevator, founded and headquartered in Moline until 1997, when it was acquired by Kone Elevator, which has its U. S. Division headquartered in Moline. Quad City International Airport, Niabi Zoo, Black Hawk College, the Quad Cities campus of Western Illinois University-Quad Cities. Moline is a retail hub for the Illinois Quad Cities, as South Park Mall and numerous big-box shopping plazas are located in the city. In the mid-1990s, the city undertook major efforts to revitalize its central business district, which had declined after suburban growth and retail changes after the 1950s and 1960s.
Today, Moline's downtown again serves as one of the recreational hubs of the Quad Cities. Downtown Moline features hotels such as Radisson and Stoney Creek Inn, commercial areas such as Bass Street Landing and the historic 5th Avenue. Moline acquired its name after it was platted in 1843; the name derives from the French moulin meaning "mill town". The city of Moline is nestled beside and on a broad bluff situated between the banks of the Mississippi River and Rock River in Rock Island County, Illinois; the city's highland areas are cut across by many deep ravines that break up the city into natural neighborhoods. The city is bounded to the west by Rock Island. Moline is located 165 miles west of Chicago and 164 miles northwest of Springfield, Illinois. Moline and its neighboring communities within the Quad Cities form the largest urban area along the Mississippi River between Minneapolis to the north and St. Louis to the south, are located halfway between them; the area is served by four interstate highways: Interstate 74, Interstate 280, Interstate 80, Interstate 88.
The Quad City International Airport, located on the southern fringe of the city to the south of the Rock River, is home to four commercial airlines providing non-stop flights to eight different cities. This airport is the third busiest one in the state of Illinois, following Chicago's O'Hare International Airport and Midway Airport. According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 16.66 square miles, of which 16.43 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water. Typical of the northern half of Illinois, Moline experiences a humid continental climate with hot, humid summers and cold, moderately snowy winters; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 22.6 °F in January to 75.4 °F in July. Extremes in temperature have ranged from 111 °F, set on July 14, 1936, down to −33 °F, set on January 30, 2019. Temperatures reach 100 °F only several years per decade, −20 °F readings are rarer; the average window for freezing temperatures is October 10 thru April 24, allowing a growing season of 168 days.
Snowfall averages 31.6 inches per season, but has ranged as low as 11.1 in in 1901–02 to 69.7 in in 1974–75. Unlike much of the Midwest, measurable snow has never occurred in May. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures inhabited areas along the river over thousands of years, using it for transportation and fishing. According to the Rock Island County Historical Society, the first more permanently settled inhabitants of the Moline area are thought to be the Sauk and Meskwaki Indians, who founded the village of Saukenuk in 1720 along the Rock River not far from its confluence with the Mississippi; this tribe saw the land between the Mississippi rivers as ideal for farming and fishing. By the early 19th century, this once peaceful area became a site of violent confrontations between European-American settlers, arriving in greater numbers and encroaching on Native American land, the Sauk and Fox tribes. In 1832 Chief Black Hawk declared war on the United States; when the war ended that year, Black Hawk and his people were forced to leave the area and go north, paving the way for more European-American settlers to enter the Mississippi Valley.
In 1837, David B. Sears and a group of associates built a 600-foot stone-and-brush dam across Sylvan Slough, thereby connecting the sou
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Ultimate Fighter
The Ultimate Fighter is an American reality television series and mixed martial arts competition produced by Fox Sports 1 and the Ultimate Fighting Championship. It aired for fourteen seasons on Spike TV; the show features professional MMA fighters living together in Las Vegas and follows them as they train and compete against each other for a prized contract with the UFC. The series debuted on January 17, 2005, with its first episode, "The Quest Begins". To date, there have been twenty seven seasons of two per calendar year; each season features either two weight classes in the tournament. The historic Forrest Griffin vs. Stephan Bonnar fight in the first season drew millions of viewers to the show and launched the sport into the mainstream; because of this success, The Ultimate Fighter was regarded as instrumental to the survival and expansion of the UFC and mixed martial arts into the mainstream. Many current and past UFC fighters are alumni of the show, with some competitors going on to become coaches in future seasons.
The show has undergone multiple format changes since its inception, including the introduction of the wildcard bout. Many winners have gone on to compete for UFC championships with some becoming UFC champions; the Ultimate Fighter was an experimental series financed by the former owners of the Ultimate Fighting Championship and Frank Fertitta III. The series was aired on Spike TV as a last resort measure to gain mainstream exposure for mixed martial arts. During the early days of Spike TV, the channel wanted sports programming, but had no budget for sports licensing fees. Spike TV founder Albie Hecht began a search to find programming with broad appeal that the network could afford. In the end, Spike narrowed its choices down to the UFC and K-1. Hecht flew to Japan to meet with the head of K-1, but insulted his geisha, so the meeting did not go well. Weeks Hecht met with Lorenzo Fertitta in Las Vegas. Hecht was impressed by the UFC's celebrity following, its plan to acquire and consolidate smaller promotions into the UFC, with Dana White's ability to be a "Vince McMahon"-like personality.
Hecht saw K-1 given it had more international notoriety. He was not a fan of the grappling aspects of MMA, but the UFC rebuffed his suggestion to change the rules of the sport to accommodate striking. Hecht credits Kevin Kay and his editorial collaboration with the UFC for highlighting the show's story lines, which he believes helped drive its ratings success. Airing after World Wrestling Entertainment's flagship show WWE Raw, The Ultimate Fighter's debut episode was able to garner a 57% retention rate in viewers from Raw, double the usual rate for Spike TV, it is believed by some that WWE's Vince McMahon had to approve The Ultimate Fighter following Raw, but this is incorrect. According to Hecht, McMahon did not have the final say, but given his stature and Raw's' importance to Spike TV at the time, the network wanted McMahon to "be on board" with the program lineup. At the time, Hecht believes; the live finale for the first season saw the historic bout of Forrest Stephan Bonnar. Now regarded as the most influential fight in MMA history, the bout took place in what was the first MMA event on live and free television.
The bout ended in a unanimous decision victory for Griffin and led to the show's renewal on Spike TV. Regarding the success of the show, UFC president Dana White said, "It's amazing to think.... How close we came to not being here today. If it weren't for what these guys did, I don't know if there would be a UFC. I'll never forget these guys. Ever."The renewal of the show saw UFC produce two more series, before subsequent renewals. In order to garner more attention for the sport, The Ultimate Fighter utilizes gimmicks: one notable example, in the ninth season, employed a country vs. country theme, with the United States competing against the United Kingdom. These gimmicks enabled the UFC to appeal to fans, introduced to the sport during UFCs penetration into the European market; the Ultimate Fighter drew record viewing figures for Spike TV when YouTube sensation Kimbo Slice participated in the tenth season. Slice's fight against veteran Roy Nelson attracted viewers to the sport, drawing an audience of 6.1 million, making it one of the most viewed MMA fights in history.
As part of a new broadcasting relationship between the UFC and Fox Sports, The Ultimate Fighter moved to FX beginning in season 15. Season 14 was the final season of the series to air on Spike, who considered the relationship to be "incredibly beneficial in building both our brands.” In September 2013, the series moved to Fox's new mainstream sports network Fox Sports 1. Because of the need to keep the fight results secret until the airing of the episode, each fight on The Ultimate Fighter is an "exhibition", as such does not count towards the fighters overall record. For the first four seasons, prospect UFC fighters from two different weight categories were selected to compete; the fighters are divided into two teams, irrespective of weight class, with each team coached by a current UFC headliner. The teams compete with the loser being eliminated from the competition. Incentives are provided for the team of a winning fighter; this can include the right for their team to select the next matchup, in order to pick off fighters from the opposing team by selecting favourable matchups.
At the end of a season, the two remaining fighters of each weight class are placed in a single-elimination fight at Ultimate Fighter Finales, such as The Ultimate Fighter 1 Finale where the title of Ultimate Fighter is awarded to the winner. Seasons fi
Kalispell is a city in, the county seat of Flathead County, United States. The 2015 Census estimates put Kalispell's population at 22,052; the Kalispell Micropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 93,068 and it is the largest city and commercial center of northwest Montana. The name Kalispell is a Salish word meaning "flat land above the lake". Kalispell is the gateway to Glacier National Park. Working using his own capital, Charles Edward Conrad, a businessman and banker from Fort Benton, formed the Kalispell Townsite Company with three other men; the townsite was platted and lots began selling by the spring of 1891. Conrad built a large mansion in Kalispell in 1895. Kalispell was incorporated as a city in 1892. Since that time, the city of Kalispell has continued to grow in population reaching 19,927 in 2010; as the largest city in Northwest Montana, Kalispell serves as the county seat and commercial center of Flathead County. The city is considered a secondary trade center with a trade area of 130,000.
The city is home to Kalispell Regional Medical Center, which boasts a 150-bed facility. Nestled in the Flathead valley, Kalispell is 31 miles from Glacier National Park and 22 miles from Hungry Horse Dam. Skiers have access to Whitefish Mountain Resort on Big Mountain and Blacktail Mountain Ski Area each 17 miles away. Flathead Lake is 7 miles away. Buffalo Hill Golf Club, designed by Robert Muir Graves, serves the needs of golfers; the tribal schools nearby offer classes in the Kalispel–Spokane–Flathead language, a language nest, intensive language training for adults. There is a Salish language training center in Arlee, Montana. Heaven's Gate was filmed around Kalispell. Kalispell is located at 48°11′52″N 114°18′58″W, at an elevation of 2,956 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.73 square miles, of which, 11.64 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. Kalispell is located 7 miles north of Flathead Lake, the largest natural freshwater lake in the western United States.
Kalispell experiences a cold semi-arid climate, with long and moderately snowy winters and dry summers, short springs and autumns in between. Nights are much cooler than daytime highs. Snow occurs from late October/early November to March; as of the census of 2010, there were 19,927 people, 8,638 households, 4,944 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,711.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,379 housing units at an average density of 805.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.2% White, 0.2% African American, 1.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 8,638 households of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.8% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 34.5 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,223 people, 6,142 households, 3,494 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,605.7 people per square mile. There were 6,532 housing units at an average density of 1,196.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.84% White, 0.28% African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.55% of the population. 21.7% were of German, 12.0% Irish, 11.3% Norwegian, 10.7% English and 6.6% United States or American ancestry. There were 6,142 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.1% were non-families.
36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.209 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 24.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,567, the median income for a family was $36,554. Males had a median income of $29,431 versus $20,122 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,224. About 10.1% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. Kalispell is located at the intersection of U. S. Routes 2 and 93. Commercial air service is offered at Glacier Park International Airport, located 8 miles northeast of Kalispell off U.
S. Route 2 between Kalispell and Columbia Falls. Kalispell City Airport, located in the southern part of the city, offers general aviation service. Amtrak's Empire Builder service between Chicago a
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia