Second inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson
The second inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson as President of the United States was held on Wednesday, January 20, 1965; the inauguration marked the commencement of the second term of Lyndon B. Johnson as President and the only term of Hubert Humphrey as Vice President. Chief Justice Earl Warren administered the Oath of office. Lady Bird Johnson founded the tradition of First Ladies participating in the ceremony by holding the President's Bible. An estimated 1.2 million attended the inauguration, at the time the record holder for any event held at the National Mall until the Obama inauguration in 2009. This was the last time. Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson First inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson United States presidential election, 1964 The short film Inauguration of President Johnson is available for free download at the Internet Archive President Johnson 1965 Inaugural Address on YouTubeText of Johnson's Inaugural Address Audio of Johnson's Inaugural Address
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Cumberland School of Law
Cumberland Law School is unrelated to the University of the Cumberlands in Williamsburg, is no longer a part of Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee. Cumberland School of Law is an ABA accredited law school at Samford University in Birmingham, United States. Founded in 1847 at Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee, it is the 11th oldest law school in the United States and has more than 11,000 graduates, its alumni include two United States Supreme Court Justices. S. representatives. The school offers two degree programs: the 90-hour Juris Doctor, the Master of Comparative Law, designed to educate foreign lawyers in the basic legal principles of the United States; the school offers eight dual-degree programs and a Master of Laws program with concentrations in financial service regulatory compliance, health law and policy, higher education law and compliance, legal project management. This summary is based on From Maverick to Mainstream, a review of Cumberland's history and the development of the American legal education system.
Langum and Walthall summarize the history of Cumberland Law School as: From its local, Tennessee origins in 1847, Cumberland...emerged as a premier law school with a national status. It excelled in faculty, teaching methodology, numbers of students. Following the American Civil War, Cumberland rebuilt itself and succeeded on a grand scale with its single-year curriculum. Cumberland School of Law was founded on July 29, 1847 in Lebanon, Tennessee at Cumberland University. At the end of 1847, there were 15 law schools in the United States. Prior to the law school's official founding, Cumberland University facilitated the study of law and admitted a diverse student body, evidenced by graduates such as George W. Harkins, a Choctaw chief, who received a law degree from Cumberland and became a judge in 1834. Prior to the founding of the United States' first law schools, the primary means for a legal education was apprenticeship. Establishing law schools was difficult in the early 19th century. Harvard was only able to reestablish its law school in 1829 and Yale in 1826.
By 1859 Cumberland and the University of Virginia School of Law were the three largest law schools in the United States. A year 1860, only 21 university law schools existed in the country, and, in no school did the curriculum extend beyond two years. During the Antebellum years, Cumberland enjoyed success. Nathan Green, Jr. son of professor Nathan Green, Sr. stated that Cumberland enjoyed "the highest degree of prosperity", with a beautiful 20-acre campus, picturesque trees and fences, fine architecture. Cumberland's first graduate Paine Page Prim became chief justice of the Oregon Supreme Court. Students were taught through reading treatises two hours worth of recitations each morning, a mandatory moot court program. Caruthers considered the Socratic Method a necessity; the cost was $50 a session and a $5 "contingent fee". After the Civil War, this treatise method, the legal formalism of the school's approach, Nathan Green Jr.'s unwillingness to make changes, were all considered reasons for Cumberland's drift out of the mainstream.
At the start of the American Civil War, the campus split within a week. Nathan Green Jr.'s father, a law professor, went home, but in fear of arrest, Abraham Caruthers fled to Marietta, where he died a year later. During the war, professors John Carter and Nathan Green, Jr. fought as Confederate officers. Carter was killed; the campus did not. The trees were cut down and fences destroyed and burned; the Confederate Army burned the University buildings because a Confederate major was offended that Black Union soldiers had used them as barracks. The law school began the slow process of rebuilding. In July 1866, Cumberland adopted the image of the phoenix, the mythological Egyptian bird, reborn from its own ashes; the new motto was E Cineribus Resurgo or "I rise from the ashes."In September 1865 classes resumed with 11 students, which soon grew to 20. The 1865 class included enemies only a few months earlier. Nathan Green, Jr. kept the school together until Henry Cooper, a circuit judge, Andrew B. Martin, Robert L. Caruthers, brother of deceased founder Abraham Caruthers, joined the faculty.
Robert Caruthers had served as the state attorney general and had been elected Governor of Tennessee during the war in 1863, but was never inaugurated. In 1873 Robert Caruthers purchased Corona Hall from the Corona Institute for Women for $10,000, which he donated to the University for use by the law school; the destruction of the campus and the devastation of war had impoverished the school, it was 15 years before it saw students enter from outside the South, when a student from Illinois and a member of the Choctaw Nation enrolled at Cumberland. But there were few students from outside of the defeated Southern states, which Langum and Walthall claim underscored "how the Civil War blighted Cumberland."Robert Caruthers persisted, despite the setbacks, in 1878 Caruthers Hall was dedicated in his honor. This new school replaced Corona Hall; the new hall had "excellent acoustics and hard seats" and is described as a: splendid structure, built after the latest architectural style, is nearly one hundred feet from base to spire, contains two recitation rooms for the Law Department, two Society Halls, a Library, a chapel whose sea
United States Department of Transportation
The United States Department of Transportation is a federal Cabinet department of the U. S. government concerned with transportation. It was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, began operation on April 1, 1967, it is governed by the United States Secretary of Transportation. Prior to the Department of Transportation, the Under Secretary of Commerce for Transportation administered the functions now associated with the DOT. In 1965, Najeeb Halaby, administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency – the future Federal Aviation Administration – suggested to U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that transportation be elevated to a cabinet-level post, that the FAA be folded into the DOT. Federal Aviation Administration Federal Highway Administration Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Federal Railroad Administration Federal Transit Administration Maritime Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Office of Inspector General Office of the Secretary of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Bureau of Transportation Statistics Transportation Security Administration – transferred to Department of Homeland Security in 2003 United States Coast Guard – transferred to Department of Homeland Security in 2003 Surface Transportation Board – spun off as an independent federal agency in 2015 In 2012, the DOT awarded $742.5 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to 11 transit projects.
The awardees include light rail projects. Other projects include both a commuter rail extension and a subway project in New York City, a bus rapid transit system in Springfield, Oregon; the funds subsidize a heavy rail project in northern Virginia, completing the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority's Metro Silver Line to connect Washington, D. C. and the Washington Dulles International Airport. President Barack Obama's budget request for fiscal year 2010 included $1.83 billion in funding for major transit projects, of which more than $600 million went towards 10 new or expanding transit projects. The budget provided additional funding for all of the projects receiving Recovery Act funding, except for the bus rapid transit project, it continued funding for another 18 transit projects that are either under construction or soon will be. Following the same the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014 delegates $600 million for Infrastructure Investments, referred to as Discretionary Grants.
The Department of Transportation was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2016 of $75.1 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act FOIA requests, published in 2015, the Department of Transportation earned a D by scoring 65 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations American Highway Users Alliance National Highway System National Transportation Safety Board Passenger vehicles in the United States Transportation in the United States United States Federal Maritime Commission Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Official website United States Department of Transportation in the Federal Register This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Transportation
Head Start (program)
Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. The program's services and resources are designed to foster stable family relationships, enhance children's physical and emotional well-being, establish an environment to develop strong cognitive skills; the transition from preschool to elementary school imposes diverse developmental challenges that include requiring the children to engage with their peers outside the family network, adjust to the space of a classroom, meet the expectations the school setting provides. Launched in 1965 by its creator and first director Jule Sugarman, Head Start was conceived as a catch-up summer school program that would teach low-income children in a few weeks what they needed to know to start elementary school; the Head Start Act of 1981 expanded the program. The program was revised when it was reauthorized in December 2007.
Head Start is one of the longest-running programs attempting to address the effects of systemic poverty in the United States by intervening to aid children. As of late 2005, more than 22 million children had participated; the current director of Head Start is Dr. Deborah Bergeron Head Start began as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society campaign, its justification came from the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Stan Salett, civil rights organizer, national education policy advisor and creator of the Upward Bound Program, is credited with initiating the Head Start program. Johnson started the War on Poverty shortly after President Kennedy's assassination; the murder shook the nation, Johnson attempted to gain public trust by passing legacy legislation during the subsequent months. Johnson received an initial briefing from Walter Heller, who informed Johnson of Kennedy's poverty program. By March 1964, the legislation, now known as the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, had been prepared for Congress.
The legislation included training and service programs for communities, including the Job Corps. The Office of Economic Opportunity's Community Action Program launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965; the program was led by Dr. Robert Cooke, a pediatrician at Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Edward Zigler, a professor of psychology and director of the Yale Child Study Center, they designed a comprehensive child development program intended to help communities meet the needs of disadvantaged preschool children. The following year it was authorized by Congress as a year–round program. In 1968, Head Start began funding a television series that would be called Sesame Street, operated by the Carnegie Corporation Children's Television Workshop. In 1969, Head Start was transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health and Welfare by the Nixon Administration. Today it is a program within the Administration for Children and Families in DHHS. In 1994, the Early Head Start program was established to serve children from birth to age three, in an effort to capitalize on research evidence that showed that the first three years are critical to children's long-term development.
Programs are administered by local organizations and education agencies such as school systems. In the early years, some 700,000 children enrolled at a per-capita cost of $2,000 to $3,000. Under the full-time program, enrollment dropped to under 400,000 by the early 1970s. Enrollment reached close to 1 million children by 2011; the Head Start Policy Council makes up part of the Head Start governing body. Policy Council must be composed of two types of representatives: parents of enrolled children and community representatives. At least 51% of the members of this group must be the parents of enrolled children. All parent members of the Policy Council must stand for re-election annually; this is done through their individual parent groups. Grantees/Delegates are required to provide proportionate representation to parents in all program options and settings. If agencies operate programs serving different geographical regions or ethnic groups, they must ensure that all groups being served will have an equal opportunity to serve on the Policy Council.
The Policy Council is required to meet once each month. The term follows the federal government fiscal year. Service on the Policy Council board is limited to three consecutive years per lifetime; the meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules. The meeting day and time is agreed upon during the first meeting of the term year and may be adjusted as needed; the Policy Council approval is needed for several program functions, from new hires to the program, as well as for the budget and spending. The Council can serve the program in ways that the others in the program cannot, as it is the only body, part of Head Start that can do fundraising. In addition to monthly meetings, Policy Council may at times need to hold special or emergency meetings or have a phone vote. Policy Council representatives are required to attend classroom meetings and report back to the Policy Council with issues and needs of the classroom, they may be asked to sit in on interviews as Head Start requires that a Policy Council representative be present for all interviews.
The officers of Policy Council include vice-chairperson and vice-secretary. Classrooms are able to elect alternate Policy Council reps in case the main rep is unable to attend the meetings. Head Start serves ov