Texas State Library and Archives Commission
The Texas State Library and Archives Commission refers to the agency in the state of Texas that assists the people of Texas to use information, archival resources, public records and library materials to improve their lives, the lives of their families, their communities. The agency is charged with overseeing statewide library programs, meeting the reading-related needs of Texans with disabilities, preserving and providing access to significant Texas documents; the Lorenzo de Zavala State Archives & Library Building, located at 1201 Brazos Street in the Capitol Complex in Downtown Austin, houses the Archives, the Genealogy collection, a reference collection, the Talking Books offices, the main administrative offices. The State Records Center and Talking Book Circulation Department, located elsewhere in Austin, which houses the State and Local Records Management Division and the Talking Book Program's circulation department; the current Texas State Librarian is Mark Smith, appointed by the Texas State Library and Archives Commission on August 30, 2013.
The Texas State Library was established as the National Library of the Republic of Texas on 24 January 1839 by a joint resolution of the Third Congress of the Republic of Texas. $10,000 was designated for its use, though the ongoing bankruptcy of the Republic meant that no more than $250, spent on a set of encyclopedias, was used during this initial phase of development. After the annexation of Texas to the United States in 1848, legislation was passed requiring copies of all important state-related documents to be transported to the Library of Congress, other US state seats, or foreign powers, as deemed necessary. During this time, the Secretary of the State of Texas was to act as the state librarian. In 1854 an act was passed creating a separate library for the Supreme Court of Texas, in 1855 $5000 was appropriated for the purchase of books for the State Library, though any major work done on the library was postponed until after the American Civil War; the office of State Librarian was established after the Civil War, Robert Josselyn was the first appointment.
The expenses pertaining to running or more establishing the library were seen as detrimental to the project of Reconstruction and the library was again placed at the hands of the state department until 1876, when The Department of Insurance and History was established. The commissioner of this department was in charge of the State Library, from 1877 to 1880 a large number of documents, including the Nacogdoches Archives, were transferred to the State Library. On 9 November 1881 a massive fire destroyed the Texas Capitol Building, where the library was housed, ruined much of the collection. In 1891 construction of the present Capitol building was completed, Governor James S. Hogg created the office of historical clerk, adding a Spanish translator and an archivist to the staff two years later. In 1902 a Texas Library Association was organized, aided by the Texas Federation of Women's Clubs, in 1909 legislation was obtained for the organization of the Texas State Library and Historical Commission.
Not until 1957, when Gov. Marion Price Daniel, Sr. went before the Fifty-fifth Legislature and recommended that a building for the State Library be erected, was there adequate housing for the growing collection. The present building, named for Lorenzo de Zavala, was dedicated on April 10, 1962. Built of granite from the same quarry that supplied materials for the Texas State Capitol, the outer walls are made of sunset red granite; the building is 257 feet long, 77 feet wide, 60 feet tall. It has seven stack floors; the three main collections open to public use are the Reference collection and Archives, both housed on the first floor, the Genealogy collection, housed on the second. In 2011, during the 82nd Texas Legislature, governor Rick Perry signed the state's biennial budget that cut state funding for TSLAC by 64 percent and cut state funding for the agency’s library programs by 88 percent. Other state agencies experienced budget cuts as well, the result of a $27 billion shortfall in state finances.
“Everybody is just shaking their heads because this is more drastic than any measures we’ve seen in the past, I’ve been around Texas libraries for more than 40 years,” said Jerilynn Williams, president of the Texas Library Association. The agency took several actions as a result of these cuts: eliminated certain FTE positions. In 2013, during the 83rd Legislature, the state restored substantial state funding to TSLAC for the 2014-2015 biennial budget, including $7.5 million for digital content, $600,000 for three FTE archivists, $1 million for repairs to the Sam Houston Center in Liberty. Because of these gains, TSLAC was able to avert the loss of over $6.5 million in federal funds used to support statewide library services in the form of competitive library grants, interlibrary loan, continuing education and consulting. Throughout 2014 the three public service areas in the Lorenzo de Zavala Building – the Texas State Archives, the Texas Family Heritage Research Center, the Reference
San Antonio Public Library
The San Antonio Public Library is the public library system serving the city of San Antonio, Texas. It consists of a central library, 29 branch libraries, a library portal. SAPL was awarded the National Medal for Museum and Library Service in 2006. In 2003, SAPL celebrated its centennial. New patrons received special centennial gold library cards instead of the usual purple cards; the Central Library is a 240,000-square-foot, six-story structure that opened in 1995 in Downtown San Antonio. It is recognized by its bright-colored, striking "Mexican Modernist" design; the primary color of the building's exterior is popularly referred to by San Antonians as "Enchilada Red."The architect for the building was selected by a design competition held by the city in July 1991. The winning design is by renowned Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta in partnership with Sprinkle Robey Architects and Johnson-Dempsey & Associates of San Antonio. Unique features of the library include a multi-story, bright yellow atrium and several outdoor plazas with landscaping and fountains intended to be used as outdoor reading rooms.
In Legorreta's own words: "I wanted to break the concept that libraries are imposing."The library was financed through a $28 million bond to build a new Central Library. The bonds were approved by San Antonio voters in 1989. In addition, another $10 million in funding from private sources and the city's general budget helped finance the murals and artwork inside the library, as well as new furniture and fixtures; the centerpiece of the library is a two story glass blown sculpture named "Fiesta Tower". It was created by Dale Chihuly in 2003. Since its inauguration in May 1995, the new Central Library attracted a great deal of attention in architectural and library circles. After the new facility opened, circulation more than doubled from the previous year; the Central Library holds about 580,300 volumes. The previous Central Library building at 203 S St. Marys Street was renovated and reopened in 1998; the building, located on the River Walk, was renamed the International Center and is used as office space.
It houses the City's Department of International Affairs, the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the Trade Commission of Mexico-BancoMext, Casa Tamaulipas, Casa Nuevo Leonthe as well as the headquarters for the building's primary tenant, the North American Development Bank. The original San Antonio Public Library building, which backs up to the Riverwalk at 210 Market Street, served as the main library from 1930 to 1968, was from 1968 to 2005 the home of the Hertzberg Circus Museum. In 2006, it was leased to the National Western Art Foundation and is undergoing renovation preparatory to housing the Dolph and Janie Briscoe Western Art Museum. In addition to the Central Library, SAPL has 29 branch libraries located throughout the San Antonio area; some branches playgrounds. During election season, certain locations become voting sites. Bazan Library Brook Hollow Library Carver Library Cody Library Collins Garden Library Cortez Library Encino Library Forest Hills Library Great Northwest Library Guerra Library Igo Library Johnston Library Kampmann Library Landa Library Las Palmas Library Maverick Library McCreless Library Memorial Library Mission Library Pan American Library Parman Library Potranco Library Pruitt Library San Pedro Library Schaefer Library Semmes Library Thousand Oaks Library Tobin Library Westfall Library Alamo Area Library System BiblioTech Official website "San Antonio airport installs digital library kiosks for travelers", San Antonio Business Journal, 21 October 2014, archived from the original on October 22, 2014
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Sam Houston was an American soldier and politician. An important leader of the Texas Revolution, Houston served as the 1st and 3rd president of the Republic of Texas, was one of the first two individuals to represent Texas in the United States Senate, he served as the 6th Governor of Tennessee and the seventh governor of Texas, the only American to be elected governor of two different states in the United States. Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia and his family migrated to Maryville, Tennessee when Houston was a teenager. Houston ran away from home and spent time with the Cherokee, becoming known as "Raven." He served under General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812, after the war he presided over the removal of many Cherokee from Tennessee. With the support of Jackson and others, Houston won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1823, he supported Jackson's presidential candidacies, in 1827 Houston won election as the governor of Tennessee. In 1829, after divorcing his first wife, Houston resigned from office, joined his Cherokee friends in Arkansas Territory.
Houston settled in Texas in 1832. After the Battle of Gonzales, Houston helped organize Texas's provisional government and was selected as the top-ranking official in the Texian Army, he led the Texian Army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive battle in Texas's war for independence against Mexico. After the war, Houston won election in the 1836 Texas presidential election, he left office due to term limits in 1838, but won election to another term in the 1841 Texas presidential election. Houston played a key role in the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845, in 1846 he was elected to represent Texas in the United States Senate, he joined the Democratic Party and supported President James K. Polk's prosecution of the Mexican–American War. Houston's Senate record was marked by his unionism and opposition to extremists from both the North and South, he voted for the Compromise of 1850, which settled many of the territorial issues left over from the Mexican–American War and the annexation of Texas.
He voted against the Kansas–Nebraska Act because he believed it would lead to increased sectional tensions over slavery, his opposition to that act led him to leave the Democratic Party. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination of the American Party in the 1856 presidential election and the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. In 1859, Houston won election as the governor of Texas. In that role, he opposed secession and unsuccessfully sought to keep Texas out of the Confederate States of America, he was forced out of office in 1861 and died in 1863. Houston's name has been honored in numerous ways, he is the namesake of the city of Houston, the fourth most populous city in the United States. Houston was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia on March 2, 1793, to Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Paxton. Both of Houston's parents were descended from British and Irish immigrants who had settled in British North America in the 1730s. Houston's father was descended from Ulster Scots people.
By 1793, the elder Samuel Houston owned a large farm and a handful of slaves, served as a colonel in the Virginia militia. Houston's uncle, the Presbyterian Rev. Samuel Houston, was an elected member of the "lost" State of Franklin in the western frontier of North Carolina, who advocated for the passage of his proposed "A Declaration of Rights or Form of Government on the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Frankland" at the convention, assembled in Greeneville on November 14, 1785. Rev. Houston returned to Rockbridge County, Virginia after the assembled State of Franklin convention rejected his constitutional proposal. Houston had five brothers and three sisters, as well as dozens of cousins who lived in the surrounding area. According to biographer John Hoyt Williams, Houston was not close with his siblings or his parents, he spoke of them in his life. Houston did take an interest in his father's library, reading works by classical authors like Virgil, as well as more recent works by authors such as Jedidiah Morse.
Houston's father was got into debt, in part because of his militia service. He planned to sell the farm and move west to Tennessee, where land was less expensive, but he died in 1806. Houston's mother followed through on those plans and settled the family near Maryville, the seat of Blount County, Tennessee. At that time, Tennessee was on the American frontier, larger towns like Nashville were vigilant against Native American raids. Houston disliked farming and working in the family store, at the age of sixteen he left his family to live with a Cherokee tribe led by Ahuludegi. Houston formed a close relationship with Ahuludegi and learned the Cherokee language, becoming known as "Raven." He returned to Maryville in 1812, he was hired at age 19 for a term as the schoolmaster of a one-room schoolhouse. In 1812, Houston enlisted in the United States Army, engaged in the War of 1812 against Britain and Britain's Native American allies, he impressed the commander of the 39th Infantry Regiment, Thomas Hart Benton, by the end of 1813, Houston had risen to the rank of the third lieutenant.
In early 1814, the 39th Infantry Regiment became a part of the force commanded General Andrew Jackson, charged with putting an end to raids by a faction of the Muscogee tribe in the Old Southwest. Houston was badly wounded in the Battle of the decisive battle in the Creek War. Although army doctors expected him to die of his wounds, Houston survived a
Dallas Public Library
The Dallas Public Library system serves as the municipal library system of the city of Dallas, Texas. In 1899, the idea to create a free public library in Dallas was conceived by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs, led by president Mrs. Henry Exall, she helped raise US$11,000 from gifts from public school teachers, local businessmen, Alfred Horatio Belo of The Dallas Morning News. The library became a reality when Mrs. Exall requested and received a US$50,000 grant from philanthropist and steel giant Andrew Carnegie to construct the first library building in Dallas. On October 22, 1901, the Carnegie library opened at the corner of Harwood and Commerce streets with a head librarian, three assistants, 9,852 volumes; the first story held the entire collection. The art room was the first public art gallery in Dallas and became what is known today as the Dallas Museum of Art. An Oak Cliff branch opened in 1914 to serve the citizens of the area, annexed into Dallas in 1903. Four more branches opened in the 1930s including the Paul Lawrence Dunbar Library, the first to serve the African American population of Dallas.
In World War II, the library was established as a War Information Center. By 1950, the library resources and facilities were stretched to the limit, so supporters formed an auxiliary organization called the Friends of the Dallas Public Library to lobby for better library services. By the 1950s, the Carnegie Library was badly deteriorating and overcrowded, a new modern library was built on the same site. During construction, the Library was housed temporarily on the mezzanine of Union Station; the new building, now known as Old Dallas Central Library, had room for over 400,000 volumes and opened in 1954. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Dallas Public Library added 17 branches to the system. In 1962, Lillian M. Bradshaw was named Library Director, the first woman to head a department in the City of Dallas, marking a milestone in the civil rights and women's liberation movements of that era. Days after she was put into office, she faced a censorship push from a Dallas council-member, but the community and media rallied to her defense.
The City Council, in response, overwhelmingly approved her appointment and passed a resolution not to censor books purchased by the library. By the 1970s, the Central Library had again become overloaded and was unequipped to handle emerging technology. In 1972, the City selected a 114,000 square feet site at Young and Ervay across from the Dallas City Hall for a new central library facility. In 1982, the technologically sophisticated structure opened its doors, it was one of the first libraries in the nation to include an Online Public Access Catalog and state-of-the-art audiovisual capabilities. It was renamed the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in 1986 in honor of the former mayor who played a large role in the library system's development. In 1996, the Library implemented the STAR computer system, which allowed patrons to access a multitude of electronic databases and the Internet. By the 2000s, the system had 27 branch locations with over 2.5 million volumes, including books, magazines and cassettes.
The system attracts 2.8 million visitors per year and has 540,000 cardholders who check out more than 3.8 million books and other materials per year. The Library operates a "Library on Wheels" Mobile Learning Center to service Dallas communities; the Dallas Public Library is home to a copy of Shakespeare's First Folio, the only copy in a US public library outside of New England. It was purchased by the Dallas Shakespeare Club in 1984 at a cost of $275,000 and was gifted to the Library in 1986, it is displayed on the 7th floor. A Dunlap Broadside copy of the Declaration of Independence is housed on the 7th floor. Printed by John Dunlap of Philadelphia, it is only one of twenty-five known to survive; this is the only copy west of the Mississippi, one of only 3 displayed by a public library. It was given to the city; the library operates 27 branch locations throughout the city, an 8-story main branch, the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library, in the Government District of downtown, it operates the Bookmarks Children's Library located in NorthPark Center.
Arcadia Park Branch Library in West Dallas Audelia Road Branch Library in Lake Highlands Bachman Lake Branch Library Dallas West Branch Library in West Dallas Forest Green Branch Library in Lake Highlands Fretz Park Branch Library in North Dallas Grauwyler Park Branch Library in Dallas Hampton-Illinois Branch Library in Oak Cliff Highland Hills Branch Library in the Highland Hills neighborhood of South Dallas Kleberg-Rylie Branch Library in Kleberg in far Southeast Dallas Lochwood Lakewood Branch Library in Lakewood Martin Luther King Jr. Library and Learning Center near Fair Park Mountain Creek Branch Library in Mountain Creek North Oak Cliff Branch Library in Oak Cliff Oak Lawn Branch Library in Oak Lawn Park Forest Branch Library in North Dallas Paul Laurence Dunbar Lancaster-Kiest Branch Library in South Dallas Pleasant Grove Branch Library in Pleasant Grove Polk-Wisdom Branch Library in Southwest Dallas Prairie Creek Branch Library Preston Royal Branch Library in North Dallas Renner Frankford Branch Library in Renner in Far North Dallas Skillman Southwestern Branch Library in East Dallas Skyline Branch Library in East Dallas Timberglen Branch Library in Far North Dallas White Rock Hills Branch Library in Far East DallasThe newest
Fort Bend County Libraries
Fort Bend County Libraries is a public library system serving the county of Fort Bend, Texas. The main library, the George Memorial Library, is located in Texas. Prior to the founding of the Fort Bend County Library there existed a Share-a-Book Club run by ladies of the towns constituting the area. In 1947 these ladies appealed to the Commissioners' Court of Fort Bend County to establish a library, granted and constructed by 1948; the original building held 1,000 books but was deemed to be insufficient for growth and a new library underwent construction in November 1948. At a cost of $50,000 the new building held 8,111 volumes, it received an addition in 1958 which added a historical room and a Daughters of the Revolutionary War collection. Fort Bend County Libraries