MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Donald A. Wollheim
Donald Allen Wollheim was an American science fiction editor, publisher and fan. As an author, he published including David Grinnell. A founding member of the Futurians, he was a leading influence on science fiction development and fandom in the 20th-century United States. Ursula K. Le Guin called Wollheim "the tough, reliable editor of Ace Books, in the Late Pulpalignean Era, 1966 and ’67, ", when he published her first two novels, in an Ace Double; the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction calls Wollheim "one of the first and most vociferous sf fans." He co-edited the early Fanciful Tales of Space and Time. His importance to early fandom is chronicled in the 1974 book The Immortal Storm by Sam Moskowitz and in the 1977 book The Futurians by Damon Knight. Wollheim organized the first science fiction convention, when a group from New York met with a group from Philadelphia on October 22, 1936 in Philadelphia; the modern Philcon convention claims descent from this event. Out of this meeting, plans were formed for regional and national meetings, including the first Worldcon.
Wollheim was a member of the New York Science Fiction League, one of the clubs established by Hugo Gernsback to promote science fiction. When payment was not forthcoming for the first story he sold to Gernsback, Wollheim formed a group with several other authors, sued for payment, he was expelled from the Science Fiction League as "a disruptive influence" but was reinstated. From the September 1935 issue of Gernsback's Wonder Stories: THREE MEMBERS EXPELLED It grieves us to announce that we have found the first disloyalty in our organization... These members we expelled on June 12th, their names are Donald A. Wollheim, John B. Michel, William S. Sykora - three active fans who just got themselves onto the wrong road. In 1937 Wollheim founded the Fantasy Amateur Press Association, whose first mailing included this statement from him: "There are many fans desiring to put out a voice who dare not, for fear of being obliged to keep it up, for the worry and time taken by subscriptions and advertising.
It is for them and for the fan who admits it is his hobby and not his business that we formed the FAPA." In 1938, with several friends, he formed the Futurians—arguably the best-known of the science fiction clubs. At one time or another, the membership included Isaac Asimov, Frederik Pohl, Cyril Kornbluth, James Blish, John Michel, Judith Merril, Robert A. W. Lowndes, Richard Wilson, Damon Knight, Virginia Kidd, Larry T. Shaw. In 1943 Wollheim married fellow Futurian Elsie Balter, it proved to be a publishing partnership. The Futurians became less fan-oriented and more professional after 1940, its conferences and workshops focused on writing and publishing, with many of its members interested in all three. Wollheim's first story, "The Man from Ariel", was published in the January 1934 issue of Wonder Stories when he was nineteen, he was not paid for the story, when he learned that other authors had not been paid either, he said so in the Bulletin of the Terrestrial Fantascience Guild. Publisher Hugo Gernsback settled with Wollheim and the other authors out of court for $75.
However, when Wollheim submitted another story under the pseudonym Millard Verne Gordon, he was once again cheated by Gernsback who published it in the September 1935 issue. His third known story was published in Fanciful Tales of Time and Space, Fall 1936, a fanzine that he edited himself; that year he published and edited another short-lived fanzine, Phantagraph. Wollheim's stories were published from 1940. In the 1950s and 60s he wrote chiefly novels, he used pseudonyms for works aimed at grownups, wrote children's novels under his own name. Notable and popular were the eight "Mike Mars" books for children, which explored different facets of the NASA space program. Well-received were the "Secret" books for young readers: The Secret of Saturn's Rings, Secret of the Martian Moons, The Secret of the Ninth Planet; as Martin Pearson he published the "Ajax Calkins" series, which became the basis for his novel Destiny's Orbit. A sequel, Destination: Saturn was published in 1967 in collaboration with Lin Carter.
The Universe Makers is a discussion of themes and philosophy in science fiction. One of Wollheim's short stories, "Mimic", was made into the feature film of the same name, released in 1997, his daughter Betsy declared: "In true editorial fashion, he was honest about the quality of his own writing. He felt, he always knew that his great talent was as an editor." Robert Silverberg said that Wollheim was "one of the most significant figures in 20th century American science fiction publishing," adding, "A plausible case could be made that he was the most significant figure — responsible in large measure for the development of the science fiction paperback, the science fiction anthology, the whole post-Tolkien boom in fantasy fiction."In late 1940, Wollheim noticed a new magazine titled Stirring Detective and Western Stories on the newsstands. He wrote to the publishers, Albing Publications, to see if they were interested in adding a science fiction title to their list, he was invited to meet them.
They did not have capital and only guaranteed him a salary if the magazines were successful. He approached some of his fellow Futurians for free stories, it resulted in Wollheim's editing two of the earliest periodicals devoted to science fic
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Brian Wilson Aldiss, OBE was an English writer and anthologies editor, best known for science fiction novels and short stories. His byline reads either Brian W. Aldiss or Brian Aldiss, except for occasional pseudonyms during the mid-1960s. Influenced by science fiction pioneer H. G. Wells, Aldiss was a vice-president of the international H. G. Wells Society, he was co-president of the Birmingham Science Fiction Group. Aldiss was named a Grand Master by the Science Fiction Writers of America in 2000 and inducted by the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 2004, he received two Hugo Awards, one Nebula Award, one John W. Campbell Memorial Award, he wrote the short story "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long", the basis for the Stanley Kubrick-developed Steven Spielberg film A. I. Artificial Intelligence. Aldiss was associated with the British New Wave of science fiction. Aldiss was born on 18 August 1925, above his paternal grandfather's draper's shop in Dereham, Norfolk; when Aldiss's grandfather died, his father, sold his share in the shop and the family left Dereham.
Aldiss's mother, was the daughter of a builder. He had an older sister, stillborn, a younger sister; as a 3-year-old, Aldiss started to write stories which his mother would put on a shelf. At the age of 6, he went to Framlingham College but moved to Devon and was sent to board at West Buckland School in Devon in 1939 after the outbreak of the war; as a child he discovered the pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction, read all the novels by H. G. Wells and Robert Heinlein, Philip K. Dick. In 1943, during the Second World War, he saw action in Burma, his Army experience inspired the Horatio Stubbs second and third books, A Soldier Erect and A Rude Awakening, respectively. After the war, he worked as a bookseller in Oxford, he wrote a number of short pieces for a booksellers' trade journal about life in a fictitious bookshop, which attracted the attention of Charles Monteith, an editor at the publisher Faber and Faber. As a result and Faber published Aldiss' first book, The Brightfount Diaries, a 200-page novel in diary form about the life of a sales assistant in a bookshop.
About this time he began to write science fiction for various magazines. According to ISFDB, his first speculative fiction in print was the short story Criminal Record, published by John Carnell in the July 1954 issue of Science Fantasy. Several of his stories appeared in 1955, including three in monthly issues of New Worlds, a more important magazine edited by Carnell. In 1954, The Observer newspaper ran a competition for a short story set in the year 2500. Aldiss' story Not For An Age was ranked third following a reader vote; the Brightfount Diaries had been a minor success, Faber asked Aldiss if he had any more writing they could look at with a view to publishing. Aldiss confessed to being a science fiction author, to the delight of the publishers, who had a number of science fiction fans in high places, so his first science fiction book was published, a collection of short stories entitled Space and Nathaniel. By this time, his earnings from writing matched his wages in the bookshop, he made the decision to become a full-time writer.
Aldiss led the voting for Most Promising New Author of 1958 at the next year's Worldcon, but finished behind "no award". He was elected president of the British Science Fiction Association in 1960, he was the literary editor of the Oxford Mail newspaper from 1958 to 1969. Around 1964, he and long-time collaborator Harry Harrison started the first journal of science fiction criticism, Science Fiction Horizons, which during its brief span of two issues published articles and reviews by such authors as James Blish, featured a discussion among Aldiss, C. S. Lewis, Kingsley Amis in the first issue and an interview with William S. Burroughs in the second. In 1967 Algis Budrys listed Aldiss, J. G. Ballard, Roger Zelazny, Samuel R. Delany as "an earthshaking new kind of" writers, leaders of the New Wave. Besides his own writings, he had great success as an anthologist. For Faber he edited Introducing SF, a collection of stories typifying various themes of science fiction, Best Fantasy Stories. In 1961, he edited an anthology of reprinted short science fiction for the British paperback publisher Penguin Books under the title Penguin Science Fiction.
This was remarkably successful, went into numerous reprints, was followed up by two further anthologies: More Penguin Science Fiction and Yet More Penguin Science Fiction. The anthologies enjoyed the same success as the first, all three were published together as The Penguin Science Fiction Omnibus, which went into a number of reprints. In the 1970s, he produced several large collections of classic grand-scale science fiction, under the titles Space Opera, Space Odysseys, Galactic Empires, Evil Earths, Perilous Planets which were quite successful. Around this time, he edited a large-format volume Science Fiction Art, with selections of artwork from the magazines and pulps. In response to the results from the planetary probes of the 1960s and 1970s, which showed that Venus was unlike the hot, tropical jungle depicted in science fiction and Harrison edited an anthology Farewell, Fantastic Venus!, reprinting stories based on the pre-probe ideas of Venus. He edited, with Harrison, a series of anthologies The Year's Best Science Fiction.
Aldiss invented a form of short story called the mini-saga. The Daily Telegraph hosted a competition for the best mini-saga for several years
Sam Moskowitz was an American writer and historian of science fiction. As a child, Moskowitz enjoyed reading science fiction pulp magazines; as a teenager, he organized a branch of the Science Fiction League. Meanwhile, Donald A. Wollheim helped organize a rival club with Marxist sympathies. While still in his teens, Moskowitz became chairman of the first World Science Fiction Convention held in New York City in 1939, he barred several Futurians from the convention. This event is referred to by historians of fandom as the "Great Exclusion Act". Moskowitz worked professionally in the science fiction field, he edited Science-Fiction Plus, a short-lived genre magazine owned by Hugo Gernsback, in 1953. He compiled about two dozen anthologies, a few single-author collections, most published in the 1960s and early 1970s. Moskowitz wrote a handful of short stories, his most enduring work is to be his writing on the history of science fiction, in particular two collections of short author biographies, Explorers of the Infinite and Seekers of Tomorrow, as well as the regarded Under the Moons of Mars: A History and Anthology of "The Scientific Romance" in the Munsey Magazines, 1912–1920.
His exhaustive cataloging of early sf magazine stories by important genre authors remains the best resource for nonspecialists. Theodore Sturgeon, although noting the book's many imperfections, praised Explorers of the Infinite, saying "no one has surveyed the roots of SF as well as Mr. M.. He wouldn't know a connotation if it snapped at his ankle, something that happens quite often." He added, that "Moskowitz knows and transmits, at least as much about the history of science fiction and its evolution, as anyone could."Moskowitz's works include The Immortal Storm, a historical review of internecine strife within fandom. Moskowitz wrote it in a bombastic style that made the events he described seem so important that, as fan historian Harry Warner Jr. quipped, "If read directly after a history of World War II, it does not seem like an anticlimax." Floyd C. Gale wrote in his review of the book that "ortunately, most of these petulant warriors have since grown up—but their historian is still leading their ghostly legions that are more real than today to him.
The miracle is that S-F survived the love of its most rabid fans". Anthony Boucher noted that "never has so much been written about so little," but added that the book was "a unique document not without a good deal of social and psychological value."Moskowitz was renowned as a science fiction book collector, with a tremendous number of important early works and rarities. His book collection was auctioned off after his death; as "Sam Martin", he was editor of the trade publications Quick Frozen Foods and Quick Frozen Foods International for many years. First Fandom, an organization of science fiction fans active before 1940, gives an award in Moskowitz' memory each year at the World Science Fiction Convention. Moskowitz smoked cigarettes throughout his adult life. A few years before his death, throat cancer required the surgical removal of his larynx, he continued to speak at science fiction conventions, using an electronic voice-box held against his throat. Throughout his years, although his controversial opinions were disputed by others, he was recognized as a leading authority on the history of science fiction.
The Immortal Storm: A History of Science Fiction Fandom Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction Seekers of Tomorrow: Masters of Modern Science Fiction A Canticle for P. Schuyler Miller Science Fiction Calendar 1976 Strange Horizons: The Spectrum of Science Fiction Charles Fort: A Radical Corpuscle Science Fiction in Old San Francisco: 1 History of the Movement, From 1854 to 1890 A. Merritt: Reflections in the Moon Pool with A. Merritt Howard Phillips Lovecraft and Nils Helmer Frome: A Recollection of One of Canada's Earliest Science Fiction Fans After All These Years... Editor's Choice in Science Fiction The Coming of the Robots Exploring Other Worlds Modern Masterpieces of Science Fiction Strange Signposts Doorway Into Time Masterpieces of Science Fiction Three Stories The Human Zero and Other Science-Fiction Masterpieces Microcosmic God Science Fiction by Gaslight.
In Search of Wonder
In Search of Wonder: Essays on Modern Science Fiction is a collection of critical essays by American writer Damon Knight. Most of the material in the original version of the book was published between 1952 and 1955 in various science fiction magazines including Infinity Science Fiction, Original SF Stories, Future SF; the essays were influential, contributed to Knight's stature as the foremost critic of science fiction of his generation. The book constitutes an informal record of the "Boom Years" of science fiction from 1950-1955. In the opening chapter, Knight states his "credos", two of which are: That science fiction is a field of literature worth taking and that ordinary critical standards can be meaningfully applied to it: e.g. originality, style, logic, sanity, garden-variety grammar. That a bad book hurts science fiction more than ten bad notices. One essay in the book is "Cosmic Jerrybuilder: A. E. van Vogt", a review of the 1945 magazine serialization of A. E. Van Vogt's The World of Null-A, in which Knight "exposed the profound irrationality lying at the heart of much traditional science fiction".
In 1956 Knight was awarded a Hugo as "Best Book Reviewer" based on the essays reprinted in this book. In Search of Wonder was issued by Advent:Publishers in hardcover in 1956. Advent reissued it in both hardcover and trade paperback in 1960; the second, edition was published by Advent in hardcover in 1967, with trade paperback reprints following in 1968 and 1974. The second edition included six added chapters. Advent published a third, further expanded edition, nearly 100 pages longer than the second edition, in 1996; the third edition adds 30,000 words of text and augments the bibliography and index. Orion released an ebook edition in 2013. On defining science fiction: "Science fiction... means what we point to when we say it." On criticism: "Why should anybody rip a bad work of art to shreds? Why, to find out how it is made." On science fiction writers: A. E. van Vogt "is no giant. Bradbury's subject is the buried child-in-man. On science fiction novels: I Am Legend by Richard Matheson "is full of good ideas, every other one of, dropped and kicked out of sight."
"The Blind Spot, by Austin Hall and Homer Eon Flint, is an acknowledged classic of fantasy, first published in 1921. On British writers: "The only thing worse than a bad American novel is a bad British one." Following is a list of chapters in the first edition. Introduction by Anthony Boucher Author's NoteCritics The Classics Chuckleheads Campbell and His Decade Cosmic Jerrybuilder: A. E. van Vogt Half-Bad Writers One Sane Man: Robert A. Heinlein Asimov and Empire More Chuckleheads When I Was in Kneepants: Ray Bradbury The Vorpal Pen: Theodore Sturgeon Anthologies Genius to Order: Kuttner and Moore Kornbluth and the Silver Lexicon The Jagged Blade: James Blish Overalls on Parnassus: Fletcher Pratt Microcosmic Moskowitz New Stars Curiosa The Giants Pitfalls and Dead Ends What next? Bibliography IndexThe second edition included the additional chapters: Half Loaves Amphibians B-R-R-R! Decadents Britons Symbolism"Symbolism" is chapter-long essay on the symbolism in James Blish's short story "Common Time", first published in a 1967 issue of Science Fiction Forum.
Anthony Boucher described the original edition as "a comprehensive picture of the book publication of science fiction in the 1950's, valuable as a historical record, stimulating as a detailed analysis of faults and virtues, delightful as good reading matter in its own right", P. Schuyler Miller reviewed the book favorably, saying that Knight "applies his rules and mercilessly", although he noted that Knight's close focus on technical aspects of writing sometimes ignored an author's ability to "cast a spell... if the carpentry and design is shoddy". Reviewing the second edition, Algis Budrys declared that "Damon Knight sets an as yet unequalled standard" for sf criticism, praised Knight both for "his exact appreciations of the well done" as well as "how influential was when summing up the subtle but obvious flaws in work that had seemed pretty good". Barry Malzberg wrote that "Damon Knight is our field's first and best critic and... this book is the most important nonfiction published in the category".
In Search of Wonder title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside