American comic book
An American comic book is a thin periodical originating in the United States 32 pages, containing comics content. While the form originated in 1933, American comic books first gained popularity after the 1938 publication of Action Comics, which included the debut of the superhero Superman; this was followed by a superhero boom that lasted until the end of World War II. After the war, while superheroes were marginalized, the comic book industry expanded and genres such as horror, science fiction and romance became popular; the 1950s saw a gradual decline, due to a shift away from print media in the wake of television and the impact of the Comics Code Authority. The late 1950s and the 1960s saw a superhero revival and superheroes remain the dominant character archetype in the 21st century; some fans collect comic books. Some have sold for more than US $1 million. Comic shops cater to fans, selling comic books, plastic sleeves and cardboard backing to protect the comic books. An American comic book is known as a floppy comic.
It is thin and stapled, unlike traditional books. American comic books are one of the three major comic book schools globally, along with Japanese manga and the Franco-Belgian comic books; the typical size and page count of comics have varied over the decades trending toward smaller formats and fewer pages. In recent decades, standard comics have been about 6.625 inches × 10.25 inches, 32 pages long. While comics can be the work of a single creator, the labor of making them is divided between a number of specialists. There may be a separate writer and artist, or there may be separate artists for the characters and backgrounds. In superhero comic books, the art may be divided between: a writer, who creates the stories. A penciller, who lays out the artwork in pencil. An inker, who finishes the artwork in ink. A colorist, who adds color to the comics a letterer, who adds the captions and speech balloons; the process begins with the creator coming up with an idea or concept working it into a plot and story, finalizing the preliminary writing with a script.
After the art production, letters are placed on the page and an editor may have the final say before the comic is sent to the printer. The creative team, the writers and artists, may work with a comic book publisher for help with marketing and other logistics. A distributor like Diamond Comic Distributors, the largest in the U. S. helps to distribute the finished product to retailers. Another part of the process involved in successful comics is the interaction between the readers/fans and the creator. Fan art and letters to the editor were printed in the back of the book until the early 21st century when various Internet forms started to replace them. Comic specialty stores did help encourage several waves of independently-produced comics, beginning in the mid-1970s; some of the early example of these - referred to as "independent" or "alternative" comics - such as Big Apple Comix, continued somewhat in the tradition of underground comics, while others, such as Star Reach, resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artist.
The "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify, with a number of small publishers in the 1990s changing the format and distribution of their books to more resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an more limited audience than the small presses; the development of the modern American comic book happened in stages. Publishers had collected comic strips in hardcover book form as early as 1842, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, a collection of English-language newspaper inserts published in Europe as the 1837 book Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer; the G. W. Dillingham Company published the first known proto-comic-book magazine in the U. S; the Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats, in 1897. A hardcover book, it reprinted material—primarily the October 18, 1896 to January 10, 1897 sequence titled "McFadden's Row of Flats"—from cartoonist Richard F. Outcault's newspaper comic strip Hogan's Alley, starring the Yellow Kid.
The 196-page, square-bound, black-and-white publication, which includes introductory text by E. W. Townsend, measured 5×7 inches and sold for 50 cents; the neologism "comic book" appears on the back cover. Despite the publication of a series of related Hearst comics soon afterward, the first monthly proto-comic book, Embee Distributing Company's Comic Monthly, did not appear until 1922. Produced in an 8½-by-9-inch format, it reprinted black-and-white newspaper comic strips and lasted a year. In 1929, Dell Publishing published The Funnies, described by the Library of Congress as "a short-lived newspaper tabloid insert" and not to be confused with Dell's 1936 comic-book series of the same name. Historian Ron Goulart describes the 16-page, four-color periodical as "more a Sunday comic section without the rest of the newspaper than a true comic book, but it did offer all original material and was sold on newsstands". The Funnies ran for 36 issues, published Saturdays through October 16, 1930. In 1933, salesperson Maxwell Gaines, sales manager Harry I.
Wildenberg, owner George Janosik of the Waterbury, Connecticut company Eastern Color Printing—which printed, among other things, Sunday-paper comic-strip sections – produced Funnies on Parade as a way to keep their presses running. Like The Funnies, but only eight pages, this appeared as a newsprint magazine
Reactron is a fictional supervillain who appears in comic books published by DC Comics as an adversary of Supergirl. Reactron first appears in The Daring New Adventures of Supergirl #8, in a story written by Paul Kupperberg and drawn by Carmine Infantino. Ben Krullen was a sergeant serving in the US Army during the Vietnam War, alongside Joshua Clay, the future Doom Patrol member who would be known as Tempest; when Krullen massacred the inhabitants of a Vietnamese village, the shock triggered the activation of Clay's mutant powers. Clay destroyed Krullen with his energy blasts went AWOL. Krullen, instead of being killed, is transformed into a being capable of generating radioactive energy and concussive blasts. Calling himself Reactron, the Living Reactor, he surfaces years and attacks the Doom Patrol later fights Supergirl. Reactron's origin and background were changed for his appearances after the 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths storylines. Now known as Benjamin Martin Krull, he faces the Doom Power Girl in his first appearance.
Most of his pre-Crisis continuity seems intact, but it is now said that his previous battles involved Power Girl instead of Supergirl. Destroyed after overloading on Negative Woman's energy, he resurfaces unharmed and as a member of the Suicide Squad. Reactron is once again destroyed when Deadshot shoots holes in his containment suit, causing him to go critical. Reactron, Mister Nitro, Nuclear, Professor Radium, Neutron formed the Nuclear Legion in the 2006 miniseries The Battle for Blüdhaven, working for the Society, came into conflict with Freedom's Ring, which kills Reactron. Reactron reappears during the "Superman: New Krypton" storyline with a new costume and a new ability. Recruited by General Sam Lane as part of his Project 7734, Reactron is equipped with a heart made of gold kryptonite and partnered with Metallo. Reactron and Metallo attack the city of New Krypton, where Reactron kills Zor-El, the father of Supergirl; as part of his participation in Project 7734, Lex Luthor sends a robot double of himself with Brainiac on a mission to attack New Krypton, a new planet in Earth's solar system populated by the survivors of the Kryptonian city of Kandor.
While there, the Luthor robot tampers with the body chemistry of the previously-captured Reactron. Shortly thereafter, Reactron kills himself, initiating a chain reaction which destroys New Krypton and all but a handful of its 100,000 inhabitants. Supergirl's mother Alura is among the casualties. During the 2009–2010 "Blackest Night" storyline, Scarecrow drugs Supergirl with his fear toxin, which causes her to believe she is fighting Reactron, reanimated as a Black Lantern. In both Pre-and Post-Crisis continuities, Reactron has the ability to generate radiation from his body, he can focus this into concussive blasts. Reactron is equipped with a heart made of a gold Kryptonite variant, which allows him to render a Kryptonian powerless for 15 seconds. Reactron appears in the 2015 television series Supergirl, portrayed by Chris Browning. First appearing in the series' third episode "Fight or Flight", this version is a former reactor engineer named Ben Krull who became Reactron when he was exposed to radiation after a terrorist attack, stopped by Superman.
Ben survived the radiation. Ben swore vengeance on him, he built an advanced bio-medical exo-suit capable of firing concentrated bursts of energy while giving him super strength and the ability to fly. Cat Grant leaks evidence of Supergirl being Superman's cousin, which causes Reactron to starts targeting Supergirl, he is defeated by Supergirl and arrested. "Pre Crisis Reactron" DC Comics Database "Post Crisis Reactron" DC Comics Database
Lucy Lane is a fictional supporting character in DC Comics. She is the younger sister of Lois Lane, one of several characters who has assumed the Superwoman identity. Maureen Teefy portrayed her in the 1984 movie Supergirl, Peyton List in the television series Smallville and Jenna Dewan in the series Supergirl. Lucy Lane was created by Curt Swan, she was introduced in Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #36. She is the daughter of Ella and Sam Lane, the younger sister of Lois Lane. In the Silver Age stories, Lucy was presented as an airline stewardess, an on-again, off-again romantic interest of Jimmy Olsen. Lucy's Silver Age appearances revolved around Jimmy's various attempts at romancing her; the character was believed to have died in Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane #120 but was revived in a story in Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #160. Lucy was reintroduced into DC Comics' continuity in The Man of Steel #5. Lucy was an air traffic controller, but became affected by a mysterious blindness, cured as a side-effect of the destruction of a Bizarro clone.
Lucy had a brief relationship with Jimmy Olsen. After many encounters with super-villains such as Sleez and becoming a vampire bride, she started dating African-American Daily Planet staff member Ron Troupe; when Lucy became pregnant, her conservative father was enraged although Lucy explained "There's not a racist bone in Daddy's body. He hates all his daughters' beaus." Sam Lane overcame his anger when Lucy and Ron were married and their child was born. After a long disappearance from the principal storylines, Lucy Lane returns in the one shot Superman: New Krypton, her past with Ron Troupe is unclear, they are estranged. Her long disappearance is explained by her joining the military, in a desperate, post-mortem attempt to appease her dead father's desire to have a son able to carry on his career in the military. Bitter and angrier than in her former appearances, she still blames Lois for General Sam Lane's apparent death during the war against Imperiex, she thinks Lois broke his heart by putting her love for Superman before her duties as a daughter.
Lucy references her former appearances mentioning her "dating boys in Lois' circle" as failed attempts to live her life through her more successful sister, but she chooses to sacrifice her life and live the military career her father intended for Lois, driving an deeper wedge between the two sisters. Unbeknownst to her, their father is still alive, working with the government. Lucy first appeared as Superwoman in Supergirl #35, her costume a nod to that of the Bronze Age Superwoman Kristin Wells and containing a containment field that simulated Kryptonian powers. Lucy's identity was not revealed until near the story arc's end. During her tenure as Superwoman, she was ordered by her father, General Sam Lane, to kill Agent Liberty, spying on General Lane and Lex Luthor, she attacked Reactron, which tipped off readers that Superwoman was not Kryptonian. Supergirl unmasks Superwoman, accidentally kills her by rupturing the containment field of her suit, causing Lucy's body to contort and explode.
In Supergirl Annual #1 readers are given the current modern backstory of Lucy Lane. In the story, since the moment she was born, has felt overshadowed by her big sister Lois. Lucy always felt that Lois overshadowed her and was more loved by their father. Lucy never blames Lois but she blames her parents Sam and Ella. Feeling that by maybe being closer to Lois her father would pay more attention to her, Lucy moved to the same city but this came at the same time Lois and her father grew apart over Superman. After her father's death, Lucy joined the army. Being a great soldier and a woman, Lucy rose in the ranks. During the Amazon attack on the United States, Lucy was nearly killed by two Amazons but was saved by Codename: Assassin. Awaking in Project 7734, her father is able to convince Lucy to put on the Superwoman suit, which possessed mystical qualities. Although dead, Lucy's remains steal the lifeforce of a man who came too close; when Lucy is recovered by General Lane's forces, they learn that the suit's mystic energies have somehow transformed her into an actual Kryptonian.
Following the War of the Supermen storyline, Lucy is in custody in S. T. A. R. Labs by Kimiyo Hoshi and Gangbuster, who are attempting to remove Lucy's metahuman abilities. After interference by an object that crashes into a Metropolis park, before they leave Lucy's holding cell, it is shown to have cracked. Lucy is visited by her sister Lois, who wants to talk. Lucy is unhelpful as she has given in to insanity. Lois tells Lucy that she is disgusted by her and walks away leaving Lucy in S. T. A. R. Labs custody behind. Although the crack in the cell seemed to hint at Lucy escaping at some point, nothing came of it, once The New 52 was launched, all storylines in progress in DC were dropped in favor of the new continuity. In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline, Lucy Lane is first seen where she was picked up from the train station by Lois after Clark Kent was unable to fulfill his promise to Lois to do it himself. To make up for it, Clark accompanies her, Johnathan Carrol, Morgan Edge to the most expensive restaurant in town but is forced to leave her with the check due to his duties as Superman.
Clark makes it up to her by taking her bungee jumping, an activity which Lucy enjoys. Lucy befri
Lois Lane is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, she first appeared in Action Comics #1. Lois is an award-winning journalist for the Metropolis newspaper the Daily Planet and the primary love interest of the superhero Superman and his alter-ego Clark Kent. In DC continuity, she is his wife and the mother of their son, Jonathan Samuel Kent, the current Superboy in the DC Universe. Lois' physical appearance was based on Joanne Carter, a model hired by Joe Shuster. For her character, Jerry Siegel was inspired by actress Glenda Farrell's portrayal of the fictional reporter Torchy Blane in a series of films. Siegel took her name from actress Lola Lane, she was influenced by the real-life journalist Nellie Bly. Depictions of the character have varied spanning the comics and other media adaptations; the original Golden Age version of Lois Lane, as well as versions of her from the 1970s onwards, portrays Lois as a tough-as-nails journalist and intellectually equal to Superman.
During the Silver Age of Comics, she was the star of Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane, a comic book series that had a light and humorous tone. Beginning in 2015, she is the protagonist in the young adult novel series, Lois Lane, by writer Gwenda Bond. Lois is among the best-known female comic book characters, she has appeared in various media adaptations. Actress Noel Neill first portrayed Lois Lane in the 1940s Superman film series and reprised her role in the 1950s television series Adventures of Superman, replacing Phyllis Coates from season two. Margot Kidder played the character in four Superman films in the 1970s and 1980s, Kate Bosworth in the 2006 film Superman Returns, Amy Adams in the DC Extended Universe. In the 1990s television series, she was portrayed by Teri Hatcher in Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman and Erica Durance in the 2000s series, Smallville. Most Elizabeth Tulloch appeared as Lois in the Arrowverse television series. Actresses who have voiced Lois in animated adaptations include Joan Alexander in the Fleischer Superman cartoons and Dana Delany in Superman: The Animated Series, among others.
Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster first conceived Lois Lane in 1934, when they were still developing Superman. One of the major influence on Lois' characterization was actress Glenda Farrell and her portrayal of the fictional reporter Torchy Blane in a series of Warner Bros. films. The Torchy Blane movies were popular second features during the 1930s. On the conception of Lois Lane, Jerry Siegel stated in the 1988 Time magazine: My wife Joanne was Joe's original art model for Superman's girlfriend Lois Lane back in the 1930s. Our heroine was, of course. What inspired me in the creation was Glenda Farrell, the movie star who portrayed Torchy Blane, a gutsy, beautiful headline-hunting reporter, in a series of exciting motion pictures; because the name of the actress Lola Lane appealed to me, I called my character Lois Lane. Strangely, the characterization of Lois is amazingly like the real-life personality of my lovely wife. Joe Shuster based Lois' physical appearance on a model name Joanne Carter. Carter had placed an ad in the Cleveland Plain Dealer newspaper in the Situation Wanted column, advertising herself as a model.
Shuster hired her as the model for Lois Lane. Shuster's depiction of Lois was modeled on facial features. "To me she was Lois Lane. She was a great inspiration for me, though, she encouraged me, she was enthusiastic about the strip. Shuster said about Joanne Carter. Joanne Carter married co-creator Jerry Siegel in 1948. On working with Joe Shuster for Lois Lane, Carter said in the 1983 Nemo magazine interview: "Joe was redrawing the strip, it was going to be more realistic, rather than cartoony. I used to model for him every Saturday, he made so many stock drawings. We became such good friends by that time we decided we would always stay friends." Lois Lane made her debut in Action Comics #1 the first published Superman story, was one of the first female comic book characters introduced in the superhero comics. Lois is the daughter of Ella and Sam Lane, in earlier comics, her parents were farmers in a town called Pittsdale; the modern comics depicts Lois as a former Army brat, born at Ramstein Air Base with Lois having been trained by her father, a US Army General, in areas such as hand-to-hand combat and the use of firearms.
She has her sister Lucy Lane. Lois is a journalist for the Daily Planet, one of the best investigative reporters and the best at the newspaper she works at. In some stories, she has been shown obtaining superpowers and becoming a superhero, some of her superhero identities are Superwoman and Red Tornado of Earth 2. Aspects of Lois' personality have varied over the years, depending on the comic book writers handling of the character and American social attitudes toward women at the time. In most incarnations, she is shown to be an independent person, smart and strong-willed, her physical appearance has varied over the years, depending either on contemporary fashion or media adaptations. In the 1990s, when the television series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman began airing Lois received a haircut that made her look more like actress Teri Hatcher, her eyes were violet to match her character on Superman: The Animated Series. From the late 1980s through the 1990s she was depicted with auburn hair in the comic books.
In the 1940s, Lois had a newspaper comic strip, Lois Lane, Girl Reporter, a direct spin-off o
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web known as the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hypertext, are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, he wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and to the general public in August 1991; the World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet. Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language; such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources.
In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content. Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons. Tim Berners-Lee's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.
While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. On March 12, 1989, he submitted a memorandum, titled "Information Management: A Proposal", to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: "Imagine the references in this document all being associated with the network address of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document, you could skip to them with a click of the mouse." Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word hypertext, a term that he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term hypermedia.
With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. At this point HTML and HTTP had been in development for about two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test; this proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available". While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University.
The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser and the first web server; the first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a 1991 visit to UNC. Jones stored it on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt.hypertext.
This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first web servers, which had occurred months earlier. As another example of such confusion, several news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro.
Supergirl is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The original and most well known Supergirl is Kara Zor-El, the cousin of the superhero Superman; the character made her first appearance in Action Comics #252 and was created by Otto Binder and Al Plastino. Created as a female counterpart to Superman, Kara Zor-El shares his super powers and vulnerability to Kryptonite. Supergirl plays a supporting role in various DC Comics publications, including Action Comics and several comic book series unrelated to Superman. In 1969, Supergirl's adventures became the lead feature in Adventure Comics, she starred in an eponymous comic book series which debuted in 1972 and ran until 1974, followed by a second monthly comic book series titled The Daring New Adventures of Supergirl, which ran from 1982 to 1984. Due to changing editorial policy at DC, Supergirl was killed off in the 1985 limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths. DC Comics subsequently rebooted the continuity of the DC Comics Universe, re-establishing Superman's character as the sole survivor of Krypton's destruction.
Following the conclusion of Crisis on Infinite Earths, several different characters written as having no familial relationship to Superman have assumed the role of Supergirl, including Matrix, Linda Danvers, Cir-El. Following the cancellation of the third, 1996–2003 Supergirl comic book series which starred the Matrix/Linda Danvers version of the character, a modern version of Kara Zor-El was reintroduced into the DC Comics continuity in issue #8 of the Superman/Batman comic book series titled "The Supergirl from Krypton"; the modern Kara Zor-El stars as Supergirl in an eponymous comic book series, in addition to playing a supporting role in various other DC Comics publications. Since her initial comic book appearances, the character branched out into animation, film and merchandising. In May 2011, Supergirl placed 94th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time. In November 2013, the character placed 17th on IGN's list of the Top 25 Heroes of DC Comics. Superwoman – The first comic to feature a female counterpart to Superman is "Lois Lane – Superwoman", a story published in Action Comics #60, in which a hospitalized Lois dreams she has gained Kryptonesque superpowers thanks to a blood transfusion from the Man of Steel.
She begins her own career as Superwoman, complete with copycat costume. Similar stories with Lois Lane acquiring such powers and adopting the name "Superwoman" periodically appeared later. One such story is in Action Comics #156, in which Lois accidentally gains those powers through an invention of Superman's arch-foe, Lex Luthor. In the story, Lois wears a short blond wig in her crime-fighting identity, giving her an appearance identical to the version of Supergirl after the latter's real name was specified as Kara Zor-El. Supergirl – In Superboy #5 in a story titled "Superboy Meets Supergirl", Superboy meets Queen Lucy of the fictional Latin American nation of Borgonia, she is scholar. Tired of her duties and wanting to enjoy a normal life, Queen Lucy travels to Smallville, where she meets Superboy and soon wins his heart. Superboy puts on a show with her; as Supergirl, Queen Lucy wears a tan dress with Superboy's "S" symbol. Superboy saves her from a scheming minister, she returns to her throne, leaving Superboy to wonder if she thinks of him.
Super-Sister – In the Superboy #78 story titled "Claire Kent, Alias Super-Sister", Superboy saves an alien woman named Shar-La from a life-threatening crash. After he ridicules her driving, Shar-La turns Superboy into a girl. In Smallville, Clark Kent claims to be Claire Kent, an out-of-town relative, staying with the Kents; when in costume, he plays Superman's sister, Super-Sister, claims the two have exchanged places. As a girl ridiculed and scorned by men, he wants to prove. In the end, it is revealed. Superboy learns not to ridicule women. Super-Girl – In Superman #123, Jimmy Olsen uses a magic totem to wish a "Super-Girl" into existence as a companion and helper for Superman. At her insistence, Jimmy wishes the dying girl out of existence. DC used this story to gauge public response to the concept of a new female counterpart to Superman. In the original issue, she has blond hair and her costume is blue and red like Superman's. Early reprints of this story show her with red hair and an orange and green costume to prevent readers from confusing her with the current Supergirl character.
Much the story was again reprinted in its original form. After positive fan reaction to Super-Girl, the first recurring and most familiar version of Supergirl debuted in 1959. Kara Zor-El first appeared in Action Comics #252; the story that introduced the character was drawn by Al Plastino and written by Otto Binder, who had created Mary Marvel, Captain Marvel's sister and female spinoff. Like Supergirl, Mary Marvel was a teen-age female version of an adult male superhero, wearing a costume, identical to the older character's other than substituting a short skirt for tight trousers. Binder created Miss America, a superhero who shared little other than the