Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland
Elizabeth Sutherland Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland suo jure 19th Countess of Sutherland, was a Scottish peer from the Leveson-Gower family, best remembered for her involvement in the Highland Clearances. Elizabeth was born at Leven Lodge near Edinburgh, to William Sutherland, 18th Earl of Sutherland and his wife Mary and coheir of William Maxwell, her parents died of a few weeks after her first birthday. As the younger and only surviving child, she succeeded to her father's titles, her title of Countess of Sutherland was contested by Bart. A descendant of the 1st Earl of Sutherland, but was confirmed by the House of Lords in 1771. Lady Elizabeth Sutherland spent most of her childhood living in Edinburgh and London, where she was educated between 1779 and 1782. On 4 September 1785, at the age 20, she married George Granville Leveson-Gower, Viscount Trentham, known as Earl Gower from 1786 until in 1803 he succeeded to his father's title of Marquess of Stafford. In 1832, just six months before he died, he was created Duke of Sutherland and she became known as Duchess-Countess of Sutherland.
Under the terms of the marriage contract, but not ownership, of the Sutherland estate passed from Elizabeth to her husband for life. The couple purchased additional land in Sutherland between 1812 and 1816, so bringing the proportion of the County of Sutherland owned by them to around 63%. At the time of Lady Sutherland's inheritance of the estate, there were a large number of wadsets on much of the land - and further wadsets were taken out to finance, among other things, the time that Lady Sutherland and her husband spent in France when he was ambassador there; the Highland Clearances were part of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution. The old run-rig arable areas were replaced with more modern farming methods, new crops and land drainage systems were introduced and, the mixed farming tenants in the inland straths and glens were evicted and their former tenancies were used for, most extensive sheep farms. Evicted tenants were resettled in newly created crofting communities which, in many cases, were in coastal regions.
These changes occurred over all the Highlands and Islands region over the period 1790 to 1855. This provided lower running costs for the individual estates concerned; the Sutherland Estate made a slow start in this process, though some removals were made in 1772 whilst Lady Sutherland was still a child and the estate was managed by her tutors. Attempts were made to dislodge many of the tacksmen on the estate at this time. Notable emigrations of tenants had taken place and plans were considered for new fishing villages to provide employment for tenants moved from the interior. However, the estate was handicapped by a serious shortage of the capital needed, these large plans were not proceeded with until money became available. When, in 1803 George Leveson-Gower inherited the huge fortune of the Duke of Bridgewater, funds were available for the Sutherland Estate to proceed with a program of improvement. Many of the estate's leases did not end until 1807, but planning was started to restructure the estate.
Despite the conventions of the day and the provisions of the entailment, Leveson-Gower delegated overall control of the estate to Lady Sutherland. As the major part of the Sutherland Clearances began, Lady Sutherland and her advisors were influenced by several things. Firstly a substantial population increase was underway. Secondly the area was prone to famine - and in these years it fell to the landlord to organise relief by buying meal on the open market and importing it into the area; the degree of severity of famine is a matter of debate among historians now and within the Sutherland Estate management in their near-contemporaneous analysis of the clearances in 1845. The third driving force was the whole range of thinking on agricultural improvement; this took in economic ideas expressed by Adam Smith as well as those of many agriculturalists. For the Highlands, the main thrust of these theories was the much greater rental return to be obtained from sheep. Wool prices had increased faster than other commodities since the 1780s.
This enabled sheep farmers to pay higher rents than the current tenants.:36-38Now that capital funding was available, the first big sheep farm was let at Lairg in 1807, involving the removal of about 300 people. Many of these did not accept their new homes and emigrated, to the dissatisfaction of the estate management and Lady Sutherland.:164-165 In 1809, William Young and Patrick Sellar arrived in Sutherland and made contact with the Sutherland family, becoming key advisors to the owners of the estate. They offered ambitious plans. Lady Sutherland had dismissed the estate's factor, David Campbell, in 1807 for lack of progress, his replacement, Cosmo Falconer found his position being undermined by the advice offered by Young and Sellar. In August 1810 Falconer agreed to leave, with effect from 2 June 1811, Young and Sellar took over in his place.:52-70Young had a proven track record of agricultural improvement in Moray and Sellar was a lawyer educated at Edinburgh University. They provided an extra level of ambition for the estate.:166 New industries were added to the plans, to employ the resettled population.
A coal mine was sunk at Brora, fishing villages were built to exploit the herring shoals off the coast. Other ideas were tanning, flax and brick manufacturing.:167The first cl
Carlton House was a mansion in London, best known as the town residence of the Prince Regent for several decades from 1783. It faced the south side of Pall Mall, its gardens abutted St. James's Park in the St James's district of London; the location of the house, now replaced by Carlton House Terrace, was a main reason for the creation of John Nash's ceremonial route from St James's to Regent's Park via Regent Street, Portland Place and Park Square: Lower Regent Street and Waterloo Place were laid out to form the approach to its front entrance. An existing house was rebuilt at the beginning of the eighteenth century for Henry Boyle, created Baron Carleton in 1714, who bequeathed it to his nephew, the architect Lord Burlington. Burlington's mother sold it in 1732 to Frederick, Prince of Wales, for whom William Kent laid out the garden. Frederick's widow Augusta, Princess of Wales, enlarged the house; the Prince had the house rebuilt by the architect Henry Holland between 1783 and 1796. By the time the Prince Regent and Henry Holland parted company in 1802, Carlton House was a spacious and opulent residence, which would have been designated a palace in many countries.
From the 1780s it was the centre of a glittering alternate court to that of the Prince's parents at St James and Buckingham House. After 1811 when he became Prince Regent the house was altered and redecorated to suit an larger amount of usage as a palace in all but name. In 1820, on the death of his father, George III, the Prince Regent became King George IV, he deemed that Carlton House, the official royal residence of St. James's Palace and his parent's Buckingham House were all inadequate for his needs; some consideration was given to rebuilding Carlton House on a far larger scale, but in the end Buckingham House was rebuilt as Buckingham Palace instead. Carlton House was demolished in 1826 and replaced with two grand white stuccoed terraces of expensive houses known as Carlton House Terrace; the proceeds of the leases were put towards the cost of Buckingham Palace. When the Prince of Wales took possession in August 1783, Sir William Chambers was appointed as architect, but after a first survey, he was replaced by Henry Holland.
Both Chambers and Holland were proponents of the French neoclassical style of architecture, Carlton House would be influential in introducing the Louis XVI style to England. Holland began working first on the State Apartments along the garden front, the principal reception rooms of the house. Construction commenced in 1784. "There is an August simplicity. You cannot call it magnificent; every ornament is at a proper distance, not one too large, but all delicate and new, with more freedom and variety than Greek ornaments. By the end of 1785, construction at Carlton House came to a halt because of the Prince of Wales's mounting debts: his unpaid bills following his marriage to Mrs. Fitzherbert amounted to £250,000. Parliament appointed a commission to investigate the huge cost overruns at Carlton House, to draw up estimates on how much would be needed to complete the project. In May 1787, the Prince of Wales contritely approached his father, King George III, persuaded him to provide the money to finish the house.
When work resumed in the summer of 1787, with a budget of £60,000 to finish the house, it was with the assistance of many of the leading furniture makers and craftsmen of France. These French workers who contributed to this second phase at Carlton House were under the design supervision of the Parisian marchand-mercier Dominique Daguerre, the interior decorator for Marie Antoinette, and, the agent through whom furniture by Adam Weisweiler was imported for the house; when completed, Carlton House was 202 feet long, 130 feet deep. Visitors entered the house through a hexastyle portico of Corinthian columns that led to a foyer, flanked on either side by anterooms. Carlton House was unusual in. From the foyer, the visitor entered the two story top lit entrance hall, decorated with Ionic columns of yellow marble scagliola. Beyond the hall was an octagonal room, top lit; the octagonal room was flanked on the right by the grand staircase and flanked on the left by a courtyard, while straight ahead was the main anteroom.
Once in the anteroom, the visitor either turned left into the private apartments of the Prince of Wales, or turned right into the formal reception rooms: Throne Room, drawing room, music Room and dining Room. The lower ground floor was composed of a suite of low ceilinged rooms which included a gothic dining Room, a library for the Prince, a Chinese drawing Room, an astonishing gothic conservatory constructed of cast iron and stained glass; this suite of rooms was equipped with folding doors which provided an impressive enfilade when opened. The ground floor rooms gave directly
Lairg is a village and parish in Sutherland, Scotland. It is at the south-eastern end of Loch Shin. Lairg is unusual in the northern Highlands, if not unique, in being a large settlement, not on the coast. One of the reasons that Lairg is bigger than other non-coastal Highland villages is its central location within the county of Sutherland. Having four roads which meet in the village, it used to be known as "The Crossroads of the North". In the 19th century, it was provided on what is now the Far North Line; this development means. Lairg is the location of the largest single-day sheep sale in Europe; these auctions take place in August and bring people from all over Scotland to buy or sell their animals. In July, Lairg holds a Gala Week; this is organised by a local committee in order to put on fun activities for children. Events include fancy-dress parades, a pet show, fishing competitions on Loch Shin or the Little Loch Shin, dances with live music in the community centre; this one-day event has been running for 100 years.
It attracts many spectators and participants for activities such as horse-jumping and cow judging, children's sports, Highland sports and homemade crafts. Sheep racing has become a significant attraction in recent years. Little Loch Shin lies directly in the centre of the village, it is a manmade loch created by the hydroelectric dam scheme, is the home of the "Broon's hoose", a small, wooden dwelling on an islet. Loch Shin itself is 17 miles long. Lairg has a petrol station, pub/hotel, post office, campsite, primary school, tourist information centre, various shops, cafes and B&Bs. Tourists attractions include the Shin Falls, fishing and hillwalking. Lairg railway station lies on the picturesque Far North Line, north of Invershin and west of Rogart, it is managed by Abellio ScotRail. A proposal on the rail routes to the north of Inverness is to create a more direct rail from Inverness to Dornoch via a new bridge and an old branch line, which would leave Lairg isolated on a circuitous loop away from the main route.
Although the link would shorten journey times to Thurso and Wick, reducing the rail service to Lairg would be detrimental to the local economy. Given the huge cost of building a rail bridge over the Dornoch Firth and both the Scottish government and the Highland Regional council's lack of enthusiasm for the project, it seems unlikely the proposal will become reality; the B864 road passes through the hamlet of Achany. The parallel A836 road runs south to Bonar Bridge, passes through the village of Achinduich; the areas to the north and west are sparsely populated and crossed by just three single track roads. Lairg is prospectively the site of the fifteenth largest impact crater on Earth, the Lairg Gravity Low which dates from 1.2 billion years ago and is 25 miles across. Evidence for a bolide impact centered on Ullapool was published by a combined team of scientists from the University of Oxford and the University of Aberdeen, in March 2008. Sam McDonald and strongman Sir James Matheson, entrepreneur Alastair Bruce of Crionaich K.stJ OBE VR, Fitzalan Pursuivant Extraordinary and Historical Advisor to Film and Television Productions including Downton Abbey.
Land raid Media related to Lairg at Wikimedia Commons Photographs of Lairg
Hercules is a Roman hero and god. He was the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero Heracles, the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures; the Romans adapted the Greek hero's iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In Western art and literature and in popular culture, Hercules is more used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled artists and writers to pick and choose how to represent him; this article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the tradition. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the "Twelve Labours". One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis.
Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull. Steal the Mares of Diomedes. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons. Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Steal the apples of the Hesperides. Capture and bring back Cerberus. Hercules had a greater number of "deeds on the side" that have been popular subjects for art, including: Side adventures The Latin name Hercules was borrowed through Etruscan, where it is represented variously as Heracle and other forms. Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art, appears on bronze mirrors; the Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope. A mild oath invoking Hercules was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Hercules had a number of myths. One of these is Hercules' defeat of Cacus, terrorizing the countryside of Rome; the hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus. Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god.
Hercules received various forms of religious veneration, including as a deity concerned with children and childbirth, in part because of myths about his precocious infancy, in part because he fathered countless children. Roman brides wore a special belt tied with the "knot of Hercules", supposed to be hard to untie; the comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules' conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon. During the Roman Imperial era, Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules. In chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states:... they say that Hercules, once visited them. They have those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict. For, as their line shouts, they feel alarm; some have taken this as Tacitus equating the Germanic Þunraz with Hercules by way of interpretatio romana.
In the Roman era Hercules' Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire made of gold, shaped like wooden clubs. A specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription "DEO HER", confirming the association with Hercules. In the 5th to 7th centuries, during the Migration Period, the amulet is theorized to have spread from the Elbe Germanic area across Europe; these Germanic "Donar's Clubs" were made from deer antler, bone or wood, more also from bronze or precious metals. They are found in female graves worn either as a belt pendant, or as an ear pendant; the amulet type is replaced by the Viking Age Thor's hammer pendants in the course of the Christianization of Scandinavia from the 8th to 9th century. After the Roman Empire became Christianized, mythological narratives were reinterpreted as allegory, influenced by the philosophy of late antiquity. In the 4th century, Servius had described Hercules' return from the underworld as representing his ability to overcome earthly desires and vices, or the earth itself as a consumer of bodies.
In medieval mythography, Hercules was one of the heroes seen as a strong role model who demonstrated both valor and wisdom, while the monsters he battles were regarded as moral obstacles. One glossator noted that when Hercules became a constellation, he showed that strength was necessary to gain entrance to Heaven. Medieval mythography was written entirely in Latin, original Greek texts were little used as sources for Hercules' myths. In 1600, the citizens of Avignon bestowed on Henry of Navarre the title of the Hercule Gaulois, justifying the extravagant flattery with a genealogy that traced the origin of the House of Navarre to a nephew of Hercules' son Hispalus; the Renaissance and the invention of the printing press brought a renewed interest in and publication of Greek literature. Renaissance mythography drew more extensively on the Greek tradition of Heracles under the Romanized name Hercules, or the alternate name Alcides. In a chapter of his book Mythologiae, the influential mythographer Natale Conti collected and summarized an extensive range of myths concerning the birth and death of the hero under his Roman name Hercules.
Conti begins his lengthy chapter on Hercules with an overview description that continues the moralizing i
Highland Fencible Corps
The plan of raising a fencible corps in the Highlands was first proposed and carried into effect by William Pitt the Elder, in the year 1759. During the three preceding years both the fleets and armies of Great Britain had suffered reverses, it was thought that a "home guard" was necessary as a bulwark against invasion. In England county militia regiments were raised for internal defence in the absence of the regular army. Groundless as the reasons for this caution undoubtedly were in regard to the Lowlands, it would have been hazardous at a time when the Stuarts and their adherents were still plotting a restoration to have armed the clans. An exception, was made in favour of the people of Argyle and Sutherland, accordingly letters of service were issued to the George Campbell, Duke of Argyle the most influential and powerful nobleman in Scotland, William Sutherland, Earl of Sutherland to raise, each of them, a fencible regiment within their districts. Unlike the militia regiments which were raised by ballot, the fencibles were to be raised by the ordinary mode of recruiting, like the regiments of the line, the officers were to be appointed, their commissions signed by the king.
The same system was followed at different periods down to the year 1799, the last of the fencible regiments having been raised in that year. The following is a list of the Highland fencible regiments according to the chronological order of the commissions: The commissions of the officers of the Argyle Fencibles were dated in the month of July, 1759; the regiment, which consisted of 1,000 men, was raised in three months. Of 37 officers, 21 were of the name of Campbell; the regiment was quartered in different parts of Scotland, disbanded in the year 1763. Though the commissions of the officers were dated in the month of August, the Sutherland Fencibles was raised several weeks before that of Argyle Fencibles, 1,100 men having assembled at the call of the earl of Sutherland, on the lawn before Dunrobin Castle, within nine days after his lordship's arrival in Sutherland with his letters of service; the martial appearance of these men, when they marched into Perth in May, 1760, with the earl of Sutherland at their head, was never forgotten by those who saw them, who never failed to express admiration of their fine military air.
Some old friends of mine, who saw these men in Perth, spoke of them with a kind of enthusiasm. Considering the abstemious habits, or rather the poverty of the Highlanders, the size and muscular strength of the people are remarkable. In this corps there was no light infantry company; this regiment was disbanded in May, 1763. The Argyle or Western Fencibles was raised by Lord Frederick Campbell, appointed colonel, it was embodied in Glasgow in April, 1778. Of the men, 700 were raised in other parts of the western Highlands. Sir James Campbell of Ardkinglas was appointed lieutenant-colonel, Hugh Montgomery of Coilsfield, afterwards Earl of Eglintoun, Major; the regiment was disbanded in 1783. The Gordon Fencibles regiment, which consisted of 960, was raised by Charles, Duke of Gordon on his estates in the counties of Inverness, Moray and Aberdeen, it was embodied at Aberdeen, disbanded in 1783. During the five years this regiment was embodied, only twenty-four men died; the family of Sutherland being at that time represented by a female, an infant and no near relative of the name to assume the command of this regiment, William Wemyss of Wemyss, nephew of the last earl, was appointed colonel.
With the exception of two companies from Caithness, commanded by William Innes of Sandside, John Sutherland of Wester, the recruits were raised on the Sutherland estates. In February 1779 the regiment was embodied at Fort George, whence it marched southward, was stationed in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh during the part of its service, it was disbanded in 1783. Samuel Macdonald, better known by the sobriquet of "Big Sam", was a soldier in the regiment, he was born in the parish of Lairg in Sutherland, was of extraordinary stature, being seven feet four inches in height, every way stout in proportion. Being too large to stand in the ranks, he was placed on the right of the regiment when in line, marched at the head when in column. Whether on duty, marching with his regiment, or on the streets, he was always accompanied by a mountain-deer of uncommon size, attached to him. Parents were in nothing otherwise remarkable. Macdonald had a quiet, equable temper. Had he been irritable, he might, from his immense strength and weight of arm, have given a serious blow, without being sensible of its force.
He was considered an excellent drill, from his clear manner of giving his directions. After the peace of 1783 he enlisted in the Royals. From thence he was transferred to the Sutherland Fencibles of 1793; the countess of Sutherland, with great kindness, allowed him 2s. 6d. per diem extra pay, judging that so large a body must require more sustenance than his military pay could afford. He attracted the notice of the Prince of Wales, was for so
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o