Altamas Kabir was the 39th Chief Justice of India. Altamas Kabir was born in Calcutta in 1948 to a prominent Bengali Muslim family from the district of Faridpur, he studied law at the University of Kolkata. His father, Jehangir Kabir was a leading Congress politician and trade union leader from West Bengal who served as the Minister in the B. C. Roy and P. C. Sen ministries and went on to become a minister in the first non-Congress government in West Bengal in 1967 with Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee as the Chief Minister of West Bengal, he studied in the eminent Mount Hermon School and Calcutta Boys' School of Calcutta. Impressed by one of his argumentative article on social issues and their solutions, a teacher at Calcutta Boys' School advised him to pursue a career in law. After graduating with history from Presidency College affiliated with the University of Calcutta, he studied law, his uncle Humayun Kabir was Bengali writer and minister in the Union Cabinets of Jawaharlal Nehru and Lal Bahadur Shashtri.
After completing his M. A and LL. B. from the University of Calcutta, Justice Kabir was admitted to the bar in 1973 and practiced civil and criminal law in Kolkata at the district court and the Calcutta High Court, Kolkata. He was made permanent judge of Calcutta High Court on 6 August 1990. Justice Kabir supposed that the office of acting Chief Justice of Calcutta High Court on 11 January 2005. Justice Kabir has the credit for the computerization of the Calcutta High Court and the City Civil Court and other Courts in Kolkata, he was appointed as Executive Chairman of the National Legal Services Authority on 14 January 2010. Under his chairmanship a national plan of action was taken up to be executed by all State Legal Services Authorities and Calendar for activities was put in place and legal services to Transgender people was taken up as a new project of NALSA, he became the Acting Chief Justice of the Jharkhand High Court on 3 January 2005, an elevation made permanent on 1 March 2005. He was elevated to the Supreme Court of India as Justice on 9 September 2005.
On 29 September 2012 he became the 39th Chief Justice of India. After a tenure of a little over nine months, retired on 18 July 2013. During his tenure as Chief Justice he was the Chancellor of the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, the Chairman of the General Council of the Gujarat National Law University and the Visitor of the National Law School of India University He taught as a Professor at the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, where he used to teach a course on Law and the Child. During his tenure as a Supreme Court judge, Justice Kabir delivered several important judgments relating to human rights and election laws. One of the most important cases he presided over was that of Sandhya Manoj Wankhede of Amravati district in 2011. In this case the Supreme Court bench, composed of Justices Kabir and Cyriac Joseph, ruled that female relatives of a husband can be booked under the Domestic Violence Act. Kabir presided over the contempt case against prominent advocate and Team Anna member Prashant Bhushan after he alleged that half out of the last 16 CJIs had been corrupt.
On 8 May 2012, the Supreme Court bench composed of Altamas Kabir and Ranjana Desai ordered the government to end the Haj subsidy by 2022. On 19 October 2012, he granted bail to journalist Syed Mohammed Ahmed Kazmi, arrested for his alleged involvement in the Israeli embassy vehicle blast case in which an Israeli diplomat's wife was injured. Pronouncing the order, Justice Kabir said, "We are unable to appreciate the procedure adopted by the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, endorsed by the High Court and we are of the view that the appellant acquired the right for grant of statutory bail on 17 July 2012, when his custody was held to be illegal by the additional sessions judge." There are many controversies with Altamas Kabir. On 18 July 2013, i.e. the day of his retirement, a bench headed by Justice Kabir had quashed the National Eligibility and Entrance Test for Medical College entrance. This judgement was set aside by a constitution bench of the Supreme Court."Supreme Court collegium had stalled Justice Kabir's move to appoint SC Judge just before his retirement.
"Former Arunachal Pradesh Chief minister, Mr. Kalikho Pal named Justice Kabir Altamaas for giving wrong judgements in section 10.2 and 15.2 of his suicide note. " Profile at Supreme Court of India's official website
An advocate is a professional or non-professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings; the broad equivalent in many English law-based jurisdictions could be a solicitor. However, in Scottish, South African, French, Portuguese, Polish, South Asian and South American jurisdictions, "advocate" indicates a lawyer of superior classification."Advocate" is in some languages an honorific for lawyers, such as "Adv. Sir Alberico Gentili". "Advocate" has the everyday meaning of speaking out to help someone else, such as patient advocacy or the support expected from an elected politician. In England and Wales and proctors practised civil law in the Admiralty Courts and but in England only, in the ecclesiastical courts of the Church of England, in a similar way to barristers and attorneys in the common law and equity courts. Advocates, who formed the senior branch of the legal profession in their field, were Doctors of Law of the Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin and Fellows of the Society of Doctors' Commons.
Advocates lost their exclusive rights of audience in probate and divorce cases when the Crown took these matters over from the church in 1857, in Admiralty cases in 1859. The Society of Advocates was never formally wound up, but its building was sold off in 1865 and the last advocate died in 1912. Barristers were admitted to the Court of Arches of the Church of England in 1867. More Solicitor Advocates have been allowed to play this role. Advocates are the only lawyers with rights of audience in the courts of the Isle of Man. An advocate's role is to give advice on all matters of law: it may involve representing a client in the civil and criminal courts or advising a client on matters such as matrimonial and family law and estates, regulatory matters, property transactions and commercial and business law. In court, advocates wear a horsehair wig, stiff collar, bands and a gown in the same way as barristers do elsewhere. To become an advocate, it is necessary to hold either a qualifying law degree with no less than lower second class honours, or else a degree in another subject with no less than lower second class honours complemented by the Common Professional Examination.
It is necessary to obtain a legal professional qualification such as the Bar Professional Training Course or the Legal Practice Course. It is not, necessary to be admitted as an English barrister or solicitor to train as an advocate. Trainee advocates undertake a period of two years’ training articled to a senior advocate. Foreign lawyers who have been registered as legal practitioners in the Isle of Man for a certain period of time may undertake a shorter period of training and supervision. During their training, all trainee advocates are required to pass the Isle of Man bar examinations, which include papers on civil and criminal practice and land law, company law and taxation, as well as accounts; the examinations are rigorous and candidates are limited to three attempts to pass each paper. Senior English barristers are licensed to appear as advocates in cases expected to be unusually long or complex, without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act in relation to the matter for which they have been licensed.
Barristers and solicitors employed as public prosecutors may be licensed to appear as advocates without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act as such only for the duration of that employment. The professional conduct of advocates is regulated by the Isle of Man Law Society, which maintains a library for its members in Douglas. While advocates in the Isle of Man have not traditionally prefixed their names with'Advocate' in the Channel Islands manner, some advocates have now started to adopt this practice. Advocates are regulated by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh; the Faculty of Advocates has about 750 members. About 75 are Queen's Counsel; the Faculty is headed by the Dean of the Faculty who, along with the Vice-Dean, Clerk are elected annually by secret ballot. The Faculty has a service company, Faculty Services Ltd, to which all advocates belong, that organises the stables and fee collection; this gives a guarantee to all newly called advocates of a place.
Until the end of 2007 there was an agreement with the Law Society of Scotland, the professional body for Scottish solicitors, as to the payment of fees, but this has now been replaced by the Law Society. It remains the case that advocates are not permitted to sue for their fees, as they have no contractual relationship with their instructing solicitor or with the client, their fees are honoraria. Advocates wear wigs, white bow-ties and gowns as dress in court; the process of becoming an advocate is referred to as devilling. All Intrants will be Scottish solicitors, i.e. hold a Bachelor of Laws degree and the Diploma in Legal Practice, must have completed the traineeship of two years required to qualify as a solicitor. At the end of the devilling period, a devil's admission to the Faculty is dependent on certification by the principal devilmaster that the devil is a fit and proper person to be a
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
H. L. Dattu
H. L. Dattu is a former Chief Justice of India, the current chairman of the National Human Rights Commission; as the CJI he served for nearly 14 months, from 28 September 2014 to 2 December 2015. Before his elevation as a judge of the Supreme Court of India on 17 December 2008. Handyala Lakshminarayanaswamy Dattu was born in Chikkapattanagere village in Chikmagalur district of Mysore State, his father H L Narayanaswamy was an English teacher. He completed his early education in Kadur and Birur, before moving to Bengaluru where he completed his LLB. Dattu was enrolled as an advocate at the bar on 23 October 1975, he practised at Bengaluru in civil, criminal and taxation matters. He appeared as government counsel in the Karnataka High court for the sales tax department from 1983 to 1990, government advocate from 1990 to 1993, standing counsel for the income tax department from 1992 to 1993, a senior standing counsel for the Income Tax department from 1993 to 1995. Dattu was appointed a judge of the Karnataka High Court on 18 December 1995.
Thereafter, on 12 February 2007. On 18 May 2007, he was transferred to head the Kerala High Court. On 5 September 2014, the President of India had appointed Dattu as the next Chief Justice of India, on the recommendation of CJI R M Lodha. On 28 September 2014, he was sworn in as the 42nd Chief Justice of India, he held the post for a little over a year until his retirement on 2 December 2015, on turning 65 years of age – one of the longest tenures for a CJI in recent years. In February 2014, Dattu was nominated by CJI P Sathasivam as the CJI's nominee to the five-membered panel to appoint the Lokpal, he is the visitor of Raipur. In February 2016, Dattu began serving as the chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission of India. Dattu has few outings with his family and friends, he describes former CJI S. Rajendra Babu as his guru, he has contributed in the field of social work under organisations like the Rotary Club. He is a fervent devotee of Sri Ganesha, he is a connoisseur of Carnatic music.
He is considered as a disciplinarian. Dattu is known for his humanistic approach towards justice system. On a noted incident, he gave justice to an old woman who appealed against a bank which denied job for her granddaughter due to passing the deadline for applying, he ruled out this deadline and asked the bank to consider it as a special case on the grounds that the old woman was uneducated, she can hardly understand the regulations and considering the helplessness of the grand old woman. While he was Chief Justice of Chhattisgarh High court in 2007, he gave a decision justifying the permanent job status for all temporary contract jobs employees working in the High Court of Chhattisgarh. Dattu had corruption charges leveled against him. Justice Katju has taken up the issue in his blog posts, where he called for Dattu's impeachment on charges of corruption. Dattu was involved in controversy after he asked for the names of whistleblowers to be revealed in the 2G spectrum case. Welcome CJI Dattu: 16-hour-workday judge who knows ‘common man’, sworn in for giant 14-month term
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
K. G. Balakrishnan
Konakuppakatil Gopinathan Balakrishnan was the former Chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission of India. He is a former Chief Justice of India, he was the first judge from the state of Kerala to become the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. His tenure lasting more than three years has been one of the longest in the Supreme Court of India. Justice K. G. Balakrishnan was born near Vaikom, Kingdom of Travancore. According to Balakrishnan, "Though my father was only a matriculate and my mother had her schooling only up to the seventh standard, they wanted to give their children the best education." His father was a clerk in the Vaikom munsiff court and was a classmate of K. R. Narayanan who hailed from Uzhavoor, a village near Vaikom. After completing his primary education in Thalayolaparambu, he finished school at the Government High School, Vaikom for which he had to walk 5 km every day. Subsequently, he joined the Maharaja's College, where he studied for his B. Sc, he took his Bachelor of Laws degree from the Government Law College and enrolled as an advocate in the Kerala Bar Council in 1968, beginning practice at the Munsiff's court, Vaikom.
He completed his L. L. M. in 1971. As an advocate he pleaded both civil cases in the Ernakulam court, he was appointed as a Munsiff in the Kerala Judicial Services in 1973. He resigned from the services and resumed practice as an advocate in the Kerala High Court. In 1985, he was appointed as a judge of the Kerala High Court, was transferred to the Gujarat High Court in 1997, he became the Chief Justice of Gujarat High Court in 1998, in 1999, he assumed charge as the Chief Justice of the High Court of Judicature at Madras. While being Chief Justice of Gujarat High Court, he discharged duties of Governor of Gujarat for about two months and as the Member of the General Council of the Gujarat National Law University. On 8 June 2000 he was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court, he was sworn in as the Chief Justice of India on 14 January 2007 by President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. After his retirement on 12 May 2010, he has been serving since 7 June 2010 as the Chairman of the National Human Rights Commission.
KG Balakrishnan has tried to exempt the Office of the Chief Justice of India from the purview of the Right to Information Act. He ordered the Supreme Court registry to file an appeal before the Supreme Court against the Delhi High Court judgement making the office of the CJI amenable to the RTI act, he has spoken about the need for amending the RTI act in the interests of the right to privacy. Justice KG Balakrishnan has said "due regard" must be given to the "personal autonomy" of rape victims to decide on whether they should marry the perpetrator or choose to give birth to a child conceived through forced crime. Lawyers and women's rights activists have expressed some reservations. Justice KG Balakrishnan has stated that pornography sites and hate speeches should be banned from the internet, he passed a judgment stating that journaling on the web any thing hateful against a political party is liable for censorship. On a visit to Kasaragode as NHRC Chairman initiating suo motu complaint, Balakrishnan felt there had been violations of human rights against the populace by the harmful spraying of the pesticide Endosulfan, recommended the founding of a super-speciality hospital for the relief of the victims.
In a Kerala High Court judgement he asked the election commission to debar the political parties which impose hartals on the public causing them suffering. Making distribution of lunch compulsory in schools, he was a part of the three-member Supreme Court bench that decided a public interest litigation filed by two National Democratic Alliance leaders seeking the cancellation of bail of Rashtriya Janata Dal chief Lalu Prasad and his wife and former Bihar Chief Minister Rabri Devi for their interference in the judicial process in the disproportionate assets and Income Tax cases against them. The verdict went in favour of Prasad. Justice Balakrishnan and Justice Lakshmanan said according to Article 233 of the Constitution of India the Governor has power to appoint a judge in the subordinate judiciary in consultation with the High Court Administration and held that it was the prerogative of the government to appoint any lawyer as public prosecutor. However, Justice S H Kapadia gave a dissenting judgement saying the income tax department should have filed an appeal against the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal order.
On the issue of promotion of judge Munni Lal Paswan, he said, while competence and suitability of two other judges, who were promoted to the post of Special Judge along with Paswan, were determined on the basis of annual confidential report and inspecting the judges' reports, the criteria was not applied while promoting Paswan, found to be slow in disposing cases. In 2010, he passed a judgement prohibiting narcoanalysis in interrogations. Justice H. L. Gokhale of the Supreme Court has accused Balakrishnan of misrepresenting facts to conceal sacked telecom minister A. Raja's attempt to influence Justice R. Reghupathy of the Madras High Court, on behalf of two murder accused known to the DMK leader. A petition-seeking vigilance probe into the allegations of "amassment of wealth disproportionate to their sources of income" by Balakrishnan's family members, was filed before the Income Tax Vigilance and Anti-Corruption Bureau. In February 2012, the Supreme Court of India in a case filed by the NGO Common Cause, inquired of the government as to the progress in the probe against Justice Balakrishnan.
Justice K. G. Balakrishnan is married to Nirmala and they have a son and two daughters - Pradeep and Rani, he has 2 sisters. His youn