Transportation engineering or transport engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, rapid, convenient and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods transport. The planning aspects of transportation engineering relate to elements of urban planning, involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors. Technical forecasting of passenger travel involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring the estimation of trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice, route assignment. More sophisticated forecasting can include other aspects of traveler decisions, including auto ownership, trip chaining and the choice of residential or business location. Passenger trips are the focus of transportation engineering because they represent the peak of demand on any transportation system. A review of descriptions of the scope of various committees indicates that while facility planning and design continue to be the core of the transportation engineering field, such areas as operations planning, network analysis and policy analysis are important to those working in highway and urban transportation.
The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying list online the safety protocols, geometric design requirements, signal timing. Transportation engineering involves planning, construction and operation of transportation facilities; the facilities support air, railroad, pipeline and space transportation. The design aspects of transportation engineering include the sizing of transportation facilities, determining the materials and thickness used in pavement designing the geometry of the roadway. Before any planning occurs an engineer must take what is known as an inventory of the area or, if it is appropriate, the previous system in place; this inventory or database must include information on population, land use, economic activity, transportation facilities and services, travel patterns and volumes and ordinances, regional financial resources, community values and expectations. These inventories help the engineer create business models to complete accurate forecasts of the future conditions of the system.
Operations and management involve traffic engineering, so that vehicles move smoothly on the road or track. Older techniques include signs, signals and tolling. Newer technologies involve intelligent transportation systems, including advanced traveler information systems, advanced traffic control systems, vehicle infrastructure integration. Human factors are an aspect of transportation engineering concerning driver-vehicle interface and user interface of road signs and markings. Engineers in this specialization: Handle the planning, design and operation of highways and other vehicular facilities as well as their related bicycle and pedestrian realms Estimate the transportation needs of the public and secure the funding for projects Analyze locations of high traffic volumes and high collisions for safety and capacity Use engineering principles to improve the transportation system Utilize the three design controls, which are the drivers, the vehicles, the roadways themselves Railway engineers handle the design and operation of railroads and mass transit systems that use a fixed guideway.
Typical tasks include determining horizontal and vertical alignment design, station location and design, construction cost estimating. Railroad engineers can move into the specialized field of train dispatching which focuses on train movement control. Railway engineers work to build a cleaner and safer transportation network by reinvesting and revitalizing the rail system to meet future demands. In the United States, railway engineers work with elected officials in Washington, D. C. on rail transportation issues to make sure that the rail system meets the country's transportation needs. Port and harbor engineers handle the design and operation of ports, harbors and other maritime facilities. Airport engineers construct airports. Airport engineers must account for the impacts and demands of aircraft in their design of airport facilities; these engineers must use the analysis of predominant wind direction to determine runway orientation, determine the size of runway border and safety areas, different wing tip to wing tip clearances for all gates and must designate the clear zones in the entire port.
Media related to Transport engineering at Wikimedia Commons http://www.ite.org Institute of Transportation Engineers, a professional society for transportation engineers http://www.itsa.org ITS America http://www.asce.org ASCE
New York City Department of Transportation
The New York City Department of Transportation is the agency of the government of New York City responsible for the management of much of New York City's transportation infrastructure. Polly Trottenberg is the current Commissioner of the Department of Transportation, was appointed by Mayor Bill de Blasio on January 1, 2014; the Department of Transportation's responsibilities include day-to-day maintenance of the city's streets, highways and sidewalks. The Department of Transportation is responsible for installing and maintaining the city's street signs, traffic signals and street lights. DOT supervises street resurfacing, pothole repair, parking meter installation and maintenance, the management of a municipal parking facilities. DOT operates the Staten Island Ferry. DOT is the exclusive provider of day-to-day operations and maintenance on New York State-maintained roads and highways in city limits, while major repairs and capital improvements on state-owned roads are performed by the State DOT.
Both DOT and NYSDOT reserve the right to install signage and other roadway features on state highways, which become maintained on a daily basis by DOT. DOT sets the speed limit on all roads and highways in the city, including those owned by NYSDOT. DOT is responsible for oversight of transportation-related issues, such as authorizing jitney van services and permits for street construction. DOT advocates for transportation safety issues, including promotion of pedestrian and bicycle safety, its regulations are compiled in title 34 of the New York City Rules. Commissioner of Transportation First Deputy Commissioner Sidewalk Inspection and Management Staten Island Ferry Service Bridges Transportation Planning & Management Roadway Repair and Maintenance Information Technology and Telecommunications Borough Commissioners Brooklyn Borough Commissioner Manhattan Borough Commissioner Bronx Borough Commissioner Queens Borough Commissioner Staten Island Borough Commissioner Policy External Affairs Finance and Program Management Human Resources and Facilities Management Legal As of 2017, DOT had the budget and staff as follows: The DOT operates 794 roadway and pedestrian bridges throughout New York City, including 25 movable bridges.
The agency's portfolio includes most of the East River and Harlem River bridges, as well as smaller bridges throughout the city. DOT operates two retractable bridges. Other agencies that operate road bridges in New York include the MTA, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the New York State DOT. At 1:30 a.m. on May 24 2012 DOT employee Harry Robinson ran over and killed Roxana Buta while operating a DOT truck. New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings, for hearings conducted on summonses for quality of life violations issued by the Department New York State Department of Transportation Official website Department of Transportation in the Rules of the City of New York NYC DOT Real Time Traffic Information
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
New York Daily News
The New York Daily News titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most circulated daily newspaper in the United States, it was founded in 1919, was the first U. S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation at 2.4 million copies a day. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. Patterson and his cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune Company founder Joseph Medill; when Patterson and McCormick could not agree on the editorial content of the Chicago paper, the two cousins decided at a meeting in Paris that Patterson would work on the project of launching a Tribune-owned newspaper in New York. On his way back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 26, 1919; the Daily News was not an immediate success, by August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625.
Still, New York's many subway commuters found the tabloid format easier to handle, readership grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over 100,000 and by 1925, over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. The Daily News carried the slogan "New York's Picture Newspaper" from 1920 to 1991, for its emphasis on photographs, a camera has been part of the newspaper's logo from day one; the paper's slogan, developed from a 1985 ad campaign, is "New York's Hometown Newspaper", while another has been "The Eyes, the Ears, the Honest Voice of New York". The Daily News continues to include large and prominent photographs, for news and sports, as well as intense city news coverage, celebrity gossip, classified ads, comics, a sports section, an opinion section. News-gathering operations were, for a time, organized using two-way radios operating on 173.3250 MHz, allowing the assignment desk to communicate with its personnel who utilized a fleet of "radio cars".
Prominent sports cartoonists have included Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor; the paper published a Monday-Friday afternoon counterpart, Daily News Tonight, between August 19, 1980 and August 28, 1981. Occasional "P. M. Editions" were published as extras in 1991, during the brief tenure of Robert Maxwell as publisher. In 1982, again in the early 1990s during a newspaper strike, the Daily News went out of business. In the 1982 instance, the parent Tribune Company offered the tabloid up for sale. In 1991, millionaire Robert Maxwell offered financial assistance to the News to help it stay in business; when Maxwell died shortly thereafter, the News seceded from his publishing empire, which splintered under questions about whether Maxwell had the financial backing to sustain it. After Maxwell's death in 1991, the paper was held together in bankruptcy by existing management, led by editor James Willse, who became interim publisher after buying the paper from Tribune.
Mort Zuckerman bought the paper in 1993. From its founding until 1991, the Daily News was owned by the Tribune Company. In 1948, the News established WPIX, whose call letters were based on the News's nickname of "New York's Picture Newspaper"; the television station became a Tribune property outright in 1991, remains in the former Daily News Building. The News maintains local bureaux in the Bronx and Queens, at City Hall, within One Police Plaza, at the various state and federal courthouses in the city. In January 2012, former News of the World and New York Post editor Colin Myler was appointed editor-in-chief of the Daily News. Myler was replaced by his deputy Jim Rich in September 2015. On September 4, 2017, the publishing operations of the former Tribune Company, announced that it had acquired the Daily News. Tronc had bought the Daily News for $1, assuming "operational and pension liabilities". By the time of purchase, circulation had dropped to 200,000 on 260,000 on Sundays. In July 2018, tronc fired half of the paper's editorial staff, including the editor-in-chief, Jim Rich.
Rich was replaced by Robert York and Editor-in-Chief of tronc-owned The Morning Call in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The paper's social media staff were included in the cut. New York Times journalist Alan Feuer said the Daily News focuses on "deep sourcing and doorstep reporting", providing city-centered "crime reportage and hard-hitting coverage of public issues rather than portraying New York through the partisan divide between liberals and conservatives". According to Feuer, the paper is known for "speaking to and for the city’s working class" and for "its crusades against municipal misconduct"; the New York Times has described the Daily News's editorial stance as "flexibly centrist" with a "high-minded, if populist, legacy". The News endorsed Rep
Knight Ridder was an American media company, specializing in newspaper and Internet publishing. Until it was bought by McClatchy on June 27, 2006, it was the second-largest newspaper publisher in the United States, with 32 daily newspapers sold, its headquarters were located in California. The corporate ancestors of Knight Ridder were Inc. and Ridder Publications, Inc.. The first company was founded by John S. Knight upon inheriting control of the Akron Beacon Journal from his father, Charles Landon Knight, in 1933; as anti-German sentiment increased in the interwar period, Ridder transitioned into English language publishing by acquiring The Journal of Commerce in 1926. Both companies went public in 1969 and merged on July 11, 1974. For a brief time, the combined company was the largest newspaper publisher in the United States. Knight Ridder had a long history of innovation in technology, it was the first newspaper publisher to experiment with videotex when it launched its Viewtron system in 1983.
After investing six years of research and $50 million into the service, Knight Ridder shut down Viewtron in 1986 when the service's interactivity features proved more popular than news delivery. Knight-Ridder purchased Dialog Information Services Inc. from Lockheed Corporation in August 1988. In October 1988, the company placed its eight broadcast television stations up for sale to reduce debt and to pay for the purchase of Dialog. In 1997 it bought four newspapers from The Walt Disney Company owned by Capital Cities Communications after Disney's purchase of Cap Cities for the ABC television network (The Kansas City Star, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Belleville News-Democrat and Times Leader for $1.65 billion. It was, at the time, the most expensive newspaper acquisition in history. For most of its existence, the company was based in Miami, with headquarters on the top floor of the Miami Herald building. In 1998, Knight Ridder relocated its headquarters from Miami to San Jose, Calif.. The internet division had been established there three years earlier.
The company rented several floors in a downtown high-rise as its new corporate base. In November 2005, the company announced plans for "strategic initiatives," which involved the possible sale of the company; this came after three major institutional shareholders publicly urged management to put the company up for sale. At the time, the company had a higher profit margin than many Fortune 500 companies, including ExxonMobil. In run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Knight Ridder DC Bureau reporters Jonathan Landay and Warren Strobel wrote a series of articles critical of purported intelligence suggesting links between Saddam Hussein, the obtainment of weapons of mass destruction, Al-Qaeda, citing anonymous sources. Landay and Strobel's stories ran in counter to reports by The New York Times, The Washington Post and other national publications, resulting in some newspapers within Knight-Ridder chain refusing to run the two reporter's stories. After the war and the discrediting of many initial news reports and Landay received the Raymond Clapper Memorial award from the Senate Press Gallery on February 5, 2004 for their coverage.
The Huffington Post headlined the two as "the reporting team that got Iraq right". The Columbia Journalism Review described the reporting as "unequaled by the Bigfoots working at higher-visibility outlets such as the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal and the Los Angeles Times". After the war, their work was featured in Bill Moyers' PBS documentary "Buying The War" and was dramatized in the 2017 film Shock and Awe. On March 13, 2006, The McClatchy Company announced its agreement to purchase Knight Ridder for a purchase price of $6.5 billion in cash and debt. The deal gave McClatchy 32 daily newspapers with a total circulation of 3.3 million. However, for various reasons, McClatchy decided to resell twelve of these papers. On April 26, 2006, McClatchy announced it was selling the San Jose Mercury News, Contra Costa Times, Monterey Herald, St. Paul Pioneer Press to MediaNews Group for $1 billion. Daily newspapers owned by Knight Ridder and its predecessors – listed alphabetically by place of publication – included: A list of companies that were at one time or another owned by Knight Ridder: Vu/Text: 1982–1996.
Merged with PressLink to become MediaStream. PressLink:??–1996. Merged with Vu/Text to become MediaStream. MediaStream: 1996–2001. Acquired by NewsBank DataStar: Acquired from Radio Schweiz Ltd. merged with Dialog to form Knight Ridder Information Dialog: Merged with DataStar to form Knight Ridder Information Knight Ridder Information:??–1997, Acquired by MAID by Thomson Knight Ridder Financial Inc: 1985–1996. Acquired by Global Financial trading as Bridge Data. RealCities Network: 2004–2006. RealCities was a portal/hub website for Knight-Ridder group, it was absorbed with The McClatchy Company into McClatchy Interactive and sold to Chicago-based Centro in 2008. In 1954, Ridder Newspapers launched WDSM-TV in Superior, serving the Duluth, Minnesota market. A CBS affiliate, it switched to its present NBC affiliation a year and a half after the station's launch, it was spun off after Ridder's merger with Inc.. From 1956 to 1962, Knight co-owned a then-NBC affiliate, WCKT in Miami, with the Cox publishing family.
Brooklyn College is a college of the City University of New York, located in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. Brooklyn College originated in 1930 with the establishment of an extension division of the City College for Teachers; the school began offering evening classes for first-year male college students in 1917. In 1930 by the New York City Board of Higher Education, the college authorized the combination of the Downtown Brooklyn branches of Hunter College – at that time a women's college – and the City College of New York – a men's college – both of, established in 1926. With the merger of these branches, Brooklyn College became the first public coeducational liberal arts college in New York City. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the school tied for number 83 as a Regional college; the school was ranked in the top ten for value and location by Princeton Review in 2003 and in the top fifty for value in 2009. In 1932, the architect Randolph Evans drafted a plan for the college's campus on a substantial plot of land his employer owned in the Midwood section of Brooklyn.
He sketched out a Georgian-style campus facing a central quadrangle, anchored by a library building with a tall tower. Evans presented the sketches to the President of the college at Dr. William A. Boylan. Boylan was pleased with the plans, the lot of land was purchased for $1.6 million. Construction of the new campus began in 1935, with a groundbreaking ceremony attended by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and Brooklyn Borough President Raymond Ingersoll. In 1936, the President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt went to Brooklyn College to lay the cornerstone of the Brooklyn College Gymnasium. President Boylan, Borough President Ingersoll, President Roosevelt all had buildings on Brooklyn College's campus named after them. Harry Gideonse was the second President of Brooklyn College, from 1939 to 1966. During his tenure Brooklyn College was one of the top colleges in the US in terms of the number of alumni receiving doctorate degrees. In May 1983, Brooklyn College named its library the Harry D. Gideonse Library.
John Kneller was the fifth President of Brooklyn College, from 1969 to 1979. Students occupied his office at the college during a student strike after the Kent State shootings and the Cambodian Campaign in 1970, he kept campus buildings open for students and faculty. A member of the Brooklyn College Fencing Team introduced streaking to the college in 1974, dashing across the Quad; the campus located in Midwood became the only Brooklyn College campus after the school's Downtown Brooklyn campus was shut down during the 1975 budget emergency. Robert Hess was the sixth President of Brooklyn College, from 1979 until 1992. In a 1988 survey of thousands of academic deans, the college ranked 5th in the United States in providing students with a strong general education. Brooklyn College was the only college in the top five in the survey, a public institution. While Brooklyn College was referred to as “the poor man’s Harvard,” Hess quipped: “I like to think of Harvard as the rich man’s Brooklyn College.”
Brooklyn College's campus East Quad looks much like it did when it was constructed. The campus serves as home to BCBC/ Brooklyn College Presents complex and its four theaters, including the George Gershwin; the demolition of Gershwin Hall, replaced by The Leonard & Claire Tow Center for the Performing Arts, is the most recent construction on an evolving campus. Other changes to the original design include the demolition of Plaza Building, due to its inefficient use of space, poor ventilation, significant maintenance costs. To replace the Plaza Building, the college constructed West Quad Center, designed by the notable Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly; the new building contains classroom space, gymnasiums and a swimming pool. It houses the offices of Registration, Financial Aid, the Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science; the grounds contain a quadrangle with grassy trees. New façades are being constructed on Roosevelt and James halls where they once connected with Plaza Building.
The 2009–10 CUNYAC championship men's basketball team now plays its home games in the West Quad Center. This follows a major library renovation that saw the library moved to a temporary home while construction took place; the Brooklyn College library is now located in its original location in a renovated and expanded LaGuardia Hall. Noted as one of the most beautiful in the United States, In 2016, Brooklyn College announced a new home for the Koppelman School of Business, with the construction of a new building, Koppelman Hall, on property adjacent to the 26-acre campus bought in 2011; this increased the campus size to 35 acres. The campus has been shown on numerous movies and television shows. Brooklyn College is made up of five schools: Murray Koppelman School of Business School of Education School of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Natural and Behavioral Sciences School of Visual and Performing Arts Beginning in 1981, the college instituted a group of classes that all undergraduates were required to take, called "Core Studies".
The classes were: Classical Origins of Western Culture, Introduction to Art, Introduction to Music, People and Politics, The Shaping of the Modern World, Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning and Computer Programming, Landmarks of Literature, Physics, Geology, Studies in African and Latin American Cultures, Knowledge and Values. In 2006, the Core Curriculum was revamped, the 13 required courses were replaced with 15 courses in 3 disciplines, from which students were required to take 11. In the fall of 2
Gridlock is a form of traffic congestion where "continuous queues of vehicles block an entire network of intersecting streets, bringing traffic in all directions to a complete standstill". The term originates from a situation possible in a grid plan where intersections are blocked, preventing vehicles from either moving forwards through the intersection or backing up to an upstream intersection; the term gridlock is used incorrectly to describe high traffic congestion with minimal flow, where a blocked grid system is not involved. By extension, the term has been applied to situations in other fields where flow is stalled by excess demand, or in which competing interests prevent progress. Traditional gridlock is caused by cars entering an intersection on a green light without enough room on the other side of the intersection at the time of entering to go all the way through; this can lead to the car being trapped in the intersection when the light turns green in the other direction. If the same situation occurs in multiple intersections, these cars can be trapped in the intersections indefinitely.
In many jurisdictions, drivers are therefore prohibited from entering an intersection at a green light if there is no room for them to clear the intersection. If all drivers follow this rule, gridlock is impossible. Another type of gridlock can occur during traffic surges between highway on-ramps and off-ramps located within a quarter mile of each other. Traffic exiting the highway may block the entering vehicles; those entering vehicles in block the exiting vehicles. Gridlock is sometimes cited as an example of the prisoner's dilemma. Mutual cooperation among drivers would give the maximum benefit, but this may not happen because of the desire to maximize one's own benefit given the uncertainty about the other drivers' commitment to equal cooperation. In New York City, drivers who "block the box" are subject to a moving violation that comes with a US$90.00 penalty. Mayor Michael Bloomberg, noting that the ten-minute ticketing process contributes to overall traffic congestion, has asked the New York State Legislature to remove “blocking the box” from the moving violation category.
This reclassification would give more traffic agents authority to write tickets and change the current ticketing procedure, which requires that the issuing officer physically stop the violating car in traffic. In Virginia Beach, roads around the oceanfront feature signs at every intersection stating "Don't Block the Box", threatening a $200 fine. In Austin, Texas, a "Don't Block the Box" initiative began in 2015. A similar program was piloted in San Antonio in 2017; the obvious impacts are trip delay. Another impact in cities is exacerbated by the presence of urban street canyons, which trap air pollution and increase air pollution exposures of motorists as well as the general urban population. Noise pollution can be aggravated by excessive stopping noise of gridlocked facilities. To make a traffic system less susceptible to gridlock, a traffic metering system can be introduced; these systems determine the optimal number of vehicles allowed in a traffic system, prevent any extra vehicles from entering.
This can be done with traffic control devices, such as traffic lights or warning signs, or a better public transportation system. This type of system is used in Switzerland. According to the New York Times the word gridlock was coined in New York City in the early 1970s; the word appeared in an IEEE publication in 1971 in a different context. The first appearances of gridlock in newspapers occurred during the 1980 New York City transit strike; the word is attributed to Sam Schwartz, the chief traffic engineer for the New York City Department of Transportation at the time of the strike. Schwartz said the word gridlock was used internally in his department during the 1970s as early as 1971. Writing up a memo of emergency recommendations for senior officials, he recalled the words of a colleague several years earlier, analyzing a proposal to close Broadway to vehicular traffic, his colleague gave the plan the thumbs-down, worrying that it would "lock up the grid". Schwartz was always struck by that image and titled his 1980 memo "Gridlock Prevention Plan".
In another interview Mr. Schwartz said that he coined the term in the mid 1970s with fellow traffic engineer, Roy Cottam, who "was a little paranoid and thought he would be blamed for gridlock and so he gave me all the credit"; the August 2010 traffic jam in the Beijing-Zhangjiakou highway in Hebei province, China, is considered the world's worst traffic jam as traffic congestion stretched more than 100-kilometre from August 14 to the 26, including at least 11 days of total gridlock, with some drivers spending up to 5 days to cross this stretch of highway. The event was caused by a combination of road works and thousands of coal trucks from Inner Mongolia’s coalfields that travel daily to Beijing; the New York Times has called this event the "Great Chinese Gridlock of 2010." According to Time magazine, São Paulo has the world's worst daily traffic jams. On 23 May 2014, the worst traffic jam in history was registered, with 344-kilometre of traffic jam. For several years, the traffic jam that occurred in 1980 over a 175-kilometre long stretch of the French A6 Autoroute between Paris and Lyon was considered the world’s longest.
Box junction Deadlock - computer software analogy Journal of Transport and Land Use Kerner’s breakdown minimization principle Roadway air dispersion modeling Three-phase traffic theory Traffic congestion: Reconstruction with Kerner’s three-phase t